Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Embrun
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Embrun was located in southwestern France, in the mountains of the Maritime Alps, on a route that led from Gap by way of Briançon to Turin. It had as suffragans the Diocese of Digne, Diocese of Antibes and Grasse, Diocese of Vence, Diocese of Glandèves, Diocese of Senez and Diocese of Nice. Its see was the Cathedral of Nôtre Dame in Embrun.
The former French Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Embrun was suppressed after the French Revolution. It was replaced, under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790) by a diocese which had the same boundaries of the civil departement in which it was located. The diocese was called 'Haute-Alpes', with its center at Gap.
When the Diocese of Gap was re-established in 1822 it comprised, besides the ancient Diocese of Gap, a large part of the ancient archdiocese of Embrun. The name of the metropolitan see of Embrun, however, had been absorbed in the title of the Archbishop of Aix-en-Provence and Arles, until 2007. In 2008, the title of Embrun was reattached to the Diocese of Gap by papal decree of Pope Benedict XVI.
Tradition ascribes the evangelization of Embrun to Saints Nazarius and Celsus, martyrs under emperor Nero. Gregory of Tours states that they were martyred at Embrun. Their bodies, however, were discovered in a cemetery in Milan by Saint Ambrose. They were also drowned at Trier, on orders of the Emperor Nero. Their entire story is without historical foundation, and a mass of contradictions and improbabilities. According to another tradition, the first Bishop of Embrun, Saint Marcellus, was such a successful preacher that, by the end of his episcopacy, there was not a single pagan left in the diocese.
In 1056 Pope Victor confirmed the Archbishop of Embrun as Metropolitan of the Sees of Digne, Chorges, Solliès, Senez, Glandèves, Cimiez-Nice, Vence, and Antibes (Grasse). Bishop Winimann was also granted the pallium In 1276 the Archbishops of Embrun were made Princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
Notable Bishops of Embrun
- St. Guillaume (1120–34), founder of the Abbey of Boscodon;
- Henry of Segusio (1250–71), known as (H)Ostiensis, i.e. Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, an orator and canonist of renown;
- Bertrand de Déaulx (1323–38), who as the legate of Clement VI at Rome did much to bring about the downfall of Rienzi;
- Giulio de' Medici (1510–11), later pope under the name of Clement VII;
- Cardinal François de Tournon (1517–26), employed on diplomatic missions by King Francis I of France, and founder of the College de Tournon;
- Cardinal de Tencin (1724–40), who in September, 1727, caused the condemnation by the Council of Embrun of the *Jansenist Soanen, Bishop of his suffragan see of Senez.
- St. Vincent Ferrer preached several missions against the Vaudois in the Diocese of Embrun.
- † by 374: Marcellinus.
- 374: Artemius
- c.400: Jacob
- 439: Armentarius
- 440-† ca 475: Ingenuus
- 517: Catulinus
- Palladius of Embrun
- 541-549: Gallicanus
- 567-579: Salonius
- Emeritus 585- 588
- Lopacharus 614
- c.630: Albin
- c.650 to c.653: Ætherius
- [c.740: Vualchinus], founded Novalesa Abbey.
- c.791–794: Marcellus
- 829: Agericus
- c.853 to c.859: Aribertus (or Arbertus)
- 876: Bermond
- 878: Aribert II.
- 886: Ermoldus (or Ermaldus or Ermold) 886 or 887 
- 890-899: Arnaud (or Arnaudus)
- 900–916: Benedict
- 920: Liberalis of Embrun (920-40)
- 943–960: Boson
- c.970: Amadeus
- 992: Pontius
- 1007–1010: Ismidias
- c.1016 to c.1027: Radon
- c.1033–1044: Ismidon
- c.1048: Vivemnus (Winnamanus)
- 1050–1054: Guinervinarius
- 1054–1055: Hugues
- 1055–1065: Winnimanus (Guinamand)
- 1066–1077: Guillaume
- 1077: Peter
- c.1080–1084: Lantelmus
- 1105–1118: Benedict II.
- 1120–1134: Guillaume II.
- 1135 to 7 December 1169: Guillaume III.
- 9 January 1170 to 1176: Raimond I.
- c.1177–1189: Pierre II. Romain
- 1189–1208: Guillaume IV. de Benevento
- 1208 to c.1212: Raimond II. Sédu
- 1212 to c.1235: Bernard Chabert
- 1236 to 23. May 1245: Aimar
- 1246–1250: Humbert
- 1250 to May 1262: Henri de Suse (Henricus de Bartholomeis)
- 1263–1286: Jacques Sérène
- 4 August 1286 to 1289: Guillaume V.
- 8 October 1289 to 28 June 1294: Raimond de Médullion
- 28 March 1295 to 26 May 1311: Guillaume de Mandagot (promoted to the See of Aix)
- 22 May 1311 to 1317: Jean du Puy, O.P.
- 1319 to c.1323: Raimond IV. Robaud
- 5 September 1323 to 1338: Bertrand de Déaulx
- 27. January 1338 to 17. December 1350: Pasteur de Sarrats, O.Min.
- 16. February 1351 to 1361: Guillaume VII. de Bordes
- 1361–1364: Raimond V. de Salges
- 8 January 1364 to 5. September 1365: Bertrand II. de Castelnau
- 1365–1366: Bernard II.
- 1366 to 18 December 1378: Pierre Amelii (d'Ameil)
- 20 May 1379 to 1 May 1427: Michel Etienne Delisle (de Insula), appointed by Pope Clement VII of the Avignon Obedience
- 30 July 1427 to 7 September 1432: Jacques Gelu
- 1432 to 17 January 1457: Jean II. Girard
- 1457 to c.1470: Jean III de Montmagny
- c.1470–1494: Jean IV. Baile
- 1494–1510: Rostaing d'Ancezune
- 1510–1511: Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici
- 1511–1516: Niccolò Fieschi (Fiesque), Cardinal
- 1517–1525: François de Tournon
- 1526–1551: Antoine de Lévis de Château-Morand
- 1551–1555: Balthasar de Jarente
- 1555: Louis de Laval de Bois-Dauphin
- 1556–1560: Robert Cardinal de Lenoncourt
- 1561–1600: Guillaume d'Avançon de Saint-Marcel, Cardinal
- 1601–1612: Honoré du Laurens
- 1612–1648: Guillaume d'Hugues
- 1649–1669: Georges d'Aubusson de La Feuillade (transferred to Metz)
- 1669–1714: Charles Brûlart de Genlis
- 1715–1719: François-Elie de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson
- 1719–1724: Jean-François-Gabriel de Hénin-Liétard
- 1724–1740: Pierre Guérin de Tencin (appointed Archbishop of Lyon on 11 November 1740)
- 1741–1767: Bernardin-François Fouquet
- 1767–1790: Pierre-Louis de Leyssin
- Papal bull on the Diocese of Gap website
- Saint Gregory (Bishop of Tours) (1988). Raymond Van Dam, tr., ed. Glory of the Martyrs. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-0-85323-236-0.
- Albert, Antoine (1783). Histoire Géographique, Naturelle, Écclésiastique Et Civile Du Diocese D'Embrun. Tome I. p. 53.
- The name is also spelled Viminian, Vivemnus, Wimman, Guiniman, Guitmund, and Guiriman: Fisquet, p. 843.
- Fisquet, p. 844. It is pointed out that two of the bishoprics no longer existed in 1076, and it is suggested that the list is a later addition to the document.
- The abbey was actually founded by Guillaume and Pierre de Montmirail in 1130; in 1132 the Benedictine Rule was adopted; in 1142 the Bishop of Embrun, another Guillaume, thought the monks so mediocre that he imported several monks from Chalais. Ivan Gobry (2000). Cavalieri e pellegrini. Ordini monastici e canonici regolari nel XII secolo (in Italian). Roma: Città Nuova. pp. 123–125. ISBN 978-88-311-9255-2.
- François de Montauzan (1727). Journal historique du concile d'Embrun. Par Mr*** bachelier de Sorbonne (in French). 2 vols. Paris.
- Duchesne, p. 290, argues that his consecration took place in the 360s.
- Cf. Duchesne, p. 291 n.1, who indicates that there is nothing to show that Armentarius or Jacobus were bishops of Embrun.
- In the episcopal election at Embrun in 438, two factions elected two bishops in the midst of threats and violence, especially involving laypersons; one of the elect, Armentarius, was below the canonical age for consecration, but, without the knowledge and consent of the bishops of the province, he got two bishops somehow to consecrate him. The matter was brought to the Council of Riez, which met on 29 November 439, fourteen bishops being present. The election was annulled as uncanonical, and Armentarius, who had resigned before he received the summons to attend the Council, was treated leniently and given the status of chorepiscopus, though it was made clear that this did not involve any of the prerogatives of a legitimate bishop. Sirmond, pp. 439–448. Duchesne, p. 291.
- Ingenuus was present at the Council of Orange on 4 November 441: John M. Pepino (2009). St. Eucherius of Lyons: Rhetorical Adaptation of Message to Intended Audience in Fifth Century Provence. Ann Arbor MI USA: ProQuest/UMI. pp. 19 and 76. ISBN 978-1-109-04557-4. He was also at the Council of Arles in 451 and the Council of Arles in 455. He corresponded with Pope Hilarius (461-468), and took part in the Council of Rome of 19 November 465. His episcopate might have lasted until ca. 475 or even 487. Fisquet, pp. 814-816. Gallia christiana III, pp. 1058-1059.
- Catulinus took part in the Council of Epaona on 6 September 517: Sirmond, p. 899. In attempting to apply the canons to Embrun, however, he aroused the anger of the Arian aristocracy, who drove him into exile. He lived in Vienne for four or five years. Fisquet, pp. 816-817.
- La Grande Encyclopédie précise que Gallican I a été expulsé de son siège par les Ariens. La source fait peut être une confusion avec Catulin (cf. note n°4).
- Le Trésor de Chronologie précise qu'il faut peut être identifier Gallican II avec Gallican I.
- Salonius was summoned before the Second Council of Lyon in 567, to explain his notorious lifestyle; he was deposed, but he appealed to King Guntram, who used his influence with Pope John III (561-574) to have Salonius reinstated. He was deposed a second time at the Council of Châlons in 579 and locked up in a monastery. Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks Book V, chapter xx. Sirmond, pp. 1163-1164. Fisquet, pp. 822-823.
- Emeritus was present at the Council of Macon in 585. Duchesne, p. 291, no. 7.
- Lopacharus was present at the Council of Paris in 641. Duchesne, p. 291, no. 8.
- Duchesne, p. 292, no. 10. Chramlinus is mentioned in a document of Thierry III of 677 as a usurper of the See of Embrun.
- Fornier, Marcellin (1592-1649), Histoire générale des Alpes Maritimes ou Cottiènes : et particulière de leur métropolitaine, Embrun. Cf. Carlo Cipolla, ed. (1898). Monumenta novaliciensia vetustiora: raccolta degli atti e delle cronache riguardanti l'abbazia della Novalesa (in Italian and Latin). Tomo I. Forzani e c., tip. del Senato. p. viii, xiv-xv., where it is stated that the monastery was founded in 726, and that its Founder was a rich Frank by the name of Abbone. The original charter of foundation survives, dated 30 January 726: Cipolla p. 7-13. On p. 8, in the note, he records that 'Walchunus' (Vualchinus) was not a bishop of Embrun, citing B. Hauréau and Jules Marion.
- Agericus was invited to the Council of Lyon of 829. Duchesne, p. 292, no. 11.
- Aubert participated in the Assembly of Salmorenc in the diocese of Vienne in 858. Fisquet, p. 833. Claude Étienne Bourdot de Richebourg (1761). Histoire de la sainte Eglise de Vienne par M. C. Charvet, prêtre... (C.-E. Bourdot de Richebourg) (in French). Lyon: C. Cizeron. p. 191. H. Blanchet (1864). Recherches historiques sur le Voironnais (in French). Voiron: J.-B. Durand. p. 14.
- Fisquet, p. 834. Duchesne, p. 292 n. 6, suggests that Ermoldus is the same as Arnaldus (Arnaud).
- Bishop Arnaldus took part in the Council of Valence in 890; in 899 he presided at the consecration of Ragenfredus as Archbishop of Vienne: Duchesne, p. 292, no. 15.
- Winnimanus was the recipient of a privilege from Pope Victor II (1055-1057) in July 1056: Gallia christiana III, Instrumenta pp. 177-179. The document also recalls the preaching of Bishop Marcellinus.
- Master Bernard Chabert was Chancellor of Paris when he was chosen to be Bishop of Geneva in 1206. In October of 1212 he was chosen to be Archbishop of Embrun, and as archbishop he attended the Council of Montpellier in January 1216, which took up the problem of the Albigensian heresy and the war between Simon de Montfort and Count Raymond VI of Toulouse. He was chosen to be the Procurator who carried the Decrees of the Council to Pope Innocent III for approval. While in Rome he participated in the IV Lateran Council of November 1215. The Pope confirmed the decrees of the Council of Montpellier on 2 April 1216. In 1218 Bernard helped arrange the marriage of Beatrix, daughter of the Dauphin André, and Amaury the son of Simon de Montfort; this alliance brought Amaury the counties of Embrun and Gap. Fisquet, pp. 861-868.
- Eubel, I, p. 234. There was no Bishop Melchior 1267–1275: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. xiii.
- In 1276 Rudolph, King of the Romans, confirmed all the privileges granted by his predecessors to the Bishops of Embrun, and in addition made him a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire. D. de Saint-Marthe, Gallia christiana Tomus III (Paris 1725), Instrumenta, pp. 182-183.
- Guillaume de Mandagot was appointed Archbishop of Embrun by Pope Boniface VIII on Palm Sunday, 28 March 1295, and two weeks later was consecrated by the Pope. D. de Saint-Marthe, Gallia christiana Tomus III (Paris 1725), Instrumenta, p. 183. Fisquet, p. 81. He received the pallium on the following Thursday.
- Eubel, I, p. 96.
- Eubel, I, p. 77 and 234: 18 June 1361 to 10 January 1364. On 10 January Raymond was appointed Patriarch of Antioch and Bishop of Agen.
- Rostaing was promoted from the diocese of Fréjus on 26 November 1494: Eubel, II, p. 148. He died in Rome on 27 July 1510: Eubel, III, p. 190, n. 3. Fisquet, 926-927.
- Fisquet, pp. 970-974. Aubusson was official Promoter of the interests of the French clergy in Rome (1645-1649). In 1649 he was named by Louis XIV as Archbishop of Embrun. Aubusson was Ambassador Extraordinary in Venice, and then Ambassador Ordinary in Spain (1661-1667). Morel-Fatio, A., ed. (1894). Recueil des instructions données aux ambassadeurs et ministres de France depuis les traités de Westphalie jusqu'à la révolution française: Espagne (in French). Tome premier (1649-1700). Paris: Ancienne Librairie Germer Baillière et Cie. pp. 161–172.
- 3 June 1669: Gauchat, p. 179 and note 4.
- Fisquet, pp. 974-979. Nominated by Louis XIV on 18 June 1668, Genlis was approved by Pope Clement IX on 15 July 1669: Ritzler, V, p. 190, with note 2. Genlis' Testament: Bulletin de la Société d'études des Hautes-Alpes (in French). 8. Gap: Société d'études des Hautes-Alpes. 1889. pp. 141–149.
- Tencin was a native of Grenoble. He was in Rome when he received the letter of appointment of King Louis XV of 6 May 1724. He was consecrated by Pope Benedict XIII on 2 July 1724. Jean, pp. 189. Fisquet, pp. 983-1017. He was created cardinal by Pope Clement XII on 23 February 1739 and assigned the titulus of SS. Nereus et Achilles. He died on 2 March 1758.
- Ritzler, V, p. 9 and note 80.
- In 1791 Leyssin excommunicated Ignace Caseneuve, and emigrated to Lausanne and then to Bavaria. He died at Nuremberg on 26 August 1801, before the Concordat was signed. Jean, p. 189.
- Cazeneuve was consecrated in Paris by Constitutional Bishop Gobel on 3 April 1791. In 1792 he took part in the Convention, but did not vote for the execution of King Louis XVI. He abandoned his ministry in 1793 and refused to take it up again in 1795. He resigned on 1 June 1798. After the Concordat, he made a public retractation and submission. He died in Gap on 10 May 1806. Paul Pisani (1907). Répertoire biographique de l'épiscopat constitutionnel (1791-1802) (in French). Paris: A. Picard et fils. pp. 337–338.
- Gams, Pius Bonifatius (1873). Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. pp. 548–549. (Use with caution; obsolete)
- Mas Latrie, Louis de (1889). Tresor de chronologie, d'histoire et de geographie pour l'etude et emploi des documents du moyen-age (in French). Paris: Palme. pp. 1420–1421; 2162. (Use with caution; obsolete)
- Jean, Armand (1891). Les évêques et les archevêques de France depuis 1682 jusqu'à 1801 (in French). Paris: A. Picard.
- Eubel, Conradus (ed.) (1913). Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1 (second ed.). Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. (in Latin) pp. 233–234.
- Eubel, Conradus (ed.) (1914). Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2 (second ed.). Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. (in Latin) p. 148.
- Eubel, Conradus (ed.); Gulik, Guilelmus (1923). Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3 (second ed.). Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. p. 190.
- Gauchat, Patritius (Patrice) (1935). Hierarchia catholica IV (1592-1667). Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06. pp. 179.
- Ritzler, Remigius; Sefrin, Pirminus (1952). Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V (1667-1730). Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. pp. 190–191.
- Ritzler, Remigius; Sefrin, Pirminus (1958). Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI (1730-1799). Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. p. 203.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Goya, Pierre-Louis-Théophile-Georges (1909). "Diocese of Gap". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 6. New York: Robert Appleton.
- Albanés, Joseph Hyacinthe; Ulysse Chevalier (1899). Gallia christiana novissima: Aix, Apt, Fréjus, Gap, Riez et Sisteron (in Latin). Montbéliard: Société anonyme d'imprimerie montbéliardaise.
- Brunel, Louis (1890). Les Vaudois des Alpes françaises et de Freissinières en particulier: leur passé, leur présent, leur avenir (in French) (second ed.). Paris: Fischbacher.
- Duchesne, Louis (1907). Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule: I. Provinces du Sud-Est. Paris: Fontemoing. pp. 285–286. second edition (in French)
- Fisquet, Honore (1867). La France pontificale (Gallia christiana): Metropole d'Aix: Aix, Arles, Embrun (in French). 2nd partie. Paris: E. Repos. pp. 793–1041.
- Gaillaud, Marie-Eucher (1862). Histoire de Notre-Dame d'Embrun ou la Vierge du Réal (in French). Gap: Impr. Jouglard.
- Sainte-Marthe (Sammarthani), Denis de (1725). Gallia Christiana: In Provincias Ecclesiasticas Distributa, Qua Series Et Historia Archiepiscoporum, Episcoporum Et Abbatum Franciae Vicinarumque Ditionum ab origine Ecclesiarum ab nostra tempora deducitur, & probatur ex authenticis Instrumentis ad calcem appositis. Provinciae Cameracensis, Coloniensis, Ebredunensis (in Latin). Tomus tertius (III). Paris: Typographia Regia.
- Sirmond, Jacques (1789). Conciliorum Galliae tam editorum quam ineditorum collectio, temporum ordine digesta (in Latin). Tomus primus. Paris: sumptibus P. Didot.
- "Ancienne cathédrale Notre-Dame d'Embrun" (in French).