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|Notes||Recognized by the Italian Kennel Club|
|Domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)|
The Segugio Maremmano is a dog breed from the coastal plains of Maremma, in Tuscany. It is widely used for hunting wild boar. Tuscan breeders have selected the dogs for hunting ability and their appearances vary.
The breed is recognized by ENCI (the Italian Kennel Club) and since 2018, also by the FCI. It has registered 6,600 dogs as breed founders, and the breed was the third-most numerous breed in Italy in 2009. Due to the large number of founders and the breed's genetic variability, the breed should enjoy relative freedom from genetic inbreeding. Most dog breeds are derived by a very small number of founders and therefore inbreeding tends to be high, resulting in a high incidence of illness due to gene mutations.
Males stand 48 cm to 54 cm at the withers and females 46 cm to 52 cm. They weigh between 13 kg to 23 kg. The coat is smooth or rough and comes in brown, black and tan or brindle.
- enci.it Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
- "Purebred Dog Breeds into the Twenty-First Century". Seppalakennels.com. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Segugio Maremmano, with photos
- Segugio Maremmano breeder, with photos
- Segugio Maremmano Site
- Breeder Site-In Italian
- Italian Kennel Club recognizes the breed
- Segugio Maremmano hunting
- Segugio Maremmano and its qualities-in Italian
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HISTORY OF DOGS
Dogs originally evolved from wolves roughly 15,000 years ago in the Middle East. Swedish geneticist Pontus Skoglund conducted a research project and published a journal called Current Biology, which discusses what he found from an ancient Siberian wolf bone. After this study he discovered dogs evolved much sooner, possibly 27,000-40,000 years ago. Dr. Stephen Zawistowski is a scientist to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) and has thought to believe women could have been the first to domesticate wolves. It is thought to believe that it takes over five generations in order to fully domesticate a canine which was discovered through an experiment conducted in the late 1950s by Dmitri Belyaev. Another interesting factor relating to dogs is the scientific evidence that shows the connection between humans and dogs. Studies have shown that when individuals gaze into one another's eyes that they bond emotionally and create a hormone named oxytocin. A study conducted by a researcher demonstrated that when people look into a dogs eyes the exact hormone in created in both humans and dogs.
BREEDS OF DOGS
According to the American Kennel Club (AKC) as of 2019, the top five dog breeds Americans have is the Labrador Retriever, German Shepard, Golden Retriever, French bulldog, American bulldog. In the world there are approximately 340 breeds recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI), the global classifying system of dog breeds, otherwise referenced as the World Canine Organization. However, the qualities for breed recognition differ from country to country – the American Kennel Club (AKC) currently identifies only 167 breeds.
BIOLOGY OF DOGS
Throughout the years and breeds certain dogs carry different traits, sizes, weight, and structure. However, generally speaking all dogs are considered mammals and a carnivore species. Dogs are bred with a strong sense of endurance and powerful muscles.
BEHAVIOR OF DOGS
Dogs behavior is a constantly evolving factor due to a canines interactions with humans. Over the years dogs have become significantly more domesticated and viewed as "family members" to humans. Because of this dogs are one of the smartest species and on some levels able to communicate with humans through their behaviors. Dogs are also very intelligent, their intelligence can be described as receiving information, retaining it, and then applying it to a certain situation. Dogs have the capability of understanding body language, tones, and gestures from humans, and have a great memory skillset. Their communication behavior varies on if it is a dog or human. If it is a human a dog is able to read facial expressions, body gestures, tone, hand gestures, noises, scent, and eye contact. In comparison to if it is a dog they have a more natural communication style such as sniffing each other, barking, and one acting as a dominant while the other is a submissive behavior.
Similar to a human dogs have a sense of sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing.
A canines health will vary by a case by case situation. However, all dogs do share some similar health traits such as allergies, and the environment. Certain breeds have a history of bad allergies or medical conditions such as hip/joint problems, heart problems, or bloat which is very common in larger breeds and occurs when a dogs stomach flips. Also specific plants, food, and medications dogs are allergic too or they can be poisonous and deadly to the dog. Some of these items are aloe vera, chocolate, onion, raisins, grapes, and other items can be deadly to dogs such as balloons. Also, dogs are common carriers of certain parasites such as fleas, ticks, hookworm, ringworm, and heart worm. There are also other conditions that dogs can contract similar to humans such as cancer or heart disease.
SPAYING AND NEUTERING
It is very common now for all animal shelters to only allow dogs to be adopted once they have been spayed or neutered. One of the most common reasons why this occurs is due to over population in dogs. Spaying is when a female dogs reproductive organs are taken out, and neutering is when males reproductive organs are removed. However, there are also health concerns related to this topic, and by spaying and neutering it can increase a dogs life span if done at the correct age. It has also been scientifically proven to help reduce sexual behaviors and a dogs sex drive.
In a recent study it has shown to be approximately 980 million in 2019, which was a global study. However most research on animals has been conducted on domesticated dogs living in a family focused home. In many places, they host dog meat markets or having pets in unheard of so many dogs are strays living and trying to survive on the streets.
Many dogs are on a carnivorous diet meaning they strictly eat raw meats. How most dogs are considered omnivores and have a balanced diet of proteins as well as vegetables. So of the most common ingredients found in dogs food is chicken, beef, lamb, steak, green beans, carrots, turkey, grain, wheat and soy. Some dogs are on certain diets due to health reasons therefore the vet with prescribe a specific food regiment.
HOW THEY RELATE TO HUMANS
Dogs serve to humans in a variety of ways some of these ways are work, emotional support, service animals, pets, food, or for money through competitions. The three most commons ways in the US are pets, emotional support, and service animals. The way dogs have been viewed in the most recent years has changed. As time moves forward people are beginning to view pets as people and treat them like humans, such as putting them in strollers, sending them to daycares, and not wanting human children because a dog feels like enough. Dogs can also serve as a mental health benefit to humans, studies have proved that people who own a dog have less mental stress and depression. Dogs intelligence is also used for work purposes such as police K9's who can sniff out bombs, drugs, or people. They also serve as service animals to people who suffer from medical conditions such as PTSD, blind, deaf, severely depressed, or social anxiety. In other developing countries dogs are used for food. In other areas it is common to find dog meat markets where people view dogs as Americans view chicken or turkeys. Also, dogs are commonly used in movies in advertisements in America.
CHARACTERISTICS OF DOGS
Dogs will all vary by size, weight, coloring, coat types, and breeds. However, the smallest dog is a Chihuahua, while the largest breed is Old English Mastiff, and the tallest breed is the Great Dane. Many dogs coats depend on the breed such as a husky compared to an American Pit Bull Terrier. The husky will have a thick double coat made for harsh weather, while the Pit Bull with have a more fine and coarse single layer coat type. Also a dogs tail can differ by breeds but they all share the same purpose, the tail is how a dog communicates their mental emotion state. When a dog is cowering with their tail tucked between their legs they are typically scared whereas when it is wagging very fast the dog is happy.
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