The concept self-confidence as commonly used is self-assurance in one's personal judgment, ability, power, etc. One increases self-confidence from experiences of having mastered particular activities. It is a positive belief that in the future one can generally accomplish what one wishes to do. Self-confidence is not the same as self-esteem, which is an evaluation of one’s own worth, whereas self-confidence is more specifically trust in one’s ability to achieve some goal, which one meta-analysis suggested is similar to generalization of self-efficacy. Abraham Maslow and many others after him have emphasized the need to distinguish between self-confidence as a generalized personality characteristic, and self-confidence with respect to a specific task, ability or challenge (i.e. self-efficacy). Self-confidence typically refers to general self-confidence. This is different from self-efficacy, which psychologist Albert Bandura has defined as a “belief in one’s ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task and therefore is the term that more accurately refers to specific self-confidence. Psychologists have long noted that a person can possess self-confidence that he or she can complete a specific task (self-efficacy) (e.g. cook a good meal or write a good novel) even though they may lack general self-confidence, or conversely be self-confident though they lack the self-efficacy to achieve a particular task (e.g. write a novel). These two types of self-confidence are, however, correlated with each other, and for this reason can be easily conflated.
- 1 History
- 2 Theories and correlations with other variables and factors
- 3 Measures
- 4 Various systemic-level theories and concepts related to self-confidence
- 5 Wheel of Wellness
- 6 Implicit vs. explicit
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Ideas about the causes and effects of self-confidence have changed throughout history.
Before the 19th century, self-confidence first appeared in English language publications of writings describing characteristics of a sacrilegious religious attitude toward God the character of the British empire, and the culture of colonial-era American society where it seemed to connote arrogance and be a negative attribute.
In 1890, the philosopher William James in his Principles of Psychology wrote, “Believe what is in the line of your needs, for only by such belief is the need fulled ... Have faith that you can successfully make it, and your feet are nerved to its accomplishment,” expressing how self-confidence could be a virtue. That same year, Dr. Frederick Needham in his presidential address to the opening of the British Medical Journal’s Section of Psychology praised a progressive new architecture of an asylum accommodation for insane patients as increasing their self-confidence by offering them greater “liberty of action, extended exercise, and occupation, thus generating self-confidence and becoming, not only excellent tests of the sanity of the patient, but operating powerfully in promoting recovery.” In doing so, he seemed to early on suggest that self-confidence may bear a scientific relation to mental health.
With the arrival of World War I, psychologists praised self-confidence as greatly decreasing nervous tension, allaying fear, and ridding the battlefield of terror; they argued that soldiers who cultivated a strong and healthy body would also acquire greater self-confidence while fighting. At the height of the Temperance social reform movement of the 1920s, psychologists associated self-confidence in men with remaining at home and taking care of the family when they were not working. During the Great Depression, Philip Eisenberg and Paul Lazerfeld noted how a sudden negative change in one’s circumstances, especially a loss of a job, could lead to decreased self-confidence, but more commonly if the jobless person believes the fault of his unemployment is his. They also noted how if individuals do not have a job long enough, they became apathetic and lost all self-confidence.
In 1943, Abraham Maslow in his paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” argued that an individual only was motivated to acquire self-confidence (one component of “esteem”) after he or she had achieved what they needed for physiological survival, safety, and love and belonging. He claimed that satisfaction of self-esteem led to feelings of self-confidence that, once attained, led to a desire for “self-actualization." As material standards of most people rapidly rose in developed countries after World War II and fulfilled their material needs, a plethora of widely cited academic research about-confidence and many related concepts like self-esteem and self-efficacy emerged.
Theories and correlations with other variables and factors
Self-confidence as an intra-psychological variable
Social psychologists have found self-confidence to be correlated with other psychological variables within individuals, including saving money, how individuals exercise influence over others, and being a responsible student. Marketing researchers have found that general self-confidence of a person is negatively correlated with their level of anxiety.
Some studies suggest various factors within and beyond an individual's control that affect their self-confidence. Hippies and Trivers propose that people will deceive themselves about their own positive qualities and negative qualities of others so that they can display greater self-confidence than they might otherwise feel, thereby enabling them to advance socially and materially. Others have found that new information about an individual’s performance interacts with an individual’s prior self-confidence about their ability to perform. If that particular information is negative feedback, this may interact with a negative affective state (low self-confidence) causing the individual to become demoralized, which in turn induces a self-defeating attitude that increases the likelihood of failure in the future more than if they did not lack self-confidence. On the other hand, some also find that self-confidence increases a person's general well-being and one's motivation and therefore often performance. It also increases one's ability to deal with stress and mental health.
A meta-analysis of 12 articles found that generally when individuals attribute their success to a stable cause (a matter under their control) they are less likely to be confident about being successful in the future. If an individual attributes their failure to an unstable cause (a factor beyond their control, like a sudden and unexpected storm) they are less likely to be confident about succeeding in the future. Therefore, if an individual believes he/she and/or others failed to achieve a goal (e.g. give up smoking) because of a factor that was beyond their control, he or she is more likely to be more self-confident that he or she can achieve the goal in the future. Whether a person in making a decision seeks out additional sources of information depends on their level of self-confidence specific to that area. As the complexity of a decision increases, a person is more likely to be influenced by another person and seek out additional information. However, people can also be relatively self-confident about what they believe if they consult sources of information that agree with their world views (e.g. New York Times for liberals, Fox News for conservatives), even if they do not know what will happen tomorrow. Several psychologists suggest that people who are self-confident are more willing to examine evidence that both supports and contradicts their attitudes. Meanwhile, people who are less self-confident about their perspective and are more defensive about them may prefer proattitudinal information over materials that challenge their perspectives. (see also Byrne, 1961; Olson & Zanna, 1982b; for related views in other domains, see Tesser, 2001).
An individual’s self-confidence can vary in different environments, such as at home or in school, and with respect to different types of relationships and situations. In relation to general society, some have found that the more self-confident an individual is, the less likely they are to conform to the judgments of others. Leon Festinger found that self-confidence in an individual’s ability may only rise or fall where that individual is able to compare themselves to others who are roughly similar in a competitive environment. Furthermore, when individuals with low self-confidence receive feedback from others, they are averse to receiving information about their relative ability and negative informative feedback, and not averse to receiving positive feedback.
People with high self-confidence can easily impress others, as others perceive them as more knowledgeable and more likely to make correct judgments, despite the fact that often a negative correlation is sometimes found between the level of their self-confidence and accuracy of their claims. When people are uncertain and unknowledgeable about a topic, they are more likely to believe the testimony, and follow the advice of those that seem self-confident. However, expert psychological testimony on the factors that influence eyewitness memory appears to reduce juror reliance on self-confidence.
People are more likely to choose leaders with greater self-confidence than those with less self-confidence. Heterosexual men who exhibit greater self-confidence than other men are more likely to attract single and partnered women. Salespeople who are high in self-confidence are more likely to set higher goals for themselves and therefore more likely to stay employed. yield higher revenues and customer service satisfaction In relation to leadership, leaders with high self-confidence are more likely to influence others through persuasion rather than coercive means. Individuals low in power and thus in self-confidence are more likely to use coercive methods of influence and to become personally involved while those low in self-confidence are more likely to refer problem to someone else or resort to bureaucratic procedures to influence others (e.g. appeal to organizational policies or regulations). Others suggest that self-confidence does not affect style of leadership but is only correlated with years of supervisory experience and self-perceptions of power.
Variation between different categorical groups
Social scientists have found ways in which self-confidence seems to operate differently within various groups in society.
In children, self-confidence emerges differently than adults. For example, Fenton suggested that only children as a group are more self-confident than other children. Zimmerman claimed that if children are self-confident they can learn they are more likely to sacrifice immediate recreational time for possible rewards in the future. enhancing their self-regulative capability. By adolescence, youth that have little contact with friends tend to have low self-confidence. Successful performance of children in music also increases feelings of self-confidence, increasing motivation for study.
Many studies focus on students in school. In general, students who perform well have increased confidence which likely in turn encourages students to take greater responsibility to successfully complete tasks. Students who perform better receive more positive evaluations report and greater self-confidence. Low achieving students report less confidence and high performing students report higher self-confidence. Teachers can greatly affect the self-confidence of their students depending on how they treat them. In particular, Steele and Aronson established that black students perform more poorly on exams (relative to white students) if they must reveal their racial identities before the exam, a phenomenon known as “stereotype threat.” Keller and Dauenheimer find a similar phenomena in relation to female student’s performance (relative to male student's) on math tests  Sociologists of education Zhou and Lee have observed the reverse phenomena occurring amongst Asian-Americans, whose confidence becomes tied up in expectations that they will succeed by both parents and teachers and who claim others perceive them as excelling academically more than they in fact are.
In one study of UCLA students, males (compared to females) and adolescents with more siblings (compared to those with less) were more self-confident. Individuals who were self-confident specifically in the academic domain were more likely to be happy but higher general self-confidence was not correlated with happiness. With greater anxiety, shyness and depression, emotionally vulnerable students feel more lonely due to a lack of general self-confidence. Another study of first year college students found men to be much more self-confident than women in athletic and academic activities. In regards to inter-ethnic interaction and language learning, studies show that those who engage more with people of a different ethnicity and language become more self-confident in interacting with them.
Men versus women
In the aftermath of the first wave of feminism and women’s role in the labor force during the World War, Maslow argued that some women who possessed a more “dominant” personality were more self-confident and therefore would aspire to and achieve more intellectually than those that had a less “dominant” personality—even if they had the same level of intelligence as the “less dominant” women. However, Phillip Eisenberg later found the same dynamic among men.
Another common finding is that males who have low generalized self-confidence are more easily persuaded than males of high generalized self-confidence. Some have found that women who are either high or low in general self-confidence are more likely to be persuaded to change their opinion than women with medium self-confidence. However, when specific high confidence (self-efficacy) is high, generalized confidence plays less of a role in affecting their ability to carry out the task. Research finds that females report self-confidence levels in supervising subordinates proportionate to their experience level, while males report being able to supervise subordinates well regardless of experience. Women tend to respond less to negative feedback and be more averse to negative feedback than men. Barber and Odean find that male common stock investors trade 45% more than their female counterparts, which they attribute greater self-confidence (though also recklessness) of men, reducing men's net returns by 2.65 percentage points per year versus women's 1.72 percentage points. Niederle and Westerlund found that men are much more competitive and obtain higher compensation than women and that this difference is due to differences in self-confidence, while risk and feedback-aversion play a negligible role. Some scholars partly attribute the fact to women being less likely to persist in engineering college than men to women's diminished sense of self-confidence.
Evidence also has suggested that women who are more self-confident may received high performance evaluations but not be as well liked as men that engage in the same behavior. However confident women were considered a better job candidates than both men and women who behaved modestly This may be related to gender roles, as a study found that after women who viewed commercials with women in traditional gender roles, they appeared less self-confident in giving a speech than after viewing commercials with women taking on more masculine roles. Such self-confidence may also be related to body image, as one study found a sample of overweight people in Australia and the US are less self-confident about their body’s performance than people of average weight, and the difference is even greater for women than for men. Others have found that if a baby child is separated from their mother at birth the mother is less self-confident in their ability to raise that child than those mothers who are not separated from their children, even if the two mothers did not differ much in their care-taking skills. Furthermore, women who initially had low self-confidence are likely to experience a larger drop of self-confidence after separation from their children than women with relatively higher self-confidence.
Self-confidence in different cultures
Some have suggested that self-confidence is more adaptive in cultures where people are not very concerned about maintaining how harmonious relationships. But in cultures that value positive feelings and self-confidence less, maintenance of smooth interpersonal relationships are more important, and therefore self-criticism and a concern to save face is more adaptive. For example, Suh et al. (1998) argue that East Asians are not as concerned as maintaining self-confidence as Americans and many even find Asians perform better when they lack confidence.
Many sports psychologists have noted the importance of self-confidence in winning athletic competitions. Amongst athletes, gymnasts who tend to talk to themselves in an instructional format tended to be more self-confident than gymnasts that did not. Researchers have found that self-confidence is also one of the most influential factors in how well an athlete performs in a competition. In particular, "robust self-confidence beliefs" are correlated with aspects of "mental toughness," or the ability to cope better than your opponents with many demands and remain determined, focused and in control under pressure. In particular, Bull et al. (2005) make the distinction between "robust confidence" which leads to tough thinking, and "resilient confidence" which involves over-coming self doubts and maintaining self-focus and generates "tough thinking." These traits enable athletes to "bounce back from adversity." When athletes confront stress while playing sports, their self-confidence decreases. However feedback from their team members in the form of emotional and informational support reduces the extent to which stresses in sports reduces their self-confidence. At high levels of support, performance related stress does not affect self-confidence.
One of the earliest measures of self-confidence used a 12-point scale centered on zero, ranging from a minimum score characterizing someone who is “timid and self-distrustful, Shy, never makes decisions, self effacing” to an upper extreme score representing someone who is “able to make decisions, absolutely confident and sure of his own decisions and opinions.”
Some have measured self-confidence as a simple construct divided into affective and cognitive components: anxiety as an affective aspect and self-evaluations of proficiency as a cognitive component.
The more context-based Personal Evaluation Inventory (PEI), developed by Shrauger (1995), measures specific self-esteem and self-confidence in different aspects (speaking in public spaces, academic performance, physical appearance, romantic relationships, social interactions, athletic ability, and general self-confidence score. Other surveys have also measured self-confidence in a similar way by evoking examples of more concrete activities (e.g. making new friends, keeping up with course demands, managing time wisely, etc.). The Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) measures on a scale of 1 to 4 how confident athletes feel about winning an upcoming match. Likewise, the Trait Robustness of Sports-Confidence Inventory (TROSCI) requires respondents to provide numerical answers on a nine-point scale answering such questions about how much one's self-confidence goes up and down, and how sensitive one's self-confidence is to performance and negative feedback.
Others, skeptical about the reliability of such self-report indices, have measured self-confidence by having examiners assess non-verbal cues of subjects, measuring on a scale of 1 to 5 whether the individual
1) maintains frequent eye contact or almost completely avoids eye contact,
2) engages in little or no fidgeting, or, a lot of fidgeting,
3) seldom or frequently uses self-comforting gestures (e.g. stroking hair or chin, arms around self),
4) sits up straight facing the experimenter, or, sits hunched over or rigidly without facing the experimenter,
5) has a natural facial expression, or, grimaces,
6) does not twiddle hands, or, frequently twiddles something in their hand, or,
7) uses body and hand gestures to emphasize a point, or, never uses hand or body gestures to emphasize a point or makes inappropriate gestures.
Various systemic theories exist that are related to self-confidence.
Wheel of Wellness
The Wheel of Wellness was the first theoretical model of Wellness based in counseling theory. It is a model based on Adler's individual psychology and cross-disciplinary research on characteristics of healthy people who live longer and with a higher quality of life. The Wheel of Wellness includes five life tasks that relate to each other: spirituality, self-direction, work and leisure, friendship, and love. There are 15 subtasks of self-direction areas: sense of worth, sense of control, realistic beliefs, emotional awareness and coping, problem solving and creativity, sense of humor, nutrition, exercise, self-care, stress management, gender identity, and cultural identity. There are also five second-order factors, the Creative Self, Coping Self, Social Self, Essential Self, and Physical Self, which allow exploration of the meaning of wellness within the total self. In order to achieve a high self-esteem, it is essential to focus on identifying strengths, positive assets, and resources related to each component of the Wellness model and using these strengths to cope with life challenges.
Implicit vs. explicit
Implicit can be defined as something that is implied or understood though not directly expressed. Explicit is defined as something that is fully and clearly expressed; leaving nothing implied. Implicitly measured self-esteem has been found to be weakly correlated with explicitly measured self-esteem. This leads some critics to assume that explicit and implicit self-confidence are two completely different types of self-esteem. Therefore, this has drawn the conclusion that one will either have a distinct, unconscious self-esteem OR they will consciously misrepresent how they feel about themselves. Recent studies have shown that implicit self-esteem doesn't particularly tap into the unconscious, rather that people consciously overreport their levels of self-esteem. Another possibility is that implicit measurement may be assessing a different aspect of conscious self-esteem altogether. Inaccurate self-evaluation is commonly observed in healthy populations. In the extreme, large differences between oneʼs self-perception and oneʼs actual behavior is a hallmark of a number of disorders that have important implications for understanding treatment seeking and compliance.
- Snyder, C. R.; Lopez, Shane J. (2009-01-01). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195187243.
- Zellner, M. (1970). "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 15 (1): 87–93.
- Judge, Timothy A.; Erez, Amir; Bono, Joyce E.; Thoresen, Carl J. (2002-09-01). "Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct?". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 83 (3): 693–710. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.113. ISSN 1939-1315.
- Luszczynska, A. and Schwarzer, R. (2005). Social cognitive theory. In M. Conner & P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behaviour (2nd ed. rev., pp. 127-169). Buckingham, England: Open University Press.
- Bauer, Raymond (1964-05-01). "The obstinate audience: The influence process from the point of view of social communication.". American Psychologist. 19 (5): 319–328. doi:10.1037/h0042851. ISSN 1935-990X.
- Edwards, J., & Wesley, J. (1742). Some Thoughts Concerning the present Revival of Religion in New-England. S. Kneeland and T. Green.
- Freiburg, R (1742). This Vicissitude of Motion and Rest, Which We Call Life,. The Spectator.
- Tocqueville, Alexis de (1899-01-01). Democracy in America: Volume II. Washington Square Press.
- Needham, Frederick (1890-08-09). "An Address Delivered at the Opening of the Section of Psychology". British Medical Journal. 2 (1545): 325–330. ISSN 0007-1447. PMC . PMID 20753102.
- Bird, Charles (1917-01-01). "From Home to the Charge: A Psychological Study of the Soldier". The American Journal of Psychology. 28 (3): 315–348. doi:10.2307/1413607. JSTOR 1413607.
- Wheeler, Mary P. (1918-01-01). "Alcohol and Social Case Work". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 77: 154–159. JSTOR 1014456.
- Eisenberg, P.; Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1938-06-01). "The psychological effects of unemployment.". Psychological Bulletin. 35 (6): 358–390. doi:10.1037/h0063426. ISSN 1939-1455.
- Maslow, A. H. (1943-07-01). "A theory of human motivation.". Psychological Review. 50 (4): 370–396. doi:10.1037/h0054346. ISSN 1939-1471.
- Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995-01-01). "Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes.". Psychological Review. 102 (1): 4. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.102.1.4. ISSN 1939-1471.
- Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean (2005-01-01). Agarwal, Bina; Vercelli, Alessandro, eds. Psychology, Rationality and Economic Behaviour. International Economic Association Series. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 19–57. doi:10.1057/9780230522343_2#page-1. ISBN 9781349521449.
- Bandura, Albert (1997-02-15). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. Macmillan. ISBN 9780716728504.
- Baumeister, Roy F.; Campbell, Jennifer D.; Krueger, Joachim I.; Vohs, Kathleen D. (2003-05-01). "Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles?". Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 4 (1): 1–44. doi:10.1111/1529-1006.01431. ISSN 1529-1006. PMID 26151640.
- Thorndike, Edward L. (1920-01-01). "Psychological Notes on the Motives for Thrift". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 87: 212–218. JSTOR 1014401.
- Mowday, Richard T. (1979-12-01). "Leader Characteristics, Self-Confidence, and Methods of Upward Influence in Organizational Decision Situations". Academy of Management Journal. 22 (4): 709–725. doi:10.2307/255810. ISSN 0001-4273.
- Gough, Harrison G.; McClosky, Herbert; Meehl, Paul E. (1952-01-01). "A personality scale for social responsibility.". The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 47 (1): 73–80. doi:10.1037/h0062924. ISSN 0096-851X.
- Locander, William B.; Hermann, Peter W. (1979-01-01). "The Effect of Self-Confidence and Anxiety on Information Seeking in Consumer Risk Reduction". Journal of Marketing Research. 16 (2): 268–274. doi:10.2307/3150690. JSTOR 3150690.
- Hippel, William von; Trivers, Robert (2011-02-01). "The evolution and psychology of self-deception". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 34 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1017/S0140525X10001354. ISSN 1469-1825.
- Cervone, Daniel; Kopp, Deborah A.; Schaumann, Linda; Scott, Walter D. (1994-09-01). "Mood, self-efficacy, and performance standards: Lower moods induce higher standards for performance.". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 67 (3): 499–512. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1689. ISSN 1939-1315.
- Wright, J. C, & Mischel, W. (1982). "The influence of affect on cognitive social learning person variables.". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 43: 901–914.
- Akerlof, G. A., & Dickens, W. T. (1972). "The Economic Consequences of Cognitive Dissonance". American Economic Review. 72 (3): 307–319.
- Caplin, A., & Leahy, J. (2001). "Psychological expected utility theory and anticipatory feelings". Quarterly Journal of economics: 55–79. JSTOR 2696443.
- Bénabou, R., & Tirole, J. (2005). "Self-confidence and personal motivation.". Psychology, Rationality and Economic Behaviour: 19–57.
- Compte, O., & Postlewaite, A., Confidence-enhanced performance. (2004). "Confidence-enhanced performance". The American Economic Review. 94 (5): 1536–1557.
- Hobfoll, Stevan E. (1988-01-01). The Ecology of Stress. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780891168454.
- Argyle, Michael (2013-04-15). The Social Psychology of Everyday Life. Routledge. ISBN 9781134961733.
- Weiner, Bernard (1985). "An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion". Psychological Review. 92 (4): 548–573.
- Eiser, J. Richard; Sutton, Stephen R. (1977-01-01). "Smoking as a subjectively rational choice". Addictive Behaviors. 2 (2): 129–134. doi:10.1016/0306-4603(77)90030-2.
- Frey, Dieter (1986-01-01). Berkowitz, Leonard, ed. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. 19. Academic Press. pp. 41–80. doi:10.1016/s0065-2601(08)60212-9.
- Albarracín, D., & Mitchell, A. L. (2004). "The role of defensive confidence in preference for proattitudinal information: How believing that one is strong can sometimes be a defensive weakness.". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 30 (12): 1565–1584. PMC .
- Byrne, Donn (1961-09-01). "The repression-sensitization scale: rationale, reliability, and validity1". Journal of Personality. 29 (3): 334–349. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1961.tb01666.x. ISSN 1467-6494.
- Albarracín, Dolores; Mitchell, Amy L. (2004-12-01). "The Role of Defensive Confidence in Preference for Proattitudinal Information: How Believing That One Is Strong Can Sometimes Be a Defensive Weakness". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 30 (12): 1565–1584. doi:10.1177/0146167204271180. ISSN 0146-1672. PMC . PMID 15536240.
- Reis, Harry T. (2008-11-01). "Reinvigorating the Concept of Situation in Social Psychology". Personality and Social Psychology Review. 12 (4): 311–329. doi:10.1177/1088868308321721. ISSN 1088-8683. PMID 18812499.
- Deutsch, Morton; Gerard, Harold B. (1955). "A study of normative and informational social influences upon individual judgment.". The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 51 (3): 629–636.
- Festinger, L. (1954). "A theory of social comparison processes.". Human Relations. 7: 117–140.
- Mobius, M. M., Niederle, M., Niehaus, P., & Rosenblat, T. S. (2011). "Managing self-confidence: Theory and experimental evidence" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. No. w17014.
- Price, Paul C.; Stone, Eric R. (2004-01-01). "Intuitive evaluation of likelihood judgment producers: evidence for a confidence heuristic". Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 17 (1): 39–57. doi:10.1002/bdm.460. ISSN 1099-0771.
- Slovenko, R. (1999). "Testifying with confidence.". Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online,. 27 (1): 127–131.
- Penrod, Steven; Cutler, Brian. "Witness confidence and witness accuracy: Assessing their forensic relation.". Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. 1 (4): 817–845. doi:10.1037/1076-8922.214.171.1247.
- Zarnoth, P., & Sniezek, J. A. (1997). "The social influence of confidence in group decision making.". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 33 (4): 345–366.
- Conger, Jay A.; Kanungo, Rabindra N. (1994-01-01). "Charismatic Leadership in Organizations: Perceived Behavioral Attributes and Their Measurement". Journal of Organizational Behavior. 15 (5): 439–452. JSTOR 2488215.
- Shamir, Boas; House, Robert J.; Arthur, Michael B. (1993-01-01). "The Motivational Effects of Charismatic Leadership: A Self-Concept Based Theory". Organization Science. 4 (4): 577–594. JSTOR 2635081.
- Buss, D. M. (2009). "The great struggles of life: Darwin and the emergence of evolutionary psychology." (PDF). American Psychologist. 64 (2): 140.
- Schmitt, D. P., & Buss, D. M. (2001). "Human mate poaching: Tactics and temptations for infiltrating existing mateships." (PDF). Journal of personality and social psychology. 80 (6): 894.
- Brown, S. P., Cron, W. L., & Slocum Jr, J. W. (1988). "Effects of trait competitiveness and perceived intraorganizational competition on salesperson goal setting and performance." (PDF). The Journal of Marketing: 88–98.
- Jong, Ad de; Ruyter, Ko de; Wetzels, Martin. "Linking employee confidence to performance: A study of self-managing service teams". Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 34 (4): 576. doi:10.1177/0092070306287126. ISSN 0092-0703.
- Westbrook, R. A. (1980). "Intrapersonal affective influences on consumer satisfaction with products." (PDF). Journal of consumer research. 7 (1,): 49–54.
- Gamson, W. (1968). Power and Discontent. Homewood, Ill.: Dorsey.
- Kanter, R (1977). Men and women in the corporation. New York: Basic Books.
- Kipnis, D., & Lane, W. (1962). "Self-confidence and leadership". Journal of Applied Psychology. 46: 291–295.
- Goodstadt, B., & Kipnis, D (1970). "Situational influence on the use of power.". Journal of Applied Psychology. 54: 201–207.
- Fenton, Norman. "The Only Child". The Pedagogical Seminary and Journal of Genetic Psychology. 35 (4): 546–556. doi:10.1080/08856559.1928.10532171.
- Zimmerman, Barry J. (1990-01-01). "Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: An Overview". Educational Psychologist. 25 (1): 3–17. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep2501_2. ISSN 0046-1520.
- Waddell, Kathleen J. (1984-03-01). "The self-concept and social adaptation of hyperactive children in adolescence". Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 13 (1): 50–55. doi:10.1080/15374418409533169. ISSN 0047-228X.
- Clift, S., Hancox, G., Staricoff, R., & Whitmore, C. (2008). "Singing and health: A systematic mapping and review of non-clinical research.". Sidney de Haan Research Centre for Arts and Health: Canterbury Christ Church University.
- Hallam, Susan (2010-08-01). "The power of music: Its impact on the intellectual, social and personal development of children and young people". International Journal of Music Education. 28 (3): 269–289. doi:10.1177/0255761410370658. ISSN 0255-7614.
- Zimmerman, Barry J.; Kitsantas, Anastasia (2005-10-01). "Homework practices and academic achievement: The mediating role of self-efficacy and perceived responsibility beliefs". Contemporary Educational Psychology. 30 (4): 397–417. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2005.05.003.
- Pajares, Frank; Johnson, Margaret J. (1996-04-01). "Self-efficacy beliefs and the writing performance of entering high school students". Psychology in the Schools. 33 (2): 163–175. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6807(199604)33:23.0.CO;2-C. ISSN 1520-6807.
- Zusho, Akane; Pintrich, Paul R.; Coppola, Brian (2003-09-01). "Skill and will: The role of motivation and cognition in the learning of college chemistry". International Journal of Science Education. 25 (9): 1081–1094. doi:10.1080/0950069032000052207. ISSN 0950-0693.
- Smith, Eliot R.; Mackie, Diane M. (2007-01-01). Social Psychology. Psychology Press. ISBN 9781841694085.
- Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). "Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.". Journal of personality and social psychology. 69 (5): 797.
- Keller, Johannes; Dauenheimer, Dirk (2003-03-01). "Stereotype Threat in the Classroom: Dejection Mediates the Disrupting Threat Effect on Women's Math Performance". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 29 (3): 371–381. doi:10.1177/0146167202250218. ISSN 0146-1672. PMID 15273014.
- Lee, J., & Zhou, M. (2014). "From unassimilable to exceptional: The rise of Asian Americans and "Stereotype Promise "". New Diversities. 16 (1): 7–22.
- CHENG, HELEN; FURNHAM, ADRIAN (2002-06-01). "Personality, peer relations, and self-confidence as predictors of happiness and loneliness". Journal of Adolescence. 25 (3): 327–339. doi:10.1006/jado.2002.0475.
- Lopez, F. G., & Gormley, B. (2002). "Stability and change in adult attachment style over the first-year college transition: Relations to self-confidence, coping, and distress patterns.". Journal of Counseling Psychology. 45 (3): 355.
- Noels, Kimberly A.; Pon, Gordon; Clement, Richard (1996-09-01). "Language, Identity, and Adjustment The Role of Linguistic Self-Confidence in the Acculturation Process". Journal of Language and Social Psychology. 15 (3): 246–264. doi:10.1177/0261927X960153003. ISSN 0261-927X.
- Maslow, A. H. "Dominance, Personality, and Social Behavior in Women". The Journal of Social Psychology. 10 (1): 3–39. doi:10.1080/00224545.1939.9713343.
- Henle, Mary (1961-01-01). Documents of Gestalt Psychology. University of California Press.
- Berkowitz, Leonard; Lundy, Richard M. (1957-03-01). "Personality Characteristics Related to Susceptibility to Influence by Peers or Authority Figures". Journal of Personality. 25 (3): 306–316. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1957.tb01529.x. ISSN 1467-6494.
- Janis, Irving L (1954-06-01). "Personality Correlates of Susceptibility To Persuasion1". Journal of Personality. 22 (4): 504–518. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1954.tb01870.x. ISSN 1467-6494.
- Cox, Donald F.; Bauer, Raymond A. (1964-01-01). "Self-Confidence and Persuasibility in Women". The Public Opinion Quarterly. 28 (3): 453–466. JSTOR 2747017.
- Instone, D., Major, B., & Bunker, B. B. (1983). "Gender, self confidence, and social influence strategies: An organizational simulation.". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 44 (2): 322.
- Barber, B. M., & Odean, T. (2001). [Quarterly journal of Economics "Boys will be boys: Gender, overconfidence, and common stock investment."] Check
|url=value (help). Quarterly journal of Economics: 261–292.
- Niederle, M., & Vesterlund, L., Do women shy away from competition? Do men compete too much? (2007). "Do women shy away from competition? Do men compete too much?" (PDF). The Quarterly Journal of Economics: 1067–1101.
- Cunningham, C. M., Thompson, M., Lachapelle, C. P., Goodman, I. F., & Bittinger, K. C. (2006). "Women's experiences in college engineering and support programs: Findings from the WECE project.". Women in Engineering ProActive Network.
- Butler, D., & Geis, F. L. (1990). "Nonverbal affect responses to male and female leaders: Implications for leadership evaluations.". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 58: 48–59.
- Rudman, L. A. (1988). "Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: the costs and benefits of counterstereotypical impression management.". Journal of personality and social psychology. 74 (3): 629.
- Jennings-Walstedt, J., Geis, F. L., & Brown, V. (1980). "Influence of television commercials on women's self-confidence and independent judgment.". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 38 (3): 203.
- Tiggemann, Marika; Rothblum, Esther D. "Gender differences in social consequences of perceived overweight in the United States and Australia". Sex Roles. 18 (1-2): 75–86. doi:10.1007/BF00288018. ISSN 0360-0025.
- Seashore, M. J., Leifer, A. D., Barnett, C. R., & Leiderman, P. H. (1973). "The effects of denial of early mother-infant interaction on maternal self-confidence.". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,. 26 (3): 369.
- Suh, E., Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Triandis, H. C. (1988). "The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgments across cultures: Emotions versus norms.". Journal of personality and social psychology. 74 (2): 482.
- Heine, S. J., Kitayama, S., Lehman, D. R., Takata, T., Ide, E., Leung, C., & Matsumoto, H. (2001). "Divergent consequences of success and failure in japan and north america: an investigation of self-improving motivations and malleable selves.". Journal of personality and social psychology. 81 (4): 599.
- Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro; Lucas, Richard E. (2003-02-01). "Personality, Culture, and Subjective Well-Being: Emotional and Cognitive Evaluations of Life". Annual Review of Psychology. 54 (1): 403–425. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145056. ISSN 0066-4308.
- Peters, Heather J.; Williams, Jean M. (2006-09-01). "Moving Cultural Background to the Foreground: An Investigation of Self-Talk, Performance, and Persistence Following Feedback". Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 18 (3): 240–253. doi:10.1080/10413200600830315. ISSN 1041-3200.
- Mahoney, Michael J.; Avener, Marshall. "Psychology of the elite athlete: An exploratory study". Cognitive Therapy and Research. 1 (2): 135–141. doi:10.1007/BF01173634. ISSN 0147-5916.
- Craft, L. L., Magyar, T. M., Becker, B. J., & Feltz, D. L. (2003). "The relationship between the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and sport performance: A meta-analysis.". Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 25 (1): 44–65.
- WOODMAN, TIM; HARDY, LEW (2003-01-01). "The relative impact of cognitive anxiety and self-confidence upon sport performance: a meta-analysis". Journal of Sports Sciences. 21 (6): 443–457. doi:10.1080/0264041031000101809. ISSN 0264-0414. PMID 12846532.
- Bull, Stephen J.; Shambrook, Christopher J.; James, Wil; Brooks, Jocelyne E. (2005-09-01). "Towards an Understanding of Mental Toughness in Elite English Cricketers". Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 17 (3): 209–227. doi:10.1080/10413200591010085. ISSN 1041-3200.
- Connaughton, Declan; Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon; Jones, Graham (2008-01-01). "The development and maintenance of mental toughness: Perceptions of elite performers". Journal of Sports Sciences. 26 (1): 83–95. doi:10.1080/02640410701310958. ISSN 0264-0414. PMID 17852671.
- Galli, N., & Vealey, R. S. (2008). "Bouncing back" from adversity: Athletes' experiences of resilience.". The Sports Psychologist. 22 (3): 316–335.
- Freeman, Paul; Rees, Tim (2010-01-01). "Perceived social support from team-mates: Direct and stress-buffering effects on self-confidence". European Journal of Sport Science. 10 (1): 59–67. doi:10.1080/17461390903049998. ISSN 1746-1391.
- Clément, Richard; Kruidenier, Bastian G. (1983-09-01). "Orientations in Second Language Acquisition: I. the Effects of Ethnic Ty, Milieu, and Target Language on Their Emergence.". Language Learning. 33 (3): 273–291. doi:10.1111/j.1467-1770.1983.tb00542.x. ISSN 1467-9922.
- Shrauger, J. Sidney; Schohn, Mary (1995-09-01). "Self-Confidence in College Students: Conceptualization, Measurement, and Behavioral Implications". Assessment. 2 (3): 255–278. doi:10.1177/1073191195002003006. ISSN 1073-1911.
- Rees, Tim; Freeman, Paul (2007-07-01). "The effects of perceived and received support on self-confidence". Journal of Sports Sciences. 25 (9): 1057–1065. doi:10.1080/02640410600982279. ISSN 0264-0414. PMID 17497407.
- Beattie, Stuart; Hardy, Lew; Savage, Jennifer; Woodman, Tim; Callow, Nichola (2011-03-01). "Development and validation of a trait measure of robustness of self-confidence". Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 12 (2): 184–191. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.09.008.
- Myers, Jane; Willise, John; Villalba, Jose (1 January 2011). "Promoting Self-Esteem in Adolescents: The Influence of Wellness Factors". Journal of Counseling and Development. 89: 28–30. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2011.tb00058.x.
- "The Free Dictionary". Farlex. Farlex.
- Timko, Alix; England, Erica; Herbert, James; Foreman, Evan (Fall 2010). "The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a measure of Self-Esteem". The Psychological Record. 60 (4): 679.
- Beer, J.; Lombardo M; Bhanji J. (September 2010). "Roles of Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Orbitofrontal Cortex in Self-evaluation". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 22 (9): 2108–2119. doi:10.1162/jocn.2009.21359.
- "Lack of self-confidence", a Buddhist view.