Secret decoder ring
As inexpensive toys, they have been often used as promotional items by retailers, radio and television programs from the 1930s through to the current day. Decoders, whether badges or rings, are an entertaining way for children to tap into a common fascination with encryption, ciphers, and secret codes, and are used to send hidden messages back and forth to one another.
Secret decoders are generally circular scales, descendants of the cipher disk developed in the 15th century by Leon Battista Alberti. Rather than the complex polyalphabetic Alberti cipher method, the decoders for children invariably use simple Caesar cipher substitutions.
The most well-known example started in 1934 with the Ovaltine company's sponsored radio program Little Orphan Annie. The show's fan club, "Radio Orphan Annie's Secret Society", distributed a member's handbook that included a simple substitution cipher with a resulting numeric cipher text. This was followed the next year with a membership pin that included a cipher disk - enciphering the letters A-Z to numbers 1-26. From 1935 to 1940, metal decoders were produced for the promotion. From 1941 on, paper decoders were produced. Similar metal badges and pocket decoders continued with the Captain Midnight radio and television programs.
None of these early decoders were in the form of finger rings, however, "secret compartment" rings were common radio program premiums. In the early 1960s, secret decoder rings appeared - notably in conjunction with the Jonny Quest television program sponsored by PF Shoes. A later, less ornate, decoder ring was offered by Kix Cereals. and the men's magazine Oui offered a Captain Jet Decoder Ring- and in 2000 Ovaltine offered a Secret Decoder Ring to be worn on the finger which used their traditional A-Z to 1-26 scheme.
Ovaltine and other companies that marketed early decoders to children often included "secret messages" on their radio shows aimed at children. These could be decoded for a preview of the next episode of the show.
The film A Christmas Story (1983) depicts the Little Orphan Annie radio show transmitting a secret message that deciphered to: "Be sure to drink your Ovaltine." This, however, is incorrect. Although the announcer instructed the listeners to set their decoder rings to "B-2", thus indicating that the letter "B" (the first letter in the supposedly decoded message) was represented by the number "2", the first code number in the message was not "2". As Ralphie decodes the message, his pin is clearly set on "B-12".[original research?] Contrary to the film and the short story the scene was based on, the actual broadcasts never included an advertisement during the secret code segments, but usually previewed the upcoming episode.
- Hipschman, Ron (1995), The Secret Language, retrieved 2011-01-10
- CAPTAIN MIDNIGHT AND DECODER RINGS, Stephen A. Kallis, Jr.
- The Ovaltine "Secret Decoder Ring", John Olsen
- Olsen, John, A short history of Radio's Orphan Annie and her Decoder Badges, retrieved 2012-01-09