Sedentary lifestyle

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Increases in sedentary behaviors such as watching television are characteristic of a sedentary lifestyle

A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle involving little or no physical activity. A person living a sedentary lifestyle is often sitting or lying down while engaged in an activity like reading, socializing, watching television, playing video games, or using a mobile phone/computer for much of the day. A sedentary lifestyle can potentially contribute to ill health and many preventable causes of death.

Screen time is a modern term for the amount of time a person spends looking at a screen such as a television, computer monitor, or mobile device. Excessive screen time is linked to negative health consequences.[1][2][3][4]

History[edit]

Over the last hundred years, there has been a large shift from manual labor jobs (e.g. farming, manufacturing, building) to office jobs which is due to many contributing factors including globalization, outsourcing of jobs and technological advances (specifically internet and computers). In 1960, there was a decline of jobs requiring moderate physical activity from 50% to 20%, and one in two Americans had a physically demanding job, while in 2011 this ratio was one in five.[5] From 1990 to 2016, there was a decrease of about one third in manual labor jobs/employment.[6] In 2008, the United States American National Health Interview Survey found that 36% of adults were inactive, and 59% of adult respondents never participated in vigorous physical activity lasting more than 10 minutes per week.[7] According to a 2018 study, office based workers typically spend 70-85% sitting.[8]

Health effects[edit]

Effects of a sedentary work life or lifestyle can be either direct or indirect. One of the most prominent direct effect of a sedentary lifestyle is an increased BMI leading to obesity. A lack of physical activity is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide.[9]

At least 300,000 premature deaths, and $90 billion in direct healthcare costs are caused by obesity and sedentary lifestyle per year in the US alone.[10] The risk is higher among those that sit still more than 5 hours per day. It is shown to be a risk factor on its own independent of hard exercise and BMI. People that sit still more than 4 hours per day have a 40 percent higher risk than those that sit fewer than 4 hours per day. However, those that exercise at least 4 hours per week are as healthy as those that sit fewer than 4 hours per day.[11][12]

Indirectly, an increased BMI due to a sedentary lifestyle can lead to decreased productivity and increased absenteeism from necessary activities like work.[13] Missing work and not being productive results in obvious short term and long term effects like less income and job security.

A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity can contribute to or be a risk factor for:

Solutions[edit]

As a response to concerns over health and environmental issues, some organizations have promoted active travel, which seeks to promote walking and cycling as safe and attractive alternatives to motorized transport.[26] Additionally, some organizations have implemented exercise classes at lunch, walking challenges among co-workers, or allowing employees to stand rather than sit at their desk during the workday. Workplace interventions such as alternative activity workstations, sit-stand desks, promotion of stair use are among measures being implemented to counter the harms of sedentary workplace environments.[27] A Cochrane systematic review published in 2016 concluded that "at present there is very low quality evidence that sit-stand desks can reduce sitting at work at the short term. There is no evidence for other types of interventions." Also, evidence was lacking on the long term health benefits of such interventions.[28][needs update] Similarly a recently published review concluded that interventions aimed at reducing sitting outside of work were only modestly effective.[29] Organizations may also offer cholesterol or blood pressure screenings to employees.[30]

Workplace initiatives to address employee health[edit]

Workplace initiatives are practices and programs sponsored by employers to promote employee health, and in turn, reduce insurance costs for the employer. Multiple studies have been done on the effectiveness of healthy workplace initiative programs. Programs can be focused on either weight reduction, or prevention of further weight gain and may include a wide variety of methods such as health care screenings, smoking cessation programs, discounted gym/fitness memberships, ergonomic controls (standing desks, ergonomic keyboards), wellness classes, providing healthy food at meetings and employee events, stocking vending machines with healthy options, and surgical intervention. Due to the wide variety of work environments, and inconsistent habits and lifestyles of individuals across different workplaces, these studies have not been conclusive regarding the effectiveness of these type of programs on BMI.[31] However, other associations have been linked between workplace initiatives and outcomes such as increased work productivity or a decrease in the amount of sick days.[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mark, A. E; Janssen, I (2008). "Relationship between screen time and metabolic syndrome in adolescents". Journal of Public Health. 30 (2): 153–160. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdn022.
  2. ^ Wiecha, Jean L; Sobol, Arthur M; Peterson, Karen E; Gortmaker, Steven L (2001). "Household Television Access: Associations with Screen Time, Reading, and Homework Among Youth". Ambulatory Pediatrics. 1 (5): 244–251. doi:10.1367/1539-4409(2001)001<0244:HTAAWS>2.0.CO;2.
  3. ^ Laurson, Kelly R; Eisenmann, Joey C; Welk, Gregory J; Wickel, Eric E; Gentile, Douglas A; Walsh, David A (2008). "Combined Influence of Physical Activity and Screen Time Recommendations on Childhood Overweight". The Journal of Pediatrics. 153 (2): 209–214. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.02.042.
  4. ^ Olds, T.; Ridley, K.; Dollman, J. (2006). "Screenieboppers and extreme screenies: The place of screen time in the time budgets of 10–13 year-old Australian children". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 30 (2): 137–142. doi:10.1111/j.1467-842X.2006.tb00106.x. PMID 16681334.
  5. ^ Parker-Pope, T. (2011). Less Active at Work, Americans Have Packed on Pounds.https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/05/25/less-active-at-work-americans-have-packed-on-pounds/
  6. ^ The State of American Jobs (2016). http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2016/10/06/1-changes-in-the-american-workplace/
  7. ^ Pleis, John R.; Lucas, Jacqueline W.; Ward, Brian W. (2008). "Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey" (PDF). Series Reports from the National Health Interview Survey #10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 11.
  8. ^ Edwardson, C. L., Biddle, S. J. H., Clarke-Cornwell, A., Clemes, S., Davies, M. J., Dunstan, D. W., . . . Munir, F. (2018). A three arm cluster randomised controlled trial to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the SMART Work & Life intervention for reducing daily sitting time in office workers: study protocol. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 1120. doi:10.1186/s12889-018-6017-1
  9. ^ Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJ (May 2006). "Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data". Lancet. 367 (9524): 1747–57. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68770-9. PMID 16731270.
  10. ^ Manson, JoAnn E., et al. "The escalating pandemics of obesity and sedentary lifestyle: a call to action for clinicians." Archives of internal medicine 164.3 (2004): 249-258.
  11. ^ smh.com.au - Sitting can lead to an early death: study, 2012-03-28
  12. ^ Dunstan David W.; Owen Neville (2012). "New Exercise Prescription: Don't Just Sit There: Stand Up and Move More, More Often". Arch Intern Med. 172 (6): 500–501. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.209.
  13. ^ Goettler A, Grosse A, Sonntag D. Productivity loss due to overweight and obesity: a systematic review of indirect costs. BMJ Open 2017; 7: e014632. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014632
  14. ^ Teychenne M, Costigan SA, Parker K (June 2015). "The association between sedentary behaviour and risk of anxiety: a systematic review". BMC Public Health. 15: 513. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1843-x. PMC 4474345. PMID 26088005.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h "Physical Activity". World Health Organization. Retrieved January 23, 2010.
  16. ^ "Physical inactivity a leading cause of disease and disability, warns WHO". World Health Organization. Retrieved January 23, 2010.
  17. ^ Daniel M. Landers. "The Influence of Exercise on Mental Health". President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Retrieved February 5, 2010. The research literature suggests that for many variables there is now ample evidence that a definite relationship exists between exercise and improved mental health. This is particularly evident in the case of a reduction of anxiety and depression.
  18. ^ "Who Is At Risk for High Blood Pressure?". National Institutes of Health. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  19. ^ Biswas, A; Oh, PI; Faulkner, GE; Bajaj, RR; Silver, MA; Mitchell, MS; Alter, DA (20 January 2015). "Sedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality, and hospitalization in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Annals of Internal Medicine. 162 (2): 123–32. doi:10.7326/M14-1651. PMID 25599350.
  20. ^ Stewart RA, Benatar J, Maddison R (2015). "Living longer by sitting less and moving more". Current Opinion in Cardiology (Review). 30 (5): 551–7. doi:10.1097/HCO.0000000000000207. PMID 26204494.
  21. ^ "Obesity and Overweight for Professionals: Causes". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on February 24, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  22. ^ "Overweight and Obesity: What You Can Do". Office of the Surgeon General. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  23. ^ a b "Exercise and Bone Health". National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. 2009. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
  24. ^ a b "Osteoporosis — Frequently Asked Questions". United States Department of Health and Human Services. 2009. Archived from the original on March 24, 2010. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
  25. ^ Kraemer J (March 1995). "Natural course and prognosis of intervertebral disc diseases. International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine Seattle, Washington, June 1994". Spine. 20 (6): 635–9. doi:10.1097/00007632-199503150-00001. PMID 7604337.
  26. ^ "KidsWalk-to-School: Barriers and Solutions". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Archived from the original on March 9, 2010. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
  27. ^ Commissaris, DA; Huysmans, MA; Mathiassen, SE; Srinivasan, D; Koppes, LL; Hendriksen, IJ (18 December 2015). "Interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and increase physical activity during productive work: a systematic review". Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 42 (3): 181–91. doi:10.5271/sjweh.3544. PMID 26683116. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  28. ^ Shrestha, N; Kukkonen-Harjula, KT; Verbeek, JH; Ijaz, S; Hermans, V; Bhaumik, S (17 March 2016). "Workplace interventions for reducing sitting at work". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3: CD010912. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010912.pub3. PMID 26984326. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  29. ^ Shrestha, N; Grgic, J; Weisner, G; Parker, A; Podnar, H; Bennie, J; Biddle, SJH; Pedisic, Zeljko (13 January 2018). "Effectiveness of interventions for reducing non-occupational sedentary behaviour in adults and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis". British Journal of Sports Medicine: bjsports-2017–098270. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2017-098270.
  30. ^ "Employers are increasingly using workplace health screenings". www.heart.org. Retrieved 2018-10-17.
  31. ^ Shrestha, Nipun & Pedisic, Zeljko & Neil-Sztramko, Sarah & T. Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina & Hermans, Veerle. (2016). The Impact of Obesity in the Workplace: a Review of Contributing Factors, Consequences and Potential Solutions. Current Obesity Reports. 5. 10.1007/s13679-016-0227-6.
  32. ^ (2017). Paid Sick Leave and Risks of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Adult Workers in the USA. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(10), 1247. doi:10.3390/ijerph14101247

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