Selberg integral

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In mathematics the Selberg integral is a generalization of Euler beta function to n dimensions introduced by Atle Selberg (1944).

Selberg's integral formula[edit]

S_{n} (\alpha, \beta, \gamma) & =
\int_0^1 \cdots \int_0^1 \prod_{i=1}^n t_i^{\alpha-1}(1-t_i)^{\beta-1}
\prod_{1 \le i < j \le n} |t_i - t_j |^{2 \gamma}\,dt_1 \cdots dt_n \\

 & = \prod_{j = 0}^{n-1} 
\frac {\Gamma(\alpha + j \gamma) \Gamma(\beta + j \gamma) \Gamma (1 + (j+1)\gamma)} 
{\Gamma(\alpha + \beta + (n+j-1)\gamma) \Gamma(1+\gamma)}

Selberg's formula implies Dixon's identity for well poised hypergeometric series, and some special cases of Dyson's conjecture.

Aomoto's integral formula[edit]

Aomoto (1987) proved a slightly more general integral formula:

\int_0^1 \cdots \int_0^1 \left(\prod_{i=1}^k t_i\right)\prod_{i=1}^n t_i^{\alpha-1}(1-t_i)^{\beta-1}
\prod_{1 \le i < j \le n} |t_i - t_j |^{2 \gamma}\,dt_1 \cdots dt_n
S_n(\alpha,\beta,\gamma) \prod_{j=1}^k\frac{\alpha+(n-j)\gamma}{\alpha+\beta+(2n-j-1)\gamma}.

Mehta's integral[edit]

Mehta's integral is

\frac{1}{(2\pi)^{n/2}}\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \cdots \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \prod_{i=1}^n e^{-t_i^2/2}
\prod_{1 \le i < j \le n} |t_i - t_j |^{2 \gamma}\,dt_1 \cdots dt_n.

It is the partition function for a gas of point charges moving on a line that are attracted to the origin (Mehta 2004). Its value can be deduced from that of the Selberg integral, and is


This was conjectured by Mehta & Dyson (1963), who were unaware of Selberg's earlier work.

Macdonald's integral[edit]

Macdonald (1982) conjectured the following extension of Mehta's integral to all finite root systems, Mehta's original case corresponding to the An−1 root system.

\frac{1}{(2\pi)^{n/2}}\int\cdots\int \left|\prod_r\frac{2(x,r)}{(r,r)}\right|^{\gamma}e^{-(x_1^2+\cdots+x_n^2)/2}dx_1\cdots dx_n 

The product is over the roots r of the roots system and the numbers dj are the degrees of the generators of the ring of invariants of the reflection group. Opdam (1989) gave a uniform proof for all crystallographic reflection groups. Several years later he proved it in full generality (Opdam (1993)), making use of computer-aided calculations by Garvan.