Self-publishing is the publication of any book or other media by its author, without the involvement of an established third-party publisher. A self-published physical book is said to be privately printed. The author is responsible for and in control of the entire process, including, in the case of a book, the design of the cover and interior, formats, price, distribution, marketing and public relations. The authors can do it all themselves or outsource all or part of the process to companies that offer these services.
The history of self-publishing
Despite technology making it both easier and cheaper to self-publish books, going down the independent road is nothing new. In 1931 the author of The Joy of Cooking paid a local printing company to print 3000 copies. Later Bobbs-Merill Company acquired the rights, and since then the book has sold over 18 million copies.
The key distinguishing characteristic of self-publishing is that the author has decided to publish independently of a publishing house. In the past, self-published authors had to spend considerable amounts of money preparing a book for publication, purchasing bulk copies of their title, and finding a place to store their inventory. Print-on-demand and e-book technology have allowed authors to have a book printed or digitally delivered only when an order has been placed.
In 2008, for the first time in history, more books were self-published than those published traditionally. In 2009, 76% of all books released were self-published, while publishing houses reduced the number of books they produced. According to Robert Kroese, "the average return of the self-published book is £500".
- Online retailing, wherein dominant players like Amazon.com have enticed readers away from bookstores into an online environment.
- Print-On-Demand (POD) technology which can produce a quality product equal to those produced by traditional publishers – in the past, one could easily identify a self-published title by its quality.
- Technological advances with e-book readers and tablet computers that enhance readability and allow readers to "carry" numerous books in a concise, portable product.
- Access to global distribution channels via online retailers.
Types of self-publishing
|This section requires expansion. (December 2012)|
Unless a book is to be sold directly from the author to the public, an ISBN number is required to uniquely identify the title. ISBN is a global standard used for all titles worldwide. Most self-publishing companies either provide their own ISBN to a title or can provide direction; it may be in the best interest of the self-published author to retain ownership of ISBN and copyright instead of using a number owned by a vanity press. A separate ISBN number is needed for each edition of the book.
Electronic (e-book) publishing
There are a variety of e-book formats and tools that can be used to create them. Because it is possible to create e-books with no up-front or per-book costs, this is a popular option for self-publishers. E-book publishing platforms include Smashwords, Blurb, Amazon Kindle Direct Publishing, Bookbaby, Pubit, Lulu, and CreateSpace. E-book formats include e-pub, mobi, and PDF, among others.
Print on demand
Print-on-demand (POD) publishing refers to the ability to print high-quality books as needed. For self-published books, this is often a more economical option than conducting a print run of hundreds or thousands of books. Many companies, such as Createspace (owned by Amazon.com), Blurb, Lulu and iUniverse, allow printing single books at per-book costs not much higher than those paid by publishing companies for large print runs.
Reputable publishing companies generally paid authors a percentage of sales, so it was in the company's interest to sign only authors whose books would sell well. It was extremely difficult for the typical unknown author to get a publishing contract under these circumstances, and many 'vanity publishers' sprang up to give these authors an alternative: essentially, they would publish any book in exchange for payment up front from the author.
Vanity publishing differs from self-publishing in that the author does not own the print run of finished books and is not in primary control of their distribution.
James D. Macdonald started a campaign of educating other writers about the problems of vanity publishers. As part of this campaign, he coined Yog's Law, which states, "Money should flow toward the author." 
The line between vanity publishing and traditional publishing has, become increasingly blurred in the past few years. Currently there are several companies that offer digital and/or print publication with no up front cost. However, most of these companies also offer add-on services such as editing, marketing and cover design. Self-publishing companies that fit this model include CreateSpace (owned by Amazon.com), iUniverse, and Lulu. An author who simply hands a book over to one of these companies, expecting the company to make it a bestseller, would meet the previously established definition of vanity publishing, but it's unclear how many authors fit this description. Further blurring the distinction between self-publishing and traditional publishing was Penguin's 2012 purchase of Author Solutions.
Increasingly, vanity publishing is defined as a behavior rather than a definition of certain companies or individuals, although there remain a handful of companies that clearly qualify as vanity publishers. These companies offer the cachet of being published and make the majority of their income on fees for intangible services paid for by the author, rather than sales revenue.
The author as a self-publisher also takes on many of the creative tasks to complete the finished works. These tasks include creative writing as well as choosing writing software, editor, marketer and cover designer. To be considered a self-published author, an author need not complete all of these creative tasks themselves, however. Authors can outsource this creative work to other skilled professionals. These professionals can be located through search engines, freelancing websites, word of mouth, finding out creatives who worked on already-published books, or searching relevant forums.
The technical aspects of self-publishing include formatting for printing and digital conversion, as well as distribution and marketing/PR. Successful marketing may involve building a web presence and a mailing list, and promoting e-books through targeted giveaways.
- Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy (1759–67) was self-published.
- Franklin Hiram King's book Farmers of Forty Centuries, or Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea, and Japan was self-published in 1911, and subsequently published commercially by Jonathan Cape in 1927, later by Dover Publications, and has gone on to become an agricultural classic text.
- Between the Acts (1941), Virginia Woolf's final novel, was self-published by her Hogarth Press.
- Ezra Pound sold A Lume Spento (With Tapers Quenched) (1908) for six pence each.
- Eleven-year-old John Ruskin sold a book of poetry he self-published with his father.
- Victoria Knowles achieved notoriety in July 2014 when her self-published book The PA reached the number one spot in the iTunes chart for paid books.
- Other authors who self-published include Jane Austen, Emily Dickinson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Martin Luther, Marcel Proust, Derek Walcott, and Walt Whitman.
- James Altucher's Choose Yourself (2013) sold 44,294 copies in its first month, debuted at #1 on Amazon's top non-fiction list, and is a Wall Street Journal bestseller.
|Golden Handcuffs||Courtney, Polly|
|The Celestine Prophecy||Redfield, James|
|Shadowmancer||Taylor, G. P.||Later published by Faber & Faber|
|The Shack||Young, William P.||First million copies published by Windblown Media; subsequently on New York Times best seller list.|
- Alternative media
- List of self-publishing companies
- Small press
- Category:Self-published books
- Balson, Ronald H. (8 October 2013). "Bestseller Success Stories that Started Out as Self-Published Books". The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
In 1931, Irma Rombauer wrote "The Joy of Cooking," with her daughter, who not only illustrated the book, but also helped test the recipes. Ms. Rombauer used half of her life savings to pay a local printing company to print three thousand copies. A dollar a book. Five years later, Bobbs-Merrill Company acquired the rights. Over the years the book has sold over 18 million copies. .... Erika Leonard (E.L. James) has sold more than 70 million copies of her "Fifty Shades" trilogy worldwide. She started out writing fan fiction stories and publishing them on her website. She then wrote "Fifty Shades of Grey" and self-published it through a small Australian company, which released it on eBook and print-on demand. After her passionate fan base (pun intended) had driven the book to extreme levels of popularity, the rights were acquired by Vintage Books.
- Publishers Weekly (4 April 2010). "Self-Published Titles Topped 764,000 in 2009 as Traditional Output Dipped". Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- Robert Kroese. Self-Publish Your Novel: Lessons from an Indie Publishing Success Story.
- "The Easiest, Cheapest, Fastest Way to Self-Publish Your Book - Mediashift - PBS". pbs.org. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "How to Self-Publish Your E-Book - Mediashift - PBS". pbs.org. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- RICH, MOTOKO (28 February 2010). "Math of Publishing Meets the E-Book". New York Times. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Rosenthal, Morris. "Print on Demand Publishing". Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "James D. Macdonald". wikipedia.org. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- Neuburger, Jeffrey D. (10 September 2008). "Court Rules Print-on-Demand Service Not Liable for Defamation". Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- Greenfield, Jeremy (19 July 2012). "Penguin Buys Self-Publishing Platform Author Solutions for $116 Million".
- Rugers, Scarlett. "How to Find a Book Cover Designer". Scarlett Rugers Book Design Agency. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- "The Real Costs of Self-Publishing a Book - Mediashift - PBS". pbs.org. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "DIY: How to Market Your Self-Published Book". PublishersWeekly.com. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- Christina Patterson (18 August 2012). "How the great writers published themselves". The Independent (London). Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Paull, John (2011). "The making of an agricultural classic: Farmers of Forty Centuries or Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan, 1911–2011". Agricultural Sciences 2 (3): 175–180. doi:10.4236/as.2011.23024.
- "To her, PA means personal assassin". The Sunday Times. July 2014. Retrieved July 2014.
- "How To Self-Publish A Bestseller: Publishing 3.0".
- Brown, Helen (2010-01-08). "Unleash your inner novelist". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 16 September 2011.
Polly Courtney [...] made money self-publishing her novel, Golden Handcuffs, in 2006. [...] Courtney now has a three-book deal with HarperCollins [...]
- Rich, Motoko (2008-06-24). "Christian Novel Is Surprise Best Seller". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-24.
|Wikiversity has learning materials about Collaborative_play_writing|