ISO 2145

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International standard ISO 2145 defines a typographic convention for the "numbering of divisions and subdivisions in written documents". It applies to any kind of document, including manuscripts, books, journal articles, and standards.

Description[edit]

The ISO 2145 numbering scheme is defined by the following rules:

  • Only Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, …) are used.
  • The main divisions are numbered continuously starting from 1.
  • Each main division (first level) can be divided further into subdivisions (second level), which are equally continuously numbered. This can be continued for further levels of subdivision.
  • A full stop is placed between numbers that designate subdivisions of different levels. No full stop is placed after the number that designates the final subdivision.
  • A number 0 (zero) can be assigned to the first division of each level if it forms an introduction, preface, foreword, or the like.

Example[edit]

A table of contents might look like:

0 Foreword
1 Introduction
2 Methodology
2.1 Counting techniques
2.1.1 Manual procedures
2.1.1.1  Counting apples
2.1.1.2 Counting oranges
2.1.2 Automatic methods
2.2 Quality control
3 Results
4 Related work
4.1 Bean counting
4.2 Sheep counting
5 Conclusions

Citations[edit]

Division and subdivision numbers are cited in written text as in:

  • … in chapter 4 …
  • … as lemma 3.4.27 shows …
  • … the 3rd paragraph in 2.4.1.7 …

In spoken language, the full stops are omitted:

  • "… in chapter four …"
  • "… as lemma three four twenty-seven shows …"
  • "… the third paragraph in two four one seven …"

Support in word processing software[edit]

  • All standard LaTeX document classes generate chapter, section, subsection, figure, table, etc. numbers exactly as defined by ISO 2145.
  • As of 2003, all Microsoft Word versions are by default set up to add a full stop after the final section number. This does not conform to ISO 2145; however, users can change settings to conform to the ISO standard.

References[edit]