Eponym

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Not to be confused with namesake.
The mythological Greek hero Orion is the eponym of the constellation Orion, shown here, and thus indirectly of the Orion spacecraft.[1]

An eponym is a person, a place, or thing for whom or for which something is named, or believed to be named.[2] For example, Elizabeth I of England is the eponym of the Elizabethan era.

Many genericized trademarks such as aspirin,[3] heroin[4] and thermos[5] are based on their original brand eponyms.[citation needed]

The adjectives derived from eponym, which include eponymous and eponymic,[2][6] similarly refers to being the person or thing after whom something is named, as "the eponymous founder of the Ford Motor Company" refers to founder's being Henry Ford.[7][8] Recent usage, especially in the recorded-music industry, also allows eponymous to mean "named after its central character or creator".[7]

History[edit]

Time periods have often been named after a ruler or other influential figure:

  • One of the first recorded cases of eponymy occurred in the second millennium BC, when the Assyrians named each year after a high official (limmu).
  • In ancient Greece, the eponymous archon was the highest magistrate in Athens. Archons of Athens served a term of one year which took the name of that particular archon (e.g., 594 BC was named for Solon). Later historians provided yet another case of eponymy by referring to the period of Fifth-century Athens as The Age of Pericles after its most influential statesman Pericles.
  • In Ancient Rome, one of the two formal ways of indicating a year was to cite the two annual consuls who served in that year. For example, the year we know as 59 BC would have been described as "the consulship of Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus and Gaius Julius Caesar" (although that specific year was known jocularly as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar" because of the insignificance of Caesar's counterpart). Under the empire, the consuls would change as often as every two months, but only the two consuls at the beginning of the year would lend their names to that year.
  • During the Christian era, itself eponymous, many royal households used eponymous dating by regnal years. The Roman Catholic Church, however, eventually used the Anno Domini dating scheme based on the birth of Christ on both the general public and royalty. The regnal year standard is still used with respect to statutes and law reports published in some parts of the United Kingdom and in some Commonwealth countries (England abandoned this practice in 1963): a statute signed into law in Canada between February 6, 1994 and February 5, 1995 would be dated 43 Elizabeth II, for instance.[citation needed]
  • Government administrations may become referred to eponymously, such as Kennedy's Camelot and the Nixon Era.
  • British monarchs have become eponymous throughout the English-speaking world for time periods, fashions, etc. Elizabethan, Georgian, Victorian, and Edwardian are examples of these.

Trends

Other eponyms[edit]

Lists of eponyms[edit]

By person's name

By category

Orthographic conventions[edit]

Capitalized versus lowercase[edit]

  • Because proper nouns are capitalized in English, the usual default for eponyms is to capitalize the eponymous part of a term. The common-noun part is not capitalized (unless it is part of a title or it is the first word in a sentence). For example, in Parkinson disease (named after James Parkinson), Parkinson is capitalized, but disease is not. In addition, the adjectival form, where one exists, is usually lowercased (thus parkinsonian although Parkinson disease and gram-positive although Gram staining).
  • However, some eponymous adjectives and noun adjuncts are nowadays entered in many dictionaries as lowercase when they have evolved a common status, no longer deriving their meaning from the proper-noun origin.[9] For example, Herculean when referring to Hercules himself, but often herculean when referring to the figurative, generalized extension sense;[9] and quixotic and diesel engine [lowercase only].[9][10] For any given term, one dictionary may enter only lowercase or only cap, whereas other dictionaries may recognize the capitalized version as a variant, either equally common as, or less common than, the first-listed styling (marked with labels such as "or", "also", "often", or "sometimes"). The Chicago Manual of Style, in its section "Words derived from proper names",[11] gives some examples of both lowercase and capitalized stylings, including a few terms styled both ways, and says, "Authors and editors must decide for themselves, but whatever choice is made should be followed consistently throughout a work."

For examples, see the comparison table below.

Genitive versus attributive[edit]

  • English can use either genitive case or attributive position to indicate the adjectival nature of the eponymous part of the term. (In other words, that part may be either possessive or nonpossessive.) Thus Parkinson's disease and Parkinson disease are both acceptable. Medical dictionaries have been shifting toward nonpossessive styling in recent decades.[12] Thus Parkinson disease is more likely to be used in the latest medical literature (especially in postprints) than is Parkinson's disease.

National varieties of English[edit]

  • American and British English spelling differences can occasionally apply to eponyms. For example, American style would typically be cesarean section, whereas British style would typically be caesarean section (or cæsarean section [with digraph]).

Comparison table of eponym orthographic styling[edit]

Prevalent dictionary styling today Stylings that defy prevalent dictionary styling Comments
Addison disease[13] *Addison Disease
*addison disease
 
Allemann syndrome[13] *Allemann Syndrome
*allemann syndrome
 
cesarean [only][13]
cesarean also cesarian [but no cap variant][9]
cesarean, "often capitalized" or caesarean also cesarian or caesarian[14]
  The full information on this word's orthographic variants is at cesarean section > orthography.
darwinian [only][13]
darwinism [only][13]
Darwinian [only][9][10]
Darwinism [only][9][10]
Darwinist [only][9][10]
   
diesel (n/adj/vi) [no cap variant][9][10]
and also
diesel-electric[9]
diesel engine[9][10]
dieseling[9][10]
dieselize, dieselization[9]
*Diesel engine
*Dieseling
*Dieselize, Dieselization
 
draconian[10]
draconian often Draconian[9]
   
eustachian [only][13]
eustachian often Eustachian[9]
eustachian tube [only][13]
eustachian tube often Eustachian tube[9]
eustachian tube or Eustachian tube[10]
*Eustachian Tube  
fallopian [only][13]
fallopian often Fallopian[9]
fallopian tube [only][13]
fallopian tube often Fallopian tube[9]
fallopian tube also Fallopian tube[10]
*Fallopian Tube  
Marxism [only][9][10]
Marxist [only][9][10]
*marxism
*marxist
 
mendelian [only][13] or Mendelian [only][9]
mendelian inheritance [only][13] or Mendelian inheritance [only][9] 
 but
Mendel's laws[9][13]
*Mendelian Inheritance  
Newtonian [only][9][10] *newtonian  
parkinsonism [only][9][13]
parkinsonian [only][9][13]
parkinsonian tremor[13]
Parkinson disease [only][13]
Parkinson's disease [only][9]
*Parkinsonism
*Parkinsonian
*Parkinsonian tremor
*Parkinsonian Tremor
*Parkinson Disease
*Parkinson's Disease
 
quixotic [only][9][10] *Quixotic  
Roman numerals[10]
roman numerals[9]
  AMA Manual of Style lowercases the terms roman numerals and arabic numerals. MWCD enters the numeral sense under the headword Roman but with the note "not cap" on the numeral sense.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Orion Spacecraft - Nasa Orion Spacecraft". aerospaceguide.net. 
  2. ^ a b "eponym". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com LLC. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Bayer Co. v. United Drug Co., 272 F. 505 (S.D.N.Y. 1921), Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University, accessed March 25th, 2011
  4. ^ a b "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com. 
  5. ^ a b King-Seeley Thermos Co. v. Aladdin Indus., Inc., 321 F.2d 577 (2d Cir. 1963); see also this PDF
  6. ^ "eponym". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "eponymous". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com LLC. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  8. ^ "eponymous". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 30 December 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Merriam-Webster (1993), Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (10th ed ed.), Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, ISBN 978-0-87779-707-4 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Houghton Mifflin (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed ed.), Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 978-0-395-82517-4 
  11. ^ University of Chicago (1993), The Chicago Manual of Style (14th ed.), Chicago, Illinois, USA: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-10389-7, section 7.49, pp. 253–254. 
  12. ^ Iverson, Cheryl (editor) (2007), AMA Manual of Style (10 ed.), Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-517633-9 , chapter 16: Eponyms.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Elsevier (2007), Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary (31st ed ed.), Philadelphia: Elsevier, ISBN 978-1-4160-2364-7 
  14. ^ Merriam-Webster (2003), Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed ed.), Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, ISBN 978-0-87779-809-5 

External links[edit]