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Coat of arms used by the Holy See between the death or renunciation of a pope and the election of a new incumbent

Sedevacantism is the position held by some traditional Catholics[1][2] that the present occupier of the Holy See is not a valid pope due to the mainstream church's alleged espousal of modernism and that, for lack of a valid pope, the See is vacant. Most sedevacantists and virtually all sedevacantist clergy believe that the Holy See has been vacant since the death of Pope Pius XII in 1958. Others believe that there is no certainity of the vacancy until the moment before Pope Paul VI promulgated Lumen Gentium, which sedevacantists regard as heretical. A very few others regard the Holy See to be vacant since the death of Pope John XXIII in 1963, the death of Pope Paul VI in 1978, or even the death of Pope Pius X in 1914.

The term sedevacantism is derived from the Latin phrase sede vacante, which means "with the chair being vacant".[3] The phrase is commonly used to refer specifically to a vacancy of the Holy See from the death, the resignation, the insanity or the public heresy of a pope[4] to the election of his successor. Sedevacantism as a term in English appears to date from the 1980s, though the movement itself is older.[5]

Among those who maintain that the see of Rome, occupied by what they declare to be an illegitimate pope, was really vacant, some have chosen an alternative pope of their own, and thus in their view ended the vacancy of the see, and are known sometimes as conclavists.[6]

There is another form of "conclavism" that claims that if all of the remaining bishops in the world (however that is defined) meet in a synod unanimously agree to vote for a new "pope", that he who is chosen would be the pope by claiming that the dogma of the "indefectiblity of the Church" would apply to this.[7][8][9] This type of conclavism is called "unanimous conclavism" or generally is also referred to as just "conclavism". Proponents of this form of conclavism reject the aforementioned form of conclavism as a sort of "partial, schismatic or wild conclavism".

The number of sedevacantists is largely unknown, with some claiming estimates of tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands.[10] Many active sedevacantists are involved with traditionalist chapels, societies and congregations, such as the Congregation of Mary Immaculate Queen or the Society of Saint Pius V, and attending their chapels for Mass and Confession; other sedevacantists attend services of an Independent Catholic parish, the Eastern Catholic Church or the Society of Saint Pius X, although the SSPX officially condemns sedevacantism. Sedevacantists claim that the post–Vatican II Mass is invalid or illegitimate.


Sedevacantism owes its origins to the rejection of the theological and disciplinary changes implemented following the Second Vatican Council (1962–65).[11] Sedevacantists reject this Council, on the basis of their interpretation of its documents on ecumenism and religious liberty, among others, which they see as contradicting the traditional teachings of the Catholic Church and as denying the unique mission of Catholicism as the one true religion, outside of which there is no salvation.[12] They also say that new disciplinary norms, such as the Mass of Paul VI, promulgated on 3 April 1969, undermine or conflict with the historical Catholic faith and are deemed blasphemous, while post-Vatican II teachings, particularly those related to ecumenism, are labelled heresies.[13] They conclude, on the basis of their rejection of the revised Mass rite and of postconciliar Church teaching as false, that the popes involved are false also.[1]

Among even traditionalist Catholics,[2][14] this is a quite divisive question,[1][2] so that many who hold it prefer to say nothing of their view. Others believe it is acceptable to go to Masses of the Society of Saint Pius X or to the Divine Liturgies of Eastern Catholic Churches, where Francis' name is said in the Roman Canon or Anaphora, for the sake of fulfilling the obligation to attend Mass and to have access to the sacraments. Other sedevacantists, basing on the fact that Canon law prohibits episcopal consecrations without papal mandate, prefer to stay at home and reject Masses offered by sedevacantist clergy, because all sedevacantist bishops (and consequently priests) today derive their Holy Orders from bishops who did not have papal mandates to consecrate bishops, such as Archbishop Ngô Đình Thục and Bishop Alfredo Méndez-Gonzalez,[15] and because Canon law also forbids priests and bishops to function without authorization by eccelsiastical authority with ordinary jurisdiction, which most sedevacantists believe to be absent today.

Traditionalist Catholics other than sedevacantists recognize as legitimate the line of popes leading to and including Pope Francis.[16] Some of them hold that one or more of the most recent popes have held and taught unorthodox beliefs, but do not go so far as to say that they have been formal heretics though as of 2018 there are some who are considering Pope Francis a heretic because of the encyclical Amoris Laetitia. Sedevacantists, however, claim that the infallible Magisterium of the Catholic Church could not have decreed the changes made in the name of the Second Vatican Council, and conclude that those who issued these changes could not have been acting with the authority of the Catholic Church.[17] Accordingly, they hold that Pope John XXIII and his successors left the true Catholic Church and thus lost legitimate authority in the Church. A formal heretic, they say, cannot be the Catholic pope.[18]

Sedevacantists defend their position using numerous arguments, including that particular provisions of canon law prevent a heretic from being elected or remaining as pope. Paul IV's 1559 bull, Cum ex apostolatus officio, stipulated that a heretic cannot be elected pope, while Canon 188.4 of the 1917 Code of Canon Law provides that a cleric who publicly defects from the Catholic faith automatically loses any office he had held in the Church. A number of writers have engaged sedevacantists in debate on some of these points. Theologian Brian Harrison has argued that Pius XII's conclave legislation permitted excommunicated cardinals to attend, from which he argues that they could also be legitimately elected. Opponents of Harrison have argued that a phrase in Pius XII's legislation, "Cardinals who have been deposed or who have resigned, however, are barred and may not be reinstated even for the purpose of voting", though it speaks of someone deposed or resigned from the cardinalate, not of someone who may have incurred automatic excommunication but has not been officially declared excommunicated, means that, even if someone is permitted to attend, that does not automatically translate into electability.[citation needed] While Sedevacantists' arguments often hinge on their interpretation of modernism as being a heresy, this is also debated.[19]

The Catholic Encyclopedia in 1913 said: "The pope himself, if notoriously guilty of heresy, would cease to be pope because he would cease to be a member of the Church."[20][21] Likewise, theologians Wernz-Vidal,[22] commentary on Canon Law:Ius canonicum:[23]

Through notorious and openly divulged heresy, the Roman Pontiff, should he fall into heresy, by that very fact (ipso facto) is deemed to be deprived of the power of jurisdiction even before any declaratory judgment by the Church... A Pope who falls into public heresy would cease ipso facto to be a member of the Church; therefore, he would also cease to be head of the Church.[24]

There are estimated[by whom?] to be between several tens of thousands and more than two hundred thousand sedevacantists worldwide, mostly concentrated in the United States, Canada, France, the UK, Italy, and Australia, but the actual size of the sedevacantist movement has never been accurately assessed. It remains extremely difficult to establish the size of the movement for a wide range of reasons – not all sedevacantists identify themselves as such, nor do they necessarily adhere to sedevacantist groups or societies.[25] (See further the section on statistics in the article Traditionalist Catholic.) Catholic doctrine teaches the four marks of the true Church are that it is One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic. Sedevacantists base their claim to be the remnant Catholic Church on what they see as the presence in them of these four "marks", absent, they say, in the Church since the Second Vatican Council. Their critics counter that sedevacantists are not one, forming numerous splinter groups, each of them in disagreement with the rest. Most sedevacantists hold the Holy Orders conferred with the present revised rites of the Catholic Church to be invalid due to defect both of intention and form.[26] Because they consider the 1968 revision of the rite of Holy Orders to have invalidated it, they conclude that the great majority of the bishops listed in the Holy See's Annuario Pontificio, including Benedict XVI and Francis themselves, are in reality merely priests or even laymen.

Early proponents[edit]

One of the earliest proponents of sedevacantism was the American Francis Schuckardt. Although still working within the "official" Church in 1967, he publicly took the position in 1968 that the Holy See was vacant and that the Church that had emerged from the Second Vatican Council was no longer Catholic. An associate of his, Daniel Q. Brown, arrived at the same conclusion. In 1969, Brown received episcopal consecration from an Old Catholic bishop, and in 1971, after repenting of his association with the Old Catholics, he in turn ordained and consecrated Schuckardt. Schuckardt founded a congregation called the Tridentine Latin Rite Catholic Church.[citation needed]

In 1970, a Japanese layman, Yukio Nemoto (1925–88), created Seibo No Mikuni (Kingdom of Our Lady, 聖母の御国), a sedevacantist group.[27] Another founding sedevacantist was Fr. Joaquín Sáenz y Arriaga, a Jesuit theologian from Mexico. He put forward sedevacantist ideas in his books The New Montinian Church (August 1971) and Sede Vacante (1973). His writings gave rise to the sedevacantist movement in Mexico, led by Sáenz, Father Moisés Carmona and Father Adolfo Zamora, and also inspired Father Francis E. Fenton in the U.S.

In the years following the Second Vatican Council other priests took up similar positions, including:

Bishops and holy orders[edit]

Catholic doctrine holds that any bishop can validly ordain any baptised man to the priesthood, and any priest to the episcopacy, provided that he has the intention to do what the Church does, and uses an acceptable valid rite of ordination, whether or not he has official permission of any sort to perform the ordination. Absent specified conditions, canon law forbids ordination to the episcopate without a mandate from the pope,[29] and both those who confer such ordination without the papal mandate and those who receive it are subject to latae sententiae excommunication (excommunication by the act itself).[30]

In a specific pronouncement in 1976, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith declared devoid of canonical effect the consecration ceremony conducted for the Palmarian Catholic Church by Archbishop Ngô Đình Thục on 31 December 1975, though it refrained from pronouncing on its validity. This declaration also applied pre-emptively to any later ordinations by those who received ordination in the ceremony.[31] Of those then ordained, seven who are known to have returned to full communion with Rome did so as laymen.[32] Likewise, when Archbishop Thục consecrated three sedevacantist priests in 1981, namely Fr. Guérard des Lauriers, O.P. (French), Fr. Moisés Carmona (Mexican), and Fr. Adolfo Zamora (Mexican), the Vatican declared the bishops involved to have been 'ipso facto' excommunicated.[33] When Archbishop Emmanuel Milingo conferred episcopal ordination on four men in Washington on 24 September 2006, the Holy See's Press Office declared that "the Church does not recognize and does not intend in the future to recognize these ordinations or any ordinations derived from them, and she holds that the canonical state of the four alleged bishops is the same as it was prior to the ordination."[34] This denial of canonical status means Milingo had no authority to exercise any ministry.[citation needed]

However, Rev. Ciro Benedettini, of the Holy See Press Office, who was responsible for publicly issuing, during the press conference, the communiqué on Milingo, stated to reporters that any ordinations the excommunicated Milingo had performed prior to his laicization were "illicit but valid", while any subsequent ordinations would be invalid.[35][36]

The bishops who are or have been active within the sedevacantist movement can be divided into four categories:

Bishops consecrated within the pre–Vatican II church who later took a sedevacantist position[edit]

This category consist of two individuals, both now deceased: the Vietnamese Archbishop Pierre Martin Ngô Đình Thục (consecrated in 1938), former Vicar Apostolic of Vĩnh Long, Vietnam, and former Archbishop of Huế, Vietnam (prior to his death, he signed a document reconciling himself with the Church of Pope John Paul II),[37] and Bishop Alfredo Méndez-Gonzalez (consecrated in 1960), former Bishop of Arecibo, Puerto Rico.[38]

Bishops whose lineages derive from the foregoing bishops[edit]

The "Thục-line" bishops essentially means bishops who derive their episcopacy from Archbishop Thục or from bishops in Thục's lineage. While the "Thục-line" is lengthy and complex, reportedly comprising 200 or more individuals,[39] the sedevacantist community generally accepts and respects bishops descended from the three or four final consecrations that the archbishop performed (those of Bishops Guerard des Lauriers, O.P., Moisés Carmona, Adolfo Zamora, and Christian Datessen).[40]

Bishop Méndez consecrated one priest to the episcopacy, Clarence Kelly of the Society of Saint Pius V,[41] who further consecrated Joseph Santay, CSPV,[42] who further consecrated James Carroll, CSPV.

Many bishops in the "Thục-line" are part of the conclavist Palmarian Catholic Church, due to the very numerous episcopal consecrations within its organization, with their first five bishops consecrated by Archbishop Thục himself, who believed in their claim that the Blessed Virgin Mary chose him to be the one to supply their organization with bishops. All priests in the Palmarian Catholic Church are bishops too.

Living notable sedevacantist bishops who descend from Archbishop Thục through Bishop Moisés Carmona include Bishop Mark Pivarunas of the Congregation of Mary Immaculate Queen (consecrated in 1991 by Carmona), Bishop Daniel Dolan of Cincinnati, Ohio (consecrated in 1993 by Pivarunas), and Bishop Martín Dávila Gandara of the Sociedad Sacerdotal Trento (consecrated in 1999 by Pivarunas and Dolan).

Living notable sedevacantist bishops who descend from Archbishop Thục through Bishop Guerard des Lauriers, O.P., include Bishop Geert Stuyver of the Istituto Mater Boni Consilii (consecrated in 2002 by Bishop Robert McKenna, O.P.), Bishop Donald Sanborn of the Roman Catholic Institute (consecrated in 2002 by McKenna), and Bishop Joseph Selway of the Roman Catholic Institute (consecrated in 2018 by Sanborn, Dolan, and Stuyver).

Bishops whose lineages derive from earlier movements[edit]

A considerable number of sedevacantist bishops are thought to derive from Bishop Carlos Duarte Costa, who in 1945 set up his own schismatic "Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church".[43][44] Carlos Duarte Costa was not a sedevacantist, and instead questioned the status of the papacy itself – he denied Papal Infallibility and rejected the pope's universal jurisdiction.[45] In further contrast to most Catholic traditionalism Duarte Costa was left-wing.[46] More numerous are those who have had recourse to the Old Catholic line of succession. Bishops of this category include Francis Schuckardt and others associated with him. The orders of the original Old Catholic Church are regarded by the Roman Catholic Church as valid, though no such declaration of recognition has been issued with regard to the several independent Catholic churches that claim to trace their episcopal orders to this church. Some shadow of doubt hovers over the validity of the orders received from these bishops, and the claimants have not received wide acceptance in the sedevacantist community, though most have at least some small congregation.[citation needed]

Bishops whose orders are generally regarded as invalid through lack of proper lineage[edit]

Lucian Pulvermacher (also known as Pope Pius XIII) and Gordon Bateman of the small conclavist "True Catholic Church" fall into this category. For Lucian Pulvermacher to be consecrated a bishop, he interpreted a passage of theologian Ludwig Ott to mean that he can, as pope, although just a simple priest, give himself special authority to confer Holy Orders. So he proceeded to ordain Bateman as a priest then consecrated him as a bishop. Bateman then in turn as bishop consecrated Pulvermacher as bishop.


Arguments against Sedevacantism[edit]

Against sedevacantism, Catholics advance arguments such as:

  • The First Vatican Council, "5. Therefore, if anyone says that it is not by the institution of Christ the Lord himself (that is to say, by divine law) that blessed Peter should have perpetual successors in the primacy over the whole Church; or that the Roman Pontiff is not the successor of blessed Peter in this primacy: let him be anathema." (Vatican I, Session 4, Chapter 2, Paragraph 5)[47] Vatican I teaches that St. Peter will have perpetual successors. It further teaches that the Roman Pontiff is the successor. This paragraph wouldn't allow sedevacantism to exist, because sedevacantists believe the last valid Pope was Pius XII (or John XXIII), although there could be a very long term of sede vacancte between popes.
  • According to Catholic doctrine, the Catholic Church is a visible identifiable body that is literally catholic, in the sense of universal ("for all people"). This is seen as incompatible with the sedevacantist claim that the true nature of the Catholic Church has been hidden from the world for half a century.[48]
  • The 1870 Dogmatic Constitution Pastor Aeternus[49] of the First Vatican Council reaffirmed that "it has always been necessary for every Church, e.g., the faithful throughout the world—to be in agreement with (the Roman Church) because of its preeminent authority" and that consequently the bishop whom the Church in Rome acknowledges as its head "is the successor of blessed Peter, the prince of the apostles, true vicar of Christ, head of the whole Church and father and teacher of all Christian people. To him, in blessed Peter, full power has been given by our lord Jesus Christ to tend, rule and govern the universal Church." This is seen as incompatible with the sedevacantist claim that the papal line of succession has been broken since 1958 (or 1963).[citation needed]
  • Critics of sedevacantism argue this also means that the theory advanced by the seventeenth-century theologian and Doctor of the Church Robert Bellarmine that a pope who fell into heresy would automatically forfeit his office and could be formally deposed has been overruled by Church authority by Benedict XIV in "De Synodo Dioecesana" (10,1,5) and by the 1917 Code of Canon Law, Can. 2232, Par. 1, "A penalty that is latae sententiae, whether medicinal or punitive, holds for one who is aware of his own delict in both fora [i.e., public and private]; but prior to a declaratory sentence, the delinquent is excused from observing the penalty any time that he cannot observe it without infamy, and in the external forum no one can compel the observance of that penalty from him unless the delict is notorious, with due regard for Can. 2223, Par. 4." Sedevacantist appeals to Bellarmine's authority in this point accordingly could not be sustained, adding that Bellarmine envisaged that such a deposition, even if possible, could only be undertaken by a significant body of the Church including many bishops and cardinals, rather than by a few individuals.[citation needed]
  • The Catholic doctrine of the indefectibility of the Church, which appeals to Christ's promise to the Apostle Peter in Matthew 16:18 ("You are Peter (the Rock), and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against it") excludes the possibility that the Catholic bishops around the world and the pope with whom they are in communion would succumb to heresy and fall from office.
  • They cite the Catholic doctrine of "the peaceful and universal acceptance of the Pope" by the Church, which provides infallible certitude of his legitimacy. As Louis Cardinal Billot wrote in his book Tractatus De Ecclesia Christi, "the peaceful adherence of the universal Church will always be an infallible sign of the legitimacy of the person of the Pontiff, and what is more, even of the existence of all conditions that are requisite for legitimacy itself."[50] This doctrine is expounded at length in chapter 12 of the anti-Sedevacantist book, True or False Pope: A Refutation of Sedevacantism and Other Modern Errors by John Salza and Robert Siscoe.
  • They claim sedevacantists wrongly treat certain papal statements of the past as if they were ex cathedra declarations.[citation needed]
  • They claim sedevacantists fail to distinguish between matters of discipline—such as the use of Latin and of the Tridentine Mass—which can be reformed at any time, and infallible dogmatic teachings.[citation needed]
  • They claim sedevacantists indulge in the logical fallacy of post hoc ergo propter hoc when they attribute problems that the Church has experienced in the Western world since the reforms of the Second Vatican Council to the reforms themselves rather than to the general decrease in religiosity in the West.[citation needed]
  • Catholic Answers gives a refutation: The Problem with Sedevacantism[51]


Sedevacantists advance counter-arguments, such as: They say that they do not repudiate the dogma of papal infallibility as defined at the First Vatican Council, and maintain that, on the contrary, they are the fiercest defenders of this doctrine, since they teach that the Apostolic See of Peter, under the rule of a true pope, cannot promulgate contradictory teachings.[52]

  • They argue that the Dogmatic Constitution Pastor aeternus concerns the permanence of the primacy of the Holy See over the universal church and condemns as heretical the propositions that the authority granted to St. Peter by Christ either was abolished after his death or devolved to the college of bishops, both positions that were argued by Orthodox theologians. The very purpose of the Constitution was to solemnly and dogmatically refute those errors. The perpetuity granted divinely to the Petrine ministry was not the constant occupation of that office but that the monarchical structure of the Church, with the Seat of Peter as its head, would never be abrogated and endure throughout history. It is this permanence which allows the Holy See to function as the point of unity even during papal interregnum.[citation needed]
  • To rebut the accusation of denying the catholicity and indefectibility of the Church, they say that, between the death of every pope and the election of his successor, there is a sede vacante period during which there is no visible Head of the Church, and—while mainstream Catholics hold that, according to the dogmatic constitution Pastor aeternus of the First Vatican Council, which speaks of "perpetual successors" in the pontificate, there must be, apart from such transitory periods, a perpetual presence of the Bishop of Rome, not merely of his office—that the absence of a pope has become a long-term feature of the Church's structure.[citation needed]
  • They claim that, during the 40-year Great Western Schism, although no one asserted the see of Rome to be vacant, there was great uncertainty about which of the two (eventually three) claimants was the true pontiff, with even canonized saints taking opposing sides in the controversy. In his 1882 book, The Relations of the Church to Society—Theological Essays, a Jesuit theologian, Father Edmund J. O'Reilly, wrote: "...not that an interregnum covering the whole period would have been impossible or inconsistent with the promises of Christ, for this is by no means manifest."[53]

Liturgical criticism[edit]

Like other traditionalist Catholics, sedevacantists criticize liturgical revisions made by the Holy See since the Second Vatican Council:

  • Anthony Cekada, an assistant pastor of sedevacantist bishop Daniel Dolan,[54] in his book Work of Human Hands, says that the Mass of Paul VI is invalid and moreover strips down or removes completely every prayer in the Latin Rite which covers subjects such as judgment, heaven and hell, Satan, et al., and suggests that their full-scale removal, if such were to happen, would contribute to a lack of self-discipline and eventual loss of faith and skepticism among Catholics, responding to the post hoc ergo propter hoc accusation above. He criticizes the Mass of Paul VI for what he calls its "Protestantizations", such as referring to the service as a "supper"[a] with a "table"[b] and "cup"[c] instead of a "sacrifice"[d] with an "altar"[e] and "chalice",[f] making the congregation, in his view, the center of worship instead of God, and so forth. He claims that the Mass of Paul VI uses a Modernist method of mixing traditional language with Protestant language to appeal to both sides, and thus falling into heresy, in the same way as the Church of England is said to be "both Catholic and Reformed". The observation about the use of the word "cup", rather than "chalice", concerned only the English translation in use from 1973 to 2011, which employed both terms.[g] It does not concern the original Latin text of the Mass of Paul VI, translations into other languages, or the present English translation, which always uses the word "chalice".
  • Cekada, Patrick Henry Omlor and Rama Coomaraswamy criticize what they consider the wholescale removal of prayers and revisions to the consecration of the Eucharist. Omlor has objected to pro vobis et pro multis being translated in an earlier English translation as "for you and for all", instead of "for you and for many" as in the present English translation. On this see pro multis. They have also said that the revision of the words of consecration of the wine invalidates the sacrament by moving the phrase mysterium fidei (in the English translation, "the mystery of faith"), from the middle of the formula of consecration of the wine to after it and changing its context from, they say, referring to the transubstantiated Sacrament to the mystery of Christ's death and resurrection.
  • Many of them claim that the new rites of ordination and consecration are invalid, for not explicitly endowing the priest with the power to "offer Mass for the living and the dead", but simply, they say, "to preside over the assembly of the people".[citation needed] The new rite in reality does mention sacrifice, both in the model homily proposed and in the prayer of consecration.[55] However, others consider the new rite of ordination of priests to be dubious rather than invalid, but therefore still to be avoided due to the grave risk involved.[56] Anthony Cekada considers categorically invalid the new rite of consecration of bishops.[57][58][59] Accordingly, some sedevacantists say bishops consecrated under the new rite are unable to validly ordain bishops, leading to the end of apostolic succession in the mainstream Catholic Church, or even priests, so that those ordained by them cannot provide sacraments at all, but only simulate them. They consider Pope Benedict XVI, who was consecrated a bishop in 1977 in the new rite, to be only a priest, who cannot therefore have been Bishop of Rome,[60] and Pope Francis, ordained in 1969 in the new rite and consecrated in 1992, to be doubtfully a priest and possibly only a layman.


Sedevacantism appears to be centred in, and by far strongest in the United States, and secondarily in other English-speaking countries such as Canada (mainly Ontario) and the United Kingdom, as well as Poland, Mexico, Italy, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, and Brazil.[61][62] Anthony Cekada has described the United States as a "Bastion of Sedevacantism", contrasting it with France, where the non-sedevacantist Society of Saint Pius X has a virtual monopoly on the traditionalist Catholic movement.[63]

Sedevacantist groups include:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The phrase "Mass or Lord's Supper" is used exactly twice in the revised Missal: GIRM 17 and 27
  2. ^ The phrase "the altar or the table of the Lord" is used once (GIRM 73), immediately after using the word "altar" on its own; "the eucharistic table" is used in GIRM 73 in the same sense as that in which the 1962 Missal used "table" in, for instance, the Code of Rubrics, 528
  3. ^ The revised Missal uses the word "calix", which in the official English translation appears as "chalice", not as "cup"
  4. ^ The word "sacrifice" appears 215 times in the revised Missal
  5. ^ The word "altar" appear 345 times in the revised Missal
  6. ^ The word "chalice" appears 177 times in the revised Missal.
  7. ^ For instance, the 1973 English translation had, immediately after the consecration, "He (the priest) shows the chalice to the people, places it on the corporal, and genuflects in adoration."


  1. ^ a b c Appleby, R. Scott (1995), Being Right: Conservative Catholics in America, Indiana University Press, p. 257, ISBN 978-0253329226.
  2. ^ a b c Marty, Martin E; Appleby, R. Scott (1994), Fundamentalisms Observed, University of Chicago Press, p. 88, ISBN 978-0226508788.
  3. ^ Neuhaus, Rev. Richard J (2007), Catholic Matters: Confusion, Controversy, and the Splendor of Truth, Basic, p. 133, ISBN 978-0465049356.
  4. ^ Raoul Naz, "Traité de droit canonique" Tome I, Nr 512
  5. ^ Cekada, Fr. Antony (2008). "The Nine vs. Lefebvre: We Resist You to Your Face" (PDF). Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  6. ^ George D. Chryssides (2011). Historical Dictionary of New Religious Movements. Scarecrow Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0810879676.
  7. ^ Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. a. vacant et al., 15 v. (Paris 1903–50; Tables générales 1951–), Tables générales 1:1116. i. salaverri, Sacrae theologiae summa, ed. fathers of the society of jesus, professors of the theological faculties in spain, 4 v. (Madrid), v. 1 (5th ed. 1962), v. 2 (3d ed. 1958), v. 3 (4th ed. 1961), v. 4 (4th ed. 1962); Bibliotheca de autores cristianos 1.3:285–329.
  8. ^ “Tractatus de Ecclesia Christi sive continuatio theologiae de verbo incarnato”, 1909, Tomus Prior, Quaestio XIV, De Romano Pontifice, Thesis XXIX, § 1, pp. 610–11)
  9. ^ Ad. Tanquerey, A Manual of Dogmatic Theology, transl. by Rev. Msgr. John J. Byrnes, Desclee, New York, 1959, pp. 176–82.
  10. ^ Collinge, William J. (2012). Historical dictionary of Catholicism (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. p. 399. ISBN 978-0810857551. from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands.
  11. ^ Madrid, Patrick; Vere, Peter (2004), More Catholic Than the Pope: An Inside Look at Extreme Traditionalism, Our Sunday Visitor, p. 169, ISBN 1931709262.
  12. ^ Jarvis, E. Sede Vacante: the Life and Legacy of Archbishop Thuc, Apocryphile Press, Berkeley CA, 2018, pp. 8–10.
  13. ^ Flinn, Frank K (2007), Encyclopedia of Catholicism, Facts on File, p. 566, ISBN 978-0816054558.
  14. ^ Collinge, William J (2012), Historical Dictionary of Catholicism, Scarecrow, p. 566, ISBN 978-0810879799.
  15. ^ "In Defense of "Home Alone" — Rebutting Ruby's Rant". Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  16. ^ Gibson, David (2007), The Rule of Benedict: Pope Benedict XVI and His Battle with the Modern World, Harper Collins, p. 355, ISBN 978-0061161223.
  17. ^ Marty, Martin E; Appleby, R. Scott (1991), Fundamentalisms Observed, The University of Chicago Press, p. 66, ISBN 0226508781.
  18. ^ Wójcik, Daniel (1997), The End of the World As We Know It: Faith, Fatalism, and Apocalypse in America, New York University Press, p. 86, ISBN 0814792839.
  19. ^ Jarvis, E. Sede Vacante: the Life and Legacy of Archbishop Thuc, Apocryphile Press, Berkeley CA, 2018, pp. 152–53.
  20. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Encyclopedia Press 1913. 7:261.
  21. ^ "Quotes from Theologians that support the possibility that the popes of modern Rome may not be true popes". Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  22. ^ "Canon Law Books, Articles & Reviews, Speaking & Media, etc".
  23. ^ Wernz, Franz Xaver; Vidal, Pedro; Aguirre, Philippus (26 October 1943). "Ius canonicum". Università Gregoriana – via Open WorldCat.
  24. ^ "Traditionalists, Infallibility and the Pope | Articles: 0 | Traditional Latin Mass Resources". Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  25. ^ Jarvis, E. Sede Vacante: the Life and Legacy of Archbishop Thuc, Apocryphile Press, Berkeley CA, 2018, p. 9.
  26. ^ "Unholy Orders: 50 Years Invalid Ordinations". 18 June 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  27. ^ Zoccatelli, Pier Luigi (2000), Seibo Seibo No Mikuni, a Catholic Apocalyptic Splinter Movement from Japan.
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External links[edit]

Sedevacantist sites[edit]

Sedevacantist resources[edit]

Criticisms of sedevacantism[edit]