Lake Segara Anak

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Segara Anak
Rinjani Caldera.jpg
Location Lombok, Indonesia
Coordinates 8°25′00″S 116°28′00″E / 8.4166°S 116.4666°E / -8.4166; 116.4666Coordinates: 8°25′00″S 116°28′00″E / 8.4166°S 116.4666°E / -8.4166; 116.4666
Lake type crater
Basin countries Indonesia
Surface area 11.3 km2 (4.4 sq mi)
Max. depth 190 m (620 ft)
Water volume 36×10^6 m3 (1.3×10^9 cu ft)
Surface elevation 2,008 m (6,588 ft)

Segara Anak is a crater lake contained within Mount Rinjani on the island of Lombok in Indonesia. The name Segara Anak means child of the sea given to the blue colour of the lake reminiscent of the sea. The lake is heated, so its temperature is 20-22 °C, about 5-7 °C above the expected temperature for a lake in that altitude. At the west end of the lake is the volcanic cone Gunung Baru Jari, giving to the lake a crescent shape. Gas bubbles escape from the lake floor. The lake pH is 7-8.[1]

Water surface of Segara Anak is 2,008 m above mean average sea level (MASL) as the highest caldera lake with an active volcano in the world, while the peak of Gunung Baru Jari is 2,376 m above MASL. Caldera lake area is 7.5x6.0 kilometer square with depth up to 230 meters.[2]

Lake Segara Anak featured in 10,000-rupiah banknote.

Mount Samalas[edit]

Lake Segara Anak is the remnant of a volcanic mountain named Mount Samalas, with an estimated height of 4200 metres. According to a 2013 study Mount Samalas erupted in 1257 AD, throwing as much as 10 cubic miles of rock into the atmosphere, and destroying the mountain. The eruption probably was a 7 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, which would make it one of the largest eruptions of the last several thousand years. The eruption may have been the cause of anomalous weather in immediately following years, and may have even been a triggering factor for the Little Ice Age.[3][4][5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The 2009 eruption of Rinjani volcano (Lombok, Indonesia) Université Libre de Bruxelles (2009)
  2. ^ "Lake Segara Anak: The Charm of Mt. Rinjani's Giant Caldera". November 29, 2016. 
  3. ^ Lavigne, Franck; et al. (2013). "Source of the great A.D. 1257 mystery eruption unveiled, Samalas volcano, Rinjani Volcanic Complex, Indonesia". PNAS. 110 (42): 16742–16747. doi:10.1073/pnas.1307520110. PMC 3801080Freely accessible. PMID 24082132. 
  4. ^ Hamilton, Garry (October 19, 2013). "The lost volcano". New Scientist: 39–41. 
  5. ^ [1] bbc article