Aristotle joined a perceived majority of his countrymen in condemning those who sought only to profit themselves; but he approved the man of reason who sought to gain for himself the greatest share of that which deserved social praise.
Adam Smith with the concept of the invisible hand saw the economic system as usefully channelling selfish self-interest to wider ends; while John Locke based society upon the solitary individual, arguably opening the door for later thinkers like Ayn Rand to argue for selfishness as a social virtue and the root of social progress.
Roman Catholic philosopher Jacques Maritain opposed the latter view by way of the Aristotelian argument that framing the fundamental question of politics as a choice between altruism and selfishness is a basic and harmful mistake of modern states. Rather, cooperation ought to be the norm: human beings are by nature social animals, and so individual persons can only find their full good in and through pursuing the good of the community.
The contrast between self-affirmation and selfishness has become a conflictual arena in which the respective claims of individual/community is often played out – between parents and children or men and women, for example.
Psychoanalysts favor the development of a genuine sense of self, and may even speak of a healthy selfishness, as opposed to the self-occlusion of what Anna Freud called 'emotional surrender'.
Self-centeredness was marked as a key feature in a phenomenological theory of criminality named "The Criminal Spin" model. Accordingly, in most criminal behaviors there is an heightened state of self-centeredness, that differently manifests itself in different situations and in different forms of criminality.
- "Selfish", Merriam-Webster Dictionary, accessed on 23 August 2014
- Selfishness - meaning, reference.com, accessed on 23 April 2012
- C. S. Lewis, Surprised by Joy (1988) p. 116-7
- Aristotle, Ethics (1976) p. 301-3
- G. Gutting ed., The Cambridge Companion to Foucault (2003) p. 138-30
- Dante, Purgatorio (1971) p. 65
- Francis Bacon, The Essays (1985) p. 131
- Mandeville, The Fable of the Bees (1970) p. 410 and p. 81-3
- M. Skousen, The Big Three in Economics (2007) p. 29
- P. L. Nevins, The Politics of Selfishness (2010) p. xii-iii
- Maritain, Jacques (1973). The Person and the Common Good. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 978-0268002046.
- D. Goleman, Emotional Intelligence (1996) p. 104-10
- R. D. Laing, Self and Others (1969) p. 142-3
- What is Selfish?
- N. Symington, Narcissism (1993) p. 8
- Terence Real, I Don't Want to Talk About It (1997) p. 203-5
- Adam Phillips, On Flirtation (1994) p. 98
- Ronel, N. (2011). Criminal behavior, criminal mind: Being caught in a criminal spin. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(8), 1208 - 1233
- A Theory of Justice (by John Rawls)
- The Evolution of Cooperation, Robert Axelrod, Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-02121-2
- The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins (1990), second edition—includes two chapters about the evolution of cooperation, ISBN 0-19-286092-5
- The Virtue of Selfishness, Ayn Rand, ISBN 0451163931
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