See of Sardis
The See of Sardis or Sardes (Greek: Σάρδεις, Sardeis) was an episcopal see in the city of that name. It was one of the Seven Churches of the Apocalypse, held by metropolitan bishops since the middle to late 1st century, with jurisdiction over the province of Lydia, when this was formed in 295. After 1369 it became a titular see both for the Greek Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.
There is only one known epigraphic reference to the see of Sardis, dated to the 5th or 6th century. A 1959 landslide revealed several ecclesiastical artifacts and a throne that archaeologists postulated may have been used by the bishops of Sardis. The first systemic investigation of the ruins of Sardis came in 1910 with an expedition from Princeton University. Excavations in 1912 revealed a small "Church M", containing coins which were dated to the 5th century and an apse overhanging one of the earliest known Christian altars, near the north eastern corner of the Temple of Artemis.
According to the Menologion, Clement, a disciple of Paul of Tarsus and one of the Seventy (Philippians 4:3), was the first bishop of Sardis. Little is known about the ancient bishopric of Sardis, with the notable exception of Saint Melito, a contemporary of Marcus Aurelius from the 2nd century, whom some sources refer to as the second bishop of Sardis—citing the "improbability of seventy years in the episcopate"—making him the successor to the "angel of the church of Sardis" referenced in the New Testament (Rev. 3:1-3), while other sources regard Melito himself as the "apostle" or "angel of the church of Sardis." In the Book of Revelation, Saint John writes a letter to the church of Sardis, reproaching it and its bishop.
The Council of Rimini deposed Bishop Hortasius of Sardis in 359 because he had been ordained without the saction of the bishops of Lydia. The See had 27 suffragan bishops (including the bishop of Thyatira and Philadelphia) in the 7th century, and approximately that number until the end of the 10th century.
Arabs sacked Sardis in 716, but the city remained a part of a resurgent Roman (Byzantine) Empire until the aftermath of the battle of Manzikert in 1071. Euthymius, a Metropolitan Bishop of Sardis, was martyred in 824 in relation to iconoclasm.
In 1118, Byzantine general Philocales recaptured Sardis from the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. Andronikos], Bishop of Sardis c. 1283, made several attempts at East-West reunification. The Ottoman Turks captured Sardis in 1306; the city was destroyed by Timur in 1402.
The Metropolitan of Sardis, who had once ranked sixth in precedence in the Eastern church, continued to hold that rank into the 13th century, long after Sardis had shrunk to a village which was no longer a regional locus of power. In 1369, Philadelphia replaced Sardis as the see of the metropolitan bishop, Sardis having been suppressed by the Patriarch of Constantinople. However, a bearer of the title of Metropolitan of Sardis, Dionysius, participated in the Council of Florence in 1438, but died before its conclusion and thus was not asked to sign its decree.
From the 17th century, there were appointments of Roman Catholic archbishops of Sardis as a see in partibus infidelium, meaning "within territory held by the infidels" (the Muslims), a term replaced in 1882 by that of "titular see". No new such appointments have been made to this eastern see since the Second Vatican Council.
One of the first scholarly listings of the bishops of Sardis is given by Michel Le Quien in Oriens christianus in quatuor patriarchatus digestus, in quo exhibentur Ecclesiae patriarchae caeterique praesules totius Orientis (abbreviated Oriens Christ.), published posthumously in 1740.
- Clement (Philippians 4.3)
- Melito of Sardis, c. 180
- Hieromartyr Therapont of Sardis, c. 259
- Heortasius (or Hortasius) (deposed in 359 by the Council of Ariminum)
- Florentin (or Florentius), c. the 448 Synod of Constantinople
- Hieromartyr Euthymius, c. 787—December 26, 824
- John, successor of Euthymius
- Peter, c. 835
- Euthymios, 10th century
Eastern Orthodox Metropolitans
- Andronikos, c. 1283—1315, deposed for being an Arsenite
- Dionysius, c. the 1438 Council of Florence
- Germanos Troianos, c. 1923
- Maximos, 1946–1986
Catholic Titular Archbishops
- Carlo Rossetti, c. 1641
- Invitti, c. 1726
- Binkentios Coressi (October 12, 1814 — March 7, 1835)
- Jean-Marie Mioland (April 2, 1849 — September 29, 1851)
- Pietro Gianelli (April 5, 1858 — March 15, 1875)
- Bernardino del Vago, c. 1879
- Vicenzo Vannutelli (January 23, 1880 — June 23, 1890)
- Salvatore Palmieri (December 14, 1891 — October 1, 1892)
- Giulio Tonti (July 15, 1893 — October 1, 1894)
- Benedetto Lorenzelli (November 30, 1896 — November 14, 1904)
- Giuseppe Aversa (May 25, 1906 — April 12, 1917)
- Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (April 20, 1917 — March 16, 1929)
- Arthur Hinsley (January 9, 1930 — April 1, 1935)
- Antonino Arata (July 11, 1935 — August 25, 1948)
- Giovanni Urbani (November 27, 1948 — April 14, 1955)
- Giuseppe Maria Sensi (May 21, 1955 — May 24, 1976)
- Otto F. A. Meinardus. 1974. "The Christian Remains of the Seven Churches of the Apocalypse." The Biblical Acheaologist. Vol. 37, No. 3. p. 78–80.
- Christian Churches of God. "The Pillars of Philadelphia." No. 283.
- W.H. Buckler and David M. Robinson (eds.). 1932. Sardis, Vol. VII, Part 1, Greek and Latin Inscriptions. Publications of the American Society for the Excavation of Sardis. p. 190.
- The New York Times. 1859, October 26. "Landslide yields Lydian artifacts." p. 3.
- Philip Schaff. 1890. NPNF2-01. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine. New York: Christian Literature Publishing Co.
- Steve Smith, 2005. "Saint Melito of Sardis: Early Church Father, Bishop, and Martyr."
- Ernest Cushing Richardson et al. 1886. The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Translations of the Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D. 325. C. Scribner's Sons, p. 750.
- Jeremy Taylor and Reginald Heber, 1828. The whole works of the Right Rev. Jeremy Taylor, D.D. Lord Bishop of Down, Connor, and Dromore: with A Life of the Author, and a critical examination of his writings by the Right Rev. Reginald Heber, D.D. late Lord Bishop of Calcutta. Reginald Heber. p. 35.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Sardes". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Sozomen et al., Edward Walford (trans.), 1855. The Ecclesiastical History of Sozomen: Comprising a History of the Church from A.D. 324 to A.D. 440. Henry G. Bohn. p. 191.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Thyatira". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Ramsay, W. M. (1900). "Philadelphia". In James Hastings. A Dictionary of the Bible. III. p. 831.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Philadelphia". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Iconoclasm". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Turkey forYou, 2006. "History of Sardis."
- Steven Runciman, 1985. The Great Church in Captivity. Cambridge University Press. p. 34.
- Crane, Howard. 1987. "Some Archaeological Notes on Turkish Sardis." Muqarnas, 4: p. 43–58.
- Vasilii Popov (trans.), 1861. The History of the Council of Florence. J. Masters. p. 154.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Diocese". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- JB Lightfoot. 2003. Saint Paul S Epistle to the Philippians, 1903. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-7514-6. p. 213.
- Bishop Nikolai Velimirovic. 1985. "The Prologue from Ochrid." Birmingham: Lazarica Press. Four Book Edition.
- William Bright. 1903. The Age of the Fathers. Longmans, Green. p. 447.
- von Hefele, Karl Joseph. 1883. A History of the Councils of the Church: From the Original Documents. T. & T. Clark. p. 189.
- Bower, Archibald. 1750. The History of the Popes: From the Foundation of the See of Rome to the Present Time. p. 36.
- Richard Price & Michael Gaddis, The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, Volume 1 (Liverpool University Press, 2005) p6
- Benedictine Monks. 2003. Book of the Saints. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-7269-4. p. 102.
- "December Synaxarion."
- Archibald Bower. 1759. The History of the Popes. p. 336.
- John Meyendorff. 1983. Byzantine Theology: Historical Trends and Doctrinal Themes. Fordham Univ Press. p. 86.
- Finlay, George. 1877. A History of Greece: From Its Conquest by the Romans to the Present Time, B.C. 146 to A.D. 1864. Clarendon Press. p. 377-378.
- Alexander Hugh Hore. 1899. Eighteen Centuries of the Orthodox Church. E. & J.B. Young & co. p. 451.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Florence". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Henry Robinson Luce and Briton Hadden, 1923. "National Affairs." Time.
- E. J. Stormon, 1987. Towards the Healing of Schism. Paulist Press, p. 38.
- Orthodox Archdiocese of Belgium. 2007. "Deceased Hierarchs of the Ecumenical Patriarchate."
- The American Historical Review, 1907. "The Catholic Mission in Maryland, 1641." Vol. 12, No. 3. p. 584–587.
- The Redemptoris. "This Month in Redemptoris History."
- St. Joseph's Industrial School Press, 1977. St. Thomas Christians and the Archdiocese of Verapoly: A Short Historical Study . p. 255.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "College of Saint Bonaventure". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Marchione, Sr. Margherita, 2004. Man of Peace: An Abridged Life of Pope Pius XII. Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-4245-7. p. 11.