List of countries with multiple capitals
Some countries have multiple capitals. In some cases, one city is the capital for some purposes, and one or more others are capital for other purposes, without any being considered an official capital in preference to the others.
There are also cases where there is a single legally defined capital, but one or more other cities operate as the seat of some or all parts of government; while such cases are arguably not technically multiple capitals, the situation is similar, so they are included in this list.
More than one capital at present
|Benin||Porto-Novo||Official capital; seat of legislature|
|Cotonou||De facto seat of government; seat of judicial bodies|
|Bolivia||Sucre||Official (constitutional) capital; seat of national judiciary|
|La Paz||Seat of national executive, legislative, and electoral bodies|
|Chile||Santiago||Official capital; seat of national administrative and judicial bodies|
|Valparaíso||Seat of national legislature|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Yamoussoukro||Official capital|
|Abidjan||De facto seat of government|
|Georgia||Tbilisi||Official capital and seat of executive government and President|
|Honduras||Tegucigalpa||De facto capital and, with Comayagüela, one of two cities constituting the Municipality of the Central District, which is the official constitutional capital|
|Comayagüela||With Tegucigalpa, one of two cities constituting the Municipality of the Central District, which is the official constitutional capital|
|Kuala Lumpur||Official and royal capital; seat of national legislature|
|Putrajaya||Administrative centre and seat of national judiciary|
|Montenegro||Podgorica||Official capital and seat of government|
|Cetinje||Old royal capital and site of palace of head of state|
|Amsterdam||Official (constitutional) and royal capital|
|The Hague||Administrative centre, seat of national legislature, and seat of national judiciary|
|South Africa||Pretoria||Administrative and executive capital|
|Cape Town||Legislative capital|
|Sri Lanka||Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte||Administrative capital and seat of national legislature|
|Colombo||Commercial capital and seat of national executive and judicial bodies|
|Lobamba||Legislative and royal capital|
|Tanzania||Dodoma||Official and legislative capital|
|Dar es Salaam||De facto seat of government; seat of judicial bodies|
|Western Sahara (SADR)||Laayoune||Declared capital|
|Yemen||Sana'a||Internationally recognized capital, occupied by the Houthis|
Israel designates Jerusalem as its capital, and seats its government in that city. However, as Jerusalem's political status has not reached a final settlement, most countries locate their embassy in Tel Aviv. Tel Aviv and Jerusalem serves as de facto capitals of Israel from May to December 1948. The Israeli parliament and the supreme court both are located Jerusalem, which makes it the legislative capital and judicial capitol of Israel. Palestine also claims Jerusalem as their capital; but its current de facto seat of the internationally recognized Palestinian government is in Ramallah, while the seat of the Hamas-led government is in Gaza City.
In Germany, the highest judiciary organs (Federal Court of Justice and Federal Constitutional Court) are located in Karlsruhe, whereas the nation's political capital is Berlin. Some ministries are still mainly located in Bonn, the former West German capital, which is still called "federal city" (Bundesstadt).
The Honduran constitution statutes that Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela are both capitals in this country. However, all the branches of government are in Tegucigalpa. Comayagüela currently is part of Tegucigalpa Metropolitan Area.
In Peru, the Peruvian Constitution declared Cusco to be the "Historical Capital" (in Spanish Capital Histórica), a merely symbolic statement, because the national government continues to reside in Lima.
Republika Srpska, a sub-national entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, has a constitutional capital of Sarajevo, the same as the capital of the country, by the Dayton Accords; but in fact, their government is located in Banja Luka.
Cetinje is a historical, the traditional, and the secondary capital of Montenegro. The city's status is specifically recognized by the constitution. While the official residence of the President of Montenegro is located in the city, the rest of the government is in Podgorica.
Saint Petersburg, the former capital of the Russian Empire, is unofficially recognised as the Northern Russian capital. In 2009, the Constitutional Court of Russia moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg, giving the latter city some of the expected functions of a capital.
In South Africa, Bloemfontein is considered the de facto judicial capital, as it houses the Supreme Court of Appeal. The Constitutional Court is housed in Johannesburg, and is a higher appeal court in the case of constitutional matters.
Although there is only one capital, London, of the United Kingdom, there are also three other cities which serve as capitals of their respective nations. Belfast, Cardiff and Edinburgh are the capital cities of Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland respectively, while London is also the capital of England.
Although not a sovereign country on its own, the Portuguese autonomous region of the Azores has three designated regional capital cities: Ponta Delgada at São Miguel Island (seat of the Autonomous Government); Horta at Faial Island (seat of the Legislative Assembly); and Angra do Heroísmo at Terceira Island (seat of the judiciary and the historical capital of the Azores, in addition to being the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Angra).
More than one capital in the past
Many nations that have maintained only one capital at any given time have, nevertheless, over time, conferred capital status on more than one city.
These current countries have had two cities that served as administrative capitals at the same time, for various reasons such as war, weather or partition. In some cases, the second capital is considered a temporary capital.
|China||1937–1945||Nanjing||Capital of puppet state|
|Chongqing||Provisional capital of the Kuomintang|
|1945–1991||Nanjing||Administrative, legislative, and judicial capital (claimed after 1949)|
|Taipei||Provisional capital of the Kuomintang-ruled Republic of China in Taiwan|
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea||1948–1972||Pyongyang||Seat of administration|
|Seoul||Official and constitutional de jure capital|
|Germany||1949–1999||(West) Berlin||Official and legislative capital (de jure from 1949-1990)|
|Bonn||Seat of administration|
|British Raj||1858 –1947||Calcutta (1858–1911)||Winter capital|
|Delhi (1911–1947 )|
|Libya||1951–1969||Tripoli||One of two official capitals of Kingdom|
|Benghazi||One of two official capitals of Kingdom|
|Philippines||1948–1976||Quezon City||Official capital|
|Manila||De facto seat of government|
|1901-1976||Baguio||Summer capital (Still known as summer capital, unpolitically)|
|Serbia and Montenegro||2003–2006||Belgrade||Administrative and legislative|
- List of historical capitals of China
- List of national capitals
- List of historical national capitals
- List of purpose-built capital cities
- List of countries whose capital is not their largest city
- List of national capitals and largest cities by country
- List of largest cities and second largest cities by country
- "Field Listing::Capital". The World Factbook. Retrieved 2014-04-27.