Sedevacantism (Latin: Sedevacantismus) is a doctrinal position within traditionalist Catholicism, which holds that the present occupier of the Holy See is not a valid pope due to the pope's espousal of one or more heresies and that therefore, for lack of a valid pope, the See of Rome is vacant.
The term sedevacantism is derived from the Latin phrase sede vacante, which means "with the chair [i.e. of the Bishop of Rome] being vacant". The phrase is commonly used to refer specifically to a vacancy of the Holy See from the death, the resignation, the falling into insanity, or the public heresy of a pope to the election of his successor.
Among those who maintain that the see of Rome, occupied by what they declare to be an illegitimate pope, was really vacant, some have chosen an alternative pope of their own, thereby in their view ending the vacancy of the see; such are known sometimes as conclavists.
The number of sedevacantists is unknown and difficult to measure; estimates range from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands.
Sedevacantism owes its origins to the rejection of the theological and disciplinary changes implemented following the Second Vatican Council (1962–65). Sedevacantists reject this Council, on the basis of their interpretation of its documents on ecumenism and religious liberty, among others, which they see as contradicting the traditional teachings of the Catholic Church and as denying the unique mission of Catholicism as the one true religion, outside of which there is no salvation. They also say that new disciplinary norms, such as the Mass of Paul VI, promulgated on 3 April 1969, undermine or conflict with the historical Catholic faith and are deemed blasphemous, while post-Vatican II teachings, particularly those related to ecumenism, are labelled heresies. They conclude, on the basis of their rejection of the revised Mass rite and of postconciliar church teaching as false, that the popes involved are also false. Among even traditionalist Catholics, this is a quite divisive question.
Traditionalist Catholics other than sedevacantists recognize as legitimate the line of popes leading to and including Pope Francis. Sedevacantists, however, claim that the infallible Magisterium of the Catholic Church could not have decreed the changes made in the name of the Second Vatican Council, and conclude that those who issued these changes could not have been acting with the authority of the Catholic Church. Accordingly, they hold that Pope John XXIII and his successors left the true Catholic Church and thus lost legitimate authority in the church. A formal heretic, they say, cannot be the Catholic pope.
Positions within sedevacantism
On clergy, Mass, and sacraments
Some sedevacantists accept the consecrations and ordinations of sedevacantist bishops and priests, and the offering of Masses and the administration of sacraments by the said bishops and priests, to be licit because of epikea, i.e. "the interpretation of the mind and will of him who made the law". In this case, the ecclesiastical laws (e.g. prohibition of consecrations of bishops without papal mandate; prohibition of administration of sacraments without ecclesiastical authorization) are interpreted to cease when to follow them would be impossible, harmful, or unreasonable, or would mean transgressing divine laws (e.g. the church must have bishops and priests; Catholics must attend Mass and receive the sacraments), and because of a historical precedent for consecrating Catholic bishops during a long vacancy of the Holy See.
Another divisive question among sedevacantists is whether it is permissible to go to "una cum" masses (Traditional Latin Masses where the name of the person considered by mainstream Catholics as Pope is spoken in the Roman Canon, specifically in the "Te igitur" prayer, where the priest says "una cum famulo tuo Papa nostro N." ["together with Thy Servant N., our Pope"]). Such "una cum" masses are offered by the priests of the Priestly Fraternity of Saint Peter. Some argue that it is, or may be, permissible, while others argue that it is not permissible, and that such masses are illicit and forbidden to Catholics.
Relationship to Sedeprivationism
A sizeable portion of sedevacantists affirm the Thesis of Cassiciacum of the Dominican theologian Bishop Michel-Louis Guérard des Lauriers as being a valid position, which states that John XXIII and his successors are popes materialiter sed non formaliter, that is, "materially but not formally," and that the post-Vatican II popes will become pope if they recant their heresies.
There are estimated to be between several tens of thousands and more than two hundred thousand sedevacantists worldwide, mostly concentrated in the United States, Mexico, Canada, France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Australia, but the actual size of the sedevacantist movement has never been accurately assessed. It remains extremely difficult to establish the size of the movement for a wide range of reasons, such as the fact that not all sedevacantists identify themselves as such, nor do they necessarily adhere to sedevacantist groups or societies.
Early proponents of sedevacantism include:
- Patrick Henry Omlor, an American author who, in 1965, expressed the view that Paul VI was not the pope.
- Francis Schuckardt, an American who was part of the Blue Army of Our Lady of Fátima, until he publicly took the position in 1967 that the Holy See was vacant and that the church that had emerged from the Second Vatican Council was no longer the Catholic Church. He founded the Congregation of Mary Immaculate Queen (CMRI).
- Bishop Daniel Q. Brown, an American former Old Catholic bishop who converted to sedevacantism and an associate of Schuckardt.
- Yukio Nemoto, a Japanese who created the sedevacantist group Seibo No Mikuni (Kingdom of Our Lady, 聖母の御国).
- Father Joaquín Sáenz y Arriaga, a Mexican Jesuit priest and theologian who put forward sedevacantist ideas in his books The New Montinian Church (August 1971) and Sede Vacante (1973). His writings gave rise to the sedevacantist movement in Mexico, led by Father Sáenz, Father Moisés Carmona and Father Adolfo Zamora, priests who formed the Unión Católica Trento (Tridentine Catholic Union).
- Father Francis E. Fenton, an American priest who was inspired by Sáenz's writings and founded the Orthodox Roman Catholic Movement as an American parallel to the Mexican Unión Católica Trento.
- Father (later Bishop) Michel-Louis Guérard des Lauriers, a French Dominican priest and theologian who developed the Thesis of Cassiciacum in the 1970s.
- Several American priests of the Society of Saint Pius X (SSPX): Father Daniel Dolan, Father Anthony Cekada, and Father Donald Sanborn, reportedly sedevacantists in the 1970s, who were expelled, along with several other priests, by Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre for holding this view. Nine of these priests later founded the Society of Saint Pius V (SSPV) in 1983.
- Father Gommar DePauw, an American priest and canonist who founded the organization he named Catholic Traditionalist Movement.
- Father Oswald Baker, an English priest who was a sedevacantist by at least 1982, and reportedly some time prior to that.
- Father Lucian Pulvermacher, an American missionary priest who left the Roman Catholic Church in 1976 and in 1998 was elected pope of the conclavist "True Catholic Church" with the name of "Pius XIII".
Bishops and holy orders
Catholic theology holds that any bishop can validly ordain any baptized male to the priesthood, and any priest to the episcopacy, provided that, with the intention to do what the church does, he uses a rite of ordination or consecration considered valid by the Catholic Church.
Consecrated before Vatican II
The only known Catholic bishop consecrated before the Second Vatican Council who publicly became sedevacantist was Vietnamese Archbishop Ngô Đình Thục (consecrated in 1938), former Vicar Apostolic of Vĩnh Long, Vietnam and former Archbishop of Huế, Vietnam.
Bishop Alfredo Méndez-Gonzalez (consecrated in 1960), former Bishop of Arecibo, Puerto Rico, though not a sedevacantist, at least not a public one, associated himself with sedevacantist priests and consecrated a bishop for them.
Thục line bishops
The "Thục line" bishops designates bishops who derive their episcopacy from Archbishop Thục or from bishops of Thục's lineage. Many bishops in the "Thục line" are part of the non-sedevacantist Palmarian Catholic Church; this is due to Thục having consecrated Bishop Clemente Domínguez y Gómez, future head of the Palmarian Church, and the very numerous episcopal consecrations within this organization.
On 17 October 1981, Thục consecrated the sedevacantist Mexican priests Moisés Carmona and Adolfo Zamora as bishops. Carmona and Zamora had been sedevacantist leaders and propagators in Mexico for many years, and were among the priests who formed the Tridentine Catholic Union.
On 19 October 1993, in Carlsbad, California, United States, Bishop Méndez-Gonzalez consecrated the sedevacantist Father Clarence Kelly of the Society of Saint Pius V (SSPV) to the episcopacy. By Méndez's wish, the consecration was kept secret until his death in 1995.
Whose lineages derive from earlier movements
A considerable number of sedevacantist bishops are thought to derive their holy orders from Bishop Carlos Duarte Costa, who in 1945 set up his own independent Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church.[page needed] Carlos Duarte Costa was not a sedevacantist, and instead questioned the papacy as an institution: he denied papal Infallibility and rejected the pope's universal jurisdiction. In further contrast to most Catholic traditionalism, Duarte Costa was left-wing.
Sedevacantist groups include:
- Congregation of Mary Immaculate Queen (CMRI), formed in 1967. It operates in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia; is based in Omaha, Nebraska, United States; and is headed by Bishop Mark Pivarunas.
- Society of Saint Pius V (SSPV), formed in 1983 when nine American priests of the Society of Saint Pius X split from the organization over a number of issues including using the liturgical reforms implemented under Pope John XXIII. It operates in North America, is based in Oyster Bay Cove, New York, United States, and is headed by Bishop Clarence Kelly.
- Istituto Mater Boni Consilii (Institute of the Mother of Good Counsel; IMBC), formed in 1985 when four Italian priests of the Society of Saint Pius X split from the organization. It holds to the position of sedeprivationism. It operates in Europe and Argentina, and is based in Verrua Savoia, Turin, Italy. Its bishop is Bishop Geert Stuyver.
- Sociedad Sacerdotal Trento (Priestly Society of Trent; SST), formed in 1993 by the priests of the deceased Bishop Moisés Carmona. Its bishop is Bishop Martín Dávila Gandara.
- Roman Catholic Institute (RCI), founded in 1993 by Bishop Donald Sanborn. It consists of Sanborn, his priests, and some of his seminarians, and is based in Brooksville, Florida, United States.
- Most Holy Family Monastery (MHFM), a traditional Catholic monastery in Fillmore, New York.
- Independent Catholicism
- Traditionalist Catholicism
- List of movements that dispute the legitimacy of a reigning monarch
- Appleby, R. Scott (1995), Being Right: Conservative Catholics in America, Indiana University Press, p. 257, ISBN 978-0253329226
- Marty, Martin E.; Appleby, R. Scott (1994), Fundamentalisms Observed, University of Chicago Press, p. 88, ISBN 978-0226508788
- Neuhaus, Richard John (2007), Catholic Matters: Confusion, Controversy, and the Splendor of Truth, Basic, p. 133, ISBN 978-0465049356
- Chryssides, George D. (2012). Historical Dictionary of New Religious Movements (2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0810879676.
- Collinge, William J. (2012). Historical dictionary of Catholicism (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. p. 399. ISBN 978-0810857551.
from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands
- Madrid, Patrick; Vere, Peter (2004), More Catholic Than the Pope: An Inside Look at Extreme Traditionalism, Our Sunday Visitor, p. 169, ISBN 1931709262
- Jarvis, E. Sede Vacante: the Life and Legacy of Archbishop Thuc, Apocryphile Press, Berkeley CA, 2018, pp. 8–10.
- Flinn, Frank K (2007), Encyclopedia of Catholicism, Facts on File, p. 566, ISBN 978-0816054558
- Collinge, William J (2012), Historical Dictionary of Catholicism, Scarecrow, p. 566, ISBN 978-0810879799
- Gibson, David (2007), The Rule of Benedict: Pope Benedict XVI and His Battle with the Modern World, Harper Collins, p. 355, ISBN 978-0061161223
- Marty, Martin E; Appleby, R. Scott (1991), Fundamentalisms Observed, University of Chicago Press, p. 66, ISBN 0226508781
- Wójcik, Daniel (1997), The End of the World As We Know It: Faith, Fatalism, and Apocalypse in America, New York University Press, p. 86, ISBN 0814792839
- Jarvis, E. Sede Vacante: the Life and Legacy of Archbishop Thuc, Apocryphile Press, Berkeley CA, 2018, pp. 152–53.
- Most Rev. Mark Pivarunas, CMRI. "Episcopal Consecration During Interregnums".
- Most Rev. Mark Pivarunas, CMRI. "The Consecration of Bishops During Interregna".
- Rev. Anthony Cekada. "Canon Law and Common Sense".
- Rev. Henry Davis. "Moral and Pastoral Theology", vol. 1, p. 188.
- Rev. Henry Davis. Moral and Pastoral Theology, vol. 1, p. 168. "Law need not be fulfilled even by a subject, if it has become impossible, or harmful, or unreasonable, or useless in general"
- Daly, John S. "Cardinal de Lugo on Communicatio in Sacris".
- Lane, John. "The Question of Assistance at the Mass of a Priest Who Professes Communion With John Paul II as Pope". 10 September 2002. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
- Rev. Anthony Cekada. "The Grain of Incense: Sedevacantists and Una Cum Masses". November 2007.
- Most Rev. Donald Sanborn. "The 'Una Cum' Mass". 7 March 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
- Istituto Mater Boni Consilii (IMBC). "Who we are". Retrieved 29 August 2021.
- Most Rev. Donald Sanborn. "The material Papacy". Retrieved 29 August 2021.
- Most Rev. Donald Sanborn. "De Papatu Materiali". "Pars Prima" and "Pars Secunda". Retrieved 29 August 2021.
- Jarvis, E. Sede Vacante: the Life and Legacy of Archbishop Thuc, Apocryphile Press, Berkeley CA, 2018, p. 9.
- Zoccatelli, Pier Luigi (2000), Seibo Seibo No Mikuni, a Catholic Apocalyptic Splinter Movement from Japan
- Case, Thomas W (October 2002), "The Society of St. Pius X Gets Sick", Fidelity Magazine, Tripod, archived from the original on 28 June 2007
- Pope Leo XIII. "Apostolicae curae".
- Ahaus, H. (1911). Holy Orders. In The Catholic Encyclopedia.
- Likoudis, James; Whitehead, Kenneth D. (2006). The Pope, the Council, and the Mass: Answers to Questions the "Traditionalists" Have Asked. Emmaus Road Publishing. p. 148. ISBN 9781931018340.
- "Notification by the Vatican (L'Osservatore Romano, English Edition, 18 April 1983, Page 12)".
- Heller, Eberhard. AFFIDAVIT DECLARING THE EPISCOPAL CONSECRATIONS OF THEIR EXCELLENCIES BISHOP M. L. GUERARD DES LAURIERS, BISHOP MOISÉS CARMONA AND BISHOP ADOLFO ZAMORA. 14 February 1992. In Einsicht, February 1992. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- M.L. Guérard des Lauriers, Dimensions de la Foi, Paris: Cerf, 1952.
- "Tradicionalismo católico postconciliar y ultraderecha en Guadalajara" (PDF). Universidad de Guadalajara. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
- Photographs and documentation of the episcopal consecration of Bishop Kelly.
- Video of the episcopal consecration of Bp. Joseph Santay.
- Video of the episcopal Consecration of Bp. James Carroll, CSPV.
- Jarvis, E. God, Land & Freedom: the True Story of ICAB, Apocryphile Press, Berkeley CA, 2018
- Jarvis, E. God, Land & Freedom: the True Story of ICAB, Apocryphile Press, Berkeley CA, 2018, pp. 64–69, 236–44.
- Jarvis, E. God, Land & Freedom: the True Story of ICAB, Apocryphile Press, Berkeley CA, 2018, p. 64.
- A more comprehensive list of objections can be found at "Letter of 'the Nine' to Abp. Marcel Lefebvre", The Roman Catholic, Traditional mass, May 1983
- Boulet, Dominique (December 2004). "Is That Chair Vacant?: A SSPX Dossier on Sedevacantism". Communicantes, no. 21. CA: The Society of St. Pius X. Archived from the original on 2 June 2007.
- Sungenis, Robert. "Epologetics". Catholic int'l. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011.
- Sungenis, Robert. "Epologetics". Catholic Int'l. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011.
- Harrison, Father Brian (2001). "This rock". Catholic. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011.
- "This rock". Catholic. 2000. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. (concerning strict sedevacantists as well as conclavists)