Secretome

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The term secretome was coined by Tjalsma and colleagues to denote all the factors secreted by a cell, along with the secretory pathway constituents.[1] This definition of secretome was revised to include only proteins secreted into the extracellular space.[2] The secreted proteins in humans account for 13–20% of the entire proteome and include growth factors, chemokines, cytokines, adhesion molecules, proteases and shed receptors.[2] Human protein-coding genes (39%, 19613 genes[3]) are predicted to have either a signal peptide and/or at least one transmembrane region suggesting active transport of the corresponding protein out of the cell (secretion) or location in one of the numerous membrane systems in the cell. Increasing evidence showed that, in addition to the protein cargo, non-protein components, such as lipid, micro-RNAs and messenger-RNA, could also be secreted by cells via both microvesicles (100–>1000 nm diameter) − shedding from the plasma membrane − and exosomes (30–150 nm diameter) − released via endosomal-exocytosis event.[4] Factors present in both these organelles accounts for up to 42% of the secretome and have been incorporated as the collective secretome.[5] There is a vast array of methodologies available to study cell secretomes of plant cells, mammalian cells, stem cells and cancer cells.[5]

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  1. ^ Black MW, Boothroyd JC (September 2000). "Lytic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 64 (3): 607–23. PMC 99006. PMID 10974128.
  2. ^ a b Agrawal GK, Jwa NS, Lebrun MH, Job D, Rakwal R (February 2010). "Plant secretome: unlocking secrets of the secreted proteins". Proteomics. 10 (4): 799–827. doi:10.1002/pmic.200900514. PMID 19953550.
  3. ^ Uhlén M, Fagerberg L, Hallström BM, Lindskog C, Oksvold P, Mardinoglu A, et al. (January 2015). "Proteomics. Tissue-based map of the human proteome". Science. 347 (6220): 1260419. doi:10.1126/science.1260419. PMID 25613900.
  4. ^ Xu R, Greening DW, Zhu HJ, Takahashi N, Simpson RJ (April 2016). "Extracellular vesicle isolation and characterization: toward clinical application". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 126 (4): 1152–62. doi:10.1172/JCI81129. PMC 4811150. PMID 27035807.
  5. ^ a b Mukherjee P, Mani S (November 2013). "Methodologies to decipher the cell secretome". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1834 (11): 2226–32. doi:10.1016/j.bbapap.2013.01.022. PMC 3652893. PMID 23376189.

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