Self Destruct Tour

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Self Destruct
Tour by Nine Inch Nails
Trent Reznor Self-Destruct.jpg
Reznor performing during the Self-Destruct tour, circa 1994–1995.
Associated albumThe Downward Spiral
Start dateMarch 9, 1994
End dateSeptember 8, 1996
Nine Inch Nails concert chronology

The Self Destruct Tour was a concert tour in support of industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails' album The Downward Spiral, which took place in early 1994, running until mid-1996, and was broken into eight legs.


The tour was filmed for the Closure tour documentary, a double-VHS set that documented live performances of the tour as well as the band from 1989–1991, and an extra VHS tape featuring the band's music videos, which was released in late 1997. A 2 DVD package featuring additional bonus content was planned for 2005. However, licensing issues forced an indefinite delay of an official release of the set. An alleged "prototype version" of the DVDs eventually leaked to torrent websites in 2006. This release has been attributed to Reznor himself.

This was Nine Inch Nails' first tour since the early 1990s shows for Pretty Hate Machine. During this time, Nine Inch Nails' music became angrier and more aggressive with releases like Broken and The Downward Spiral, which led to the concerts being often very violent and personal, with band members often injuring themselves. The stage set-up consisted of grungy curtains which would pulled down and up for visuals which might be played during songs (such as 'Hurt'), or pulled up for live performances of more aggressive songs. The back of the stage was littered with darker and standing lights, with very little actual lights.[1]

Trent Reznor overhauled the band line-up and image for the tour; guitarist Robin Finck joined to play guitar while Danny Lohner joined on to play bass guitar. However, Chris Vrenna and James Woolley were brought back from the Pretty Hate Machine Tour Series. Image-wise, instead of the sloppy, low-budget style for previous tours, the band often dressed in black leather smothered in cornstarch, with band members often changing their hairstyles to radical hair styles for every concert. Robin Finck used makeup to hide his eyebrows, and Reznor would often don his 'fishnet gloves' (as they would come to be known) for the show. The band's showy yet intense tour style gave the band comparisons to David Bowie, whom Reznor was a big fan of. Later in the tour, Bowie and Reznor's protégé, Marilyn Manson, would often join the frontman on stage to sing their songs—as evident in the Closure tour documentary.[1]

The tour included a set at Woodstock '94 broadcast on pay-per-view and seen in as many as 24 million homes. The band being covered in mud was a result of pre-concert backstage play, contrary to the belief that it was an attention-grabbing ploy, thus making it difficult for Reznor to navigate the stage: Reznor pushed Lohner into the mud pit as the concert began and saw mud from his hair going into his eyes while performing. Nine Inch Nails was widely proclaimed to have "stolen the show" from its popular contemporaries, mostly classic rock bands, and its fan base expanded.[1][2][3] The band received considerable mainstream success thereafter, performing with significantly higher production values and the addition of various theatrical visual elements.[4] Its performance of "Happiness in Slavery" from the Woodstock concert earned the group a Grammy Award for Best Metal Performance in 1995.[1] Entertainment Weekly commented about the band's Woodstock '94 performance: "Reznor unstrings rock to its horrifying, melodramatic core--an experience as draining as it is exhilarating".[5] Despite this acclaim, Reznor attributed his dislike of the concert to its technical difficulties.[1]

The main leg of the tour featured Marilyn Manson as the supporting act, who featured bassist Jeordie White (then playing under the pseudonym "Twiggy Ramirez"); White later played bass with Nine Inch Nails from 2005 to 2007.[1][6] After another tour leg supporting the remix album Further Down the Spiral, Nine Inch Nails contributed to the Alternative Nation Festival in Australia and subsequently embarked on the Dissonance Tour, which included 26 separate performances with co-headliner David Bowie. Nine Inch Nails was the opening act for the tour, and its set transitioned into Bowie's set with joint performances of both bands' songs.[1] However, the crowds reportedly did not respond positively to the pairing due to their creative differences.[7]

The tour concluded with "Nights of Nothing", a three-night showcase of performances from Nothing Records bands Marilyn Manson, Prick, Meat Beat Manifesto, and Pop Will Eat Itself, which ended with an 80-minute set from Nine Inch Nails. Kerrang! described the Nine Inch Nails set during the Nights of Nothing showcase as "tight, brash and dramatic", but was disappointed at the lack of new material. On the second of the three nights, Richard Patrick was briefly reunited with the band and contributed guitar to a performance of "Head Like a Hole".[8] After the Self Destruct tour, Chris Vrenna, member of the live band since 1988 and frequent contributor to Nine Inch Nails studio recordings, left the act permanently to pursue a career in producing and to form Tweaker.[9][10]

Band line-up[edit]

  • Trent Reznor – lead vocals, guitar, keyboards, synthesizers, bass
  • Robin Finck – guitar, keyboards, synthesizers, backing vocals
  • Danny Lohner – bass, guitar, keyboards, backing vocals
  • Chris Vrenna – drums
  • James Woolley – keyboards, synthesizers programming, backup vocals (March 9, 1994 – December 11, 1994)
  • Charlie Clouser – keyboards, synthesizers, programming, backup vocals (December 28, 1994 – September 8, 1996)

Warm-up leg[edit]

Typical setlist[edit]

  1. "Pinion"
  2. "Terrible Lie"
  3. "Sin"
  4. "March of the Pigs"
  5. "Piggy"
  6. "Reptile"
  7. "Wish"
  8. "Ruiner"
  9. "Suck"
  10. "Happiness in Slavery"
  11. "The Only Time"
  12. "Get Down, Make Love"
  13. "Down in It"
  14. "Head Like a Hole"

"Heresy" made its live debut at Las Vegas, on March 14.

Tour dates[edit]

Date City Country Venue
March 9, 1994 Los Angeles United States Probe (Helter Skelter)
March 10, 1994 San Francisco Temple (Oasis)
March 11, 1994 Palo Alto The Edge
March 14, 1994 Las Vegas Huntridge Theater
March 15, 1994
March 17, 1994 Phoenix The Foxy
March 18, 1994
March 20, 1994 Tucson Buena Vista Theater
March 26, 1994 Honolulu After Dark
March 27, 1994

North American & Europe leg[edit]

Reeling from the success of Pretty Hate Machine and Broken as well as the band's departure from TVT Records, the nearly immediate success of The Downward Spiral led to Nine Inch Nails playing larger venues. This debuted the band's new grungy and messy image in which band members would often come out in ragged clothes slathered in corn starch. They would often destroy their instruments at the end of concerts, attack each other, and stage-dive into the crowd. This led to Nine Inch Nails's notoriety as a live act. The shows often consisted of songs from Pretty Hate Machine, Broken, The Downward Spiral, as well as songs such as "Get Down Make Love" and "Dead Souls", which were formerly staples of their live show.[1]

Typical setlist[edit]

  1. "Pinion"
  2. "Terrible Lie"
  3. "Sin"
  4. "March of the Pigs"
  5. "Something I Can Never Have"
  6. "Closer"
  7. "Reptile"
  8. "Wish"
  9. "Suck"
  10. "The Only Time"
  11. "Get Down, Make Love"
  12. "Down in It"
  13. "Big Man with a Gun"
  14. "Head Like a Hole"
  15. "Dead Souls"
  16. "Help Me I Am in Hell"
  17. "Happiness in Slavery"

"Burn" made its live debut on the second to last show of the tour.

Support act[edit]

Tour dates[edit]

Date City Country Venue
April 19, 1994 Seattle United States Moore Theatre
April 20, 1994
April 21, 1994 Portland La Luna Club
April 23, 1994 San Francisco The Warfield
April 24, 1994
April 26, 1994 Los Angeles Hollywood Palace
April 27, 1994
April 30, 1994 San Diego San Diego State University
May 1, 1994 Phoenix Mesa Centennial
May 3, 1994 Dallas The Bomb Factory
May 4, 1994 Houston International Ballroom
May 5, 1994 New Orleans State Palace Theatre
May 7, 1994 Chicago Riviera Theatre
May 8, 1994 Detroit State Theatre
May 9, 1994 Cleveland Agora Theater
May 11, 1994 Boston Cyclorama Building
May 13, 1994 New York City Webster Hall
May 14, 1994 New York City Roseland Ballroom
May 15, 1994 Upper Darby Tower Theater
May 18, 1994 Dublin Ireland SFX Center
May 20, 1994 Wolverhampton United Kingdom Wolverhampton Civic Hall
May 21, 1994 Glasgow Barrowlands
May 22, 1994 Manchester Manchester Academy
May 24, 1994 London London Forum
May 28, 1994 Ghent Belgium Vooruit
May 30, 1994 Paris France Le Bataclan
May 31, 1994 Amsterdam Netherlands Paradiso
June 2, 1994 Frankfurt Germany Live Music Hall
June 3, 1994 Berlin Huxley's
June 7, 1994 Hamburg The Docks
June 8, 1994 Düsseldorf Tor 3
June 9, 1994 Munich Charterhalle
June 11, 1994 Vienna Austria Summer Arena
June 12, 1994 Prague Czech Republic Lucerna Hall
June 15, 1994 Katowice Poland Spodek
June 16, 1994 Warsaw Stadion Dziesięciolecia
July 29, 1994 Atlanta United States Fox Theatre
July 30, 1994
August 3, 1994 Poughkeepsie Mid-Hudson Civic Center
August 6, 1994 Barrie Canada Molson Park
August 11, 1994 Fairfax United States Patriot Center
August 13, 1994 Saugerties Woodstock '94

North American leg #2[edit]

An incident occurred at the tour's Delta Center stop on October 18, 1994 in Salt Lake City. Manson was prohibited from performing after the venue owner took offense to Manson's merchandise which included a band t-shirt with the satirical message, "Warning: Heavy Metal Music contains satanic messages that will KILL GOD in your impressionable teenage minds. As a result, you will be convinced to KILL YOUR MOM AND DAD, and eventually, in all act of hopeless, suicidal, 'rock and roll' behaviour, you will KILL YOURSELF. Please, burn your records while there is still hope." During Nine Inch Nail's set, Reznor invited Manson on stage who ripped apart a Book of Mormon then threw it into the audience asking, "Do you let Him [God] run your lives?"[11][12]

Typical setlist[edit]

  1. "Pinion"
  2. "Mr. Self Destruct"
  3. "Sin"
  4. "March of the Pigs"
  5. "Piggy"
  6. "Reptile"
  7. "Gave Up
  8. "Happiness in Slavery"
  9. "Eraser"
  10. "Hurt"
  11. "The Downward Spiral"
  12. "Wish"
  13. "Suck"
  14. "The Only Time" or "Ruiner"
  15. "Down in It"
  16. "Head Like a Hole"
  17. "Dead Souls"
  18. "Closer"
  19. "I Do Not Want This"
  20. "Something I Can Never Have"

"Physical", "Get Down, Make Love" and "Terrible Lie" made a number of occasional appearances.

Support act[edit]

Tour dates[edit]

Date City Country Venue
August 27, 1994 Rochester United States Auditorium Theatre
August 29, 1994 Cleveland Nautica Stage
August 30, 1994
September 2, 1994 Detroit Pine Knob Amphitheater
September 3, 1994 Chicago UIC Pavilion
September 5, 1994 Saint Paul Roy Wilkins Auditorium
September 7, 1994 Milwaukee Riverside Theatre
September 10, 1994 Muncie Ball State Arena
September 11, 1994 St. Louis Fox Theatre
September 13, 1994 Nashville Vanderbilt's Memorial Gym
September 14, 1994 Memphis Cook Convention Center
September 16, 1994 Springfield Abou Shrine Temple
September 17, 1994 Kansas City Memorial Hall
September 19, 1994 Omaha Omaha Civic Auditorium
September 24, 1994 Seattle Center Arena
September 27, 1994 Vancouver Canada PNE Forum
September 30, 1994 Sacramento United States ARCO Arena
October 1, 1994 San Jose San Jose State Auditorium
October 3, 1994 Los Angeles Universal Amphitheatre
October 4, 1994
October 6, 1994
October 7, 1994
October 10, 1994 San Diego San Diego Sports Arena
October 11, 1994 Phoenix Veterans Memorial Coliseum
October 14, 1994 Oakland Henry J. Kaiser Convention Center
October 16, 1994 Las Vegas Thomas & Mack Center
October 18, 1994 Salt Lake City Delta Center
October 20, 1994 Denver McNichols Arena
October 26, 1994 El Paso State Fair Coliseum
October 28, 1994 Austin Frank Erwin Center
October 29, 1994 Dallas State Fair Park Coliseum
October 31, 1994 Houston The Summit
November 2, 1994 Oklahoma City Lloyd Noble Center
November 3, 1994 Tulsa Expo Square Pavilion
November 5, 1994 Carbondale S.Illinois University Arena
November 6, 1994 Iowa City Carver–Hawkeye Arena
November 8, 1994 Madison Dane County Coliseum
November 9, 1994 Champaign UIUC Assembly Hall
November 12, 1994 Louisville Louisville Gardens
November 13, 1994 Columbus Convention Centre
November 18, 1994 Jacksonville Jacksonville Coliseum
November 20, 1994 Miami Miami Arena
November 21, 1994 Tampa Expo Hall
November 23, 1994 Winston-Salem Lawrence Joel Veterans Memorial Coliseum
November 25, 1994 Hampton Hampton Coliseum
November 28, 1994 Pittsburgh Civic Arena
November 29, 1994 Buffalo Buffalo Memorial Auditorium
December 1, 1994 Toronto Canada Maple Leaf Gardens
December 3, 1994 Boston United States Boston Garden
December 4, 1994 Albany Knickerbocker Arena
December 6, 1994 Baltimore Baltimore Arena
December 7, 1994 New York City Madison Square Garden
December 8, 1994
December 9, 1994
December 11, 1994 Philadelphia CoreStates Spectrum
December 28, 1994 Cleveland The Odeon
December 29, 1994 Dayton Hara Arena
December 31, 1994 Auburn Hills The Palace of Auburn Hills
January 3, 1995 Montreal Canada Theatre Du Forum
January 5, 1995 Worcester United States The Centrum
January 6, 1995 New York City Nassau Coliseum
January 8, 1995 Cleveland CSU Convocation Center
January 9, 1995
January 12, 1995 Kalamazoo Wings Stadium
January 13, 1995 Toledo Toledo Sports Arena
January 15, 1995 Chicago Rosemont Horizon
January 16, 1995
January 18, 1995 Milwaukee MECCA Arena
January 21, 1995 Indianapolis State Fair Coliseum
January 22, 1995 Evansville Roberts Arena
January 24, 1995 Atlanta The Omni
January 25, 1995 Columbia Carolina Coliseum
January 27, 1995 Orlando Amway Arena
January 30, 1995 Murfreesboro Murphy Center
January 31, 1995 Little Rock Barton Coliseum
February 4, 1995 Minneapolis Target Center
February 5, 1995 La Crosse La Crosse Center
February 7, 1995 Sioux Falls Sioux Falls Center
February 8, 1995 Topeka Kansas Expo Center
February 11, 1995 Dallas State Fair Park Coliseum
February 13, 1995 Omaha Omaha Civic Auditorium
February 14, 1995 St. Louis Kiel Center
February 18, 1995 New Orleans UNO Lakefront Arena

Oceania leg[edit]

The leg was a part of the Alternative Nation Festival.

Typical setlist[edit]

  1. "Pinion"
  2. "Mr. Self Destruct"
  3. "Sin"
  4. "March of the Pigs"
  5. "Piggy"
  6. "Closer"
  7. "Reptile"
  8. "Gave Up
  9. "Wish"
  10. "Dead Souls"
  11. "Help Me I Am in Hell"
  12. "Happiness in Slavery"
  13. "Head Like a Hole"

Tour dates[edit]

Date City Country Venue
April 13, 1995 Brisbane Australia Chandler Sports Complex
April 15, 1995 Sydney Eastern Creek Raceway
April 16, 1995 Melbourne Olympic Park

Dissonance leg[edit]

The band co-headlined with David Bowie on the North American leg on Bowie's Outside Tour in 1995.

Typical setlist[edit]

  1. "Terrible Lie"
  2. "March of the Pigs"
  3. "The Becoming"
  4. "Sanctified"
  5. "Piggy (Nothing Can Stop Me Now)"
  6. "Burn"
  7. "Closer" or "Closer To God"
  8. "Wish"
  9. "Gave Up"
  10. "Down in It"
  11. "Eraser" (Instrumental version)

Nine Inch Nails and David Bowie:

  1. "Subterraneans"
  2. "Scary Monsters"
  3. "Reptile"
  4. "Hallo Spaceboy"
  5. "Hurt"

Tour dates[edit]

Date City Country Venue
September 14, 1995 Hartford United States Meadows Music Theatre
September 16, 1995 Mansfield Great Woods Arts Center
September 17, 1995 Hershey Hersheypark Stadium
September 20, 1995 Toronto Canada SkyDome
September 22, 1995 Camden United States Blockbuster Center
September 23, 1995 Burgettstown Star Lake Amphitheater
September 27, 1995 East Rutherford Meadowlands Arena
September 28, 1995
September 30, 1995 Cuyahoga Falls Blossom Music Center
October 1, 1995 Tinley Park New World Music Theatre
October 3, 1995 Auburn Hills The Palace of Auburn Hills
October 4, 1995 Columbus Polaris Amphitheater
October 5, 1995 Bristow Nissan Pavilion
October 7, 1995 Raleigh Walnut Creek Amphitheatre
October 9, 1995 Atlanta Lakewood Amphitheatre
October 11, 1995 Maryland Heights Riverport Amphitheatre
October 13, 1995 Dallas Starplex Amphitheatre
October 14, 1995 Austin South Park Meadows
October 16, 1995 Denver McNichols Sports Arena
October 18, 1995 Phoenix Desert Sky Pavilion
October 19, 1995 Las Vegas Thomas & Mack Center
October 21, 1995 Mountain View Shoreline Amphitheatre
October 24, 1995 Tacoma Tacoma Dome
October 25, 1995 Portland The Rose Garden
October 28, 1995 Inglewood Great Western Forum
October 29, 1995

North American club leg[edit]

Typical setlist[edit]

  1. "Head Like a Hole"
  2. "Terrible Lie"
  3. "Mr. Self Destruct"
  4. "March of the Pigs"
  5. "Something I Can Never Have"
  6. "Reptile"
  7. "Suck"
  8. "Get Down, Make Love"
  9. "Piggy"
  10. "Closer"
  11. "Down in It"
  12. "Wish"
  13. "Gave Up"
  14. "Happiness in Slavery"
  15. "Sanctified"
  16. "Dead Souls"

Tour dates[edit]

Date City Country Venue
November 4, 1995 Houston United States Numbers
November 6, 1995 New Orleans House of Blues
November 10, 1995 Pensacola Bayfront Auditorium
November 11, 1995 St. Petersburg Jannus Landing
November 12, 1995 Orlando The Edge
November 13, 1995 Fort Lauderdale The Edge
November 15, 1995 Miami Beach Glam Slam
November 27, 1995 Corpus Christi Cantina Santa Fe

Nights of Nothing leg[edit]

Nights of Nothing was an industry showcase organized by Reznor of his vanity label, Nothing Records', talent roster. It ran from August 30, 1996 to September 8, 1996 and spanned three shows. The shows featured performances by his band, Meat Beat Manifesto, Marilyn Manson, Filter and other "special guests."[13][14]

Marilyn Manson incident[edit]

None of us wanted to play this Nothing Records showcase in the first place, and now I've inadvertently injured my drummer, nailing him with a microphone stand and landing him in the hospital. We had wanted to do a Marilyn Manson show to kick off the tour for Antichrist Superstar, but this turned into some sort of strange ego trip which I'm sure was just to make us look foolish. I'm going to go to sleep now and pretend like this didn't happen. This wasn't the beginning of the tour, it was one last favor.

—Marilyn Manson[15]

Following the conclusion of the arduous recording sessions for Marilyn Manson's sophomore album Antichrist Superstar, acrimony between the band, Reznor, and Nothing Records was at its peak.[16][17] The band nevertheless grudgingly agreed to fulfill their contractual obligation to promote the record a little over a month prior to its release by performing on the second evening of Nights of Nothing, at the Irving Plaza on September 5 1996.[15][13] While performing the final song of their five-song set, "1996", Manson picked up a weighted microphone stand and proceeded to smash the drumkit.[13][18] Drummer Ginger Fish kept playing what remained of his disintegrating equipment until Manson accidentally struck him on the side of the head with the weighted base, sending him face first to the floor unconscious.[18][19] Manson then walked offstage while the crowd looked on to see whether or not the drummer was alright.[18][19] Fish managed to crawl a few inches before he collapsed and was carried away by road crew to the hospital.[18][19] Fish's injury necessitated five stitches and a brief rumor spread the incident was a deliberate assault.[13] Fish later recounted that had he not turned his head at the last moment the stand would have hit him directly in the face and said of the incident, "we just get a little carried away sometimes."[19]

Typical setlist[edit]

  1. "Terrible Lie"
  2. "March of the Pigs"
  3. "Sanctified"
  4. "Wish"
  5. "Suck"
  6. "Down in It"
  7. "Animal" (Prick cover)
  8. "Tough" (Prick cover)
  9. "R.S.V.P." (Pop Will Eat Itself cover, with Clint Mansell)
  10. "Wise Up! Sucker" (Pop Will Eat Itself cover, with Clint Mansell)
  11. "Head Like a Hole"
  12. "Something I Can Never Have"

"Dead Souls" was played at the Atlanta show.

Tour dates[edit]

Date City Country Venue
August 30, 1996 New Orleans United States Jimmy's
September 5, 1996 New York City Irving Plaza
September 8, 1996 Atlanta The Masquerade

Canceled dates[edit]

Date City Country Venue
March 31, 1994 Melbourne Australia The Palace
April 1, 1994
April 3, 1994 Adelaide Heaven
April 5, 1994 Canberra ANU Refectory
April 6, 1994 Wollongong Waves
April 7, 1994 Newcastle Workers Club
April 9, 1994 Sydney Selinas
April 10, 1994 Brisbane The Roxy
April 12, 1994 Auckland New Zealand The Powerstation
May 10, 1994 Toronto Canada Palladium
June 6, 1994 Stockholm Sweden Gino
February 2, 1995 Lincoln United States Pershing Auditorium
February 10, 1995 Lubbock
February 13, 1995 Columbia Hearnes Center
February 16, 1995 Pensacola Pensacola Civic Center



  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Huxley, Martin (September 1997). Nine Inch Nails: Self Destruct. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-15612-X.
  2. ^ Umstead, Thomas R. (August 22, 1994). "Feedback muddy from Woodstock PPV". Multichannel News. 15 (32): 3–4. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011.
  3. ^ Graff, Gary. "Band's Hot Image Rooted In Woodstock '94 Mud". Detroit Free Press.
  4. ^ "The Pit: Nine Inch Nails". Guitar School. May 1995.
  5. ^ Hajari, Nisid (December 1994). "Trent Reznor : The Entertainers". Entertainment Weekly.
  6. ^ Chun, Gary (September 14, 2007). "Reznor's edge cuts NIN's bleak outlook". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
  7. ^ Christensen, Thor (October 13, 1995). "Outside looking in" (fee required). The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved March 29, 2008.
  8. ^ Kaye, Don (September 1996). "Nailed! Trent's Posse Pound New York". Kerrang!.
  9. ^ Moss, Coret (September 18, 2001). "Vrenna Leaves NIN Behind To Explore What's Uncertain". MTV. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
  10. ^ Ramirez, Mike (February 2001). "Nothing is Temporary". Blue Divide Magazine. 2 (1).
  11. ^ Sori, Alexandra (June 3, 2017). "A Brief History of Marilyn Manson Pissing Off Jesus Christ". Noisey. Vice Media. Archived from the original on January 27, 2019. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  12. ^ Maffly, Brian (January 9, 1997). "'Manson' Fans Will Keep Pressing Civil Suit Against State Fairpark; 'Manson' Fans Will Press Ahead With Suit". The Salt Lake Tribune. Salt Lake City: Huntsman Family Investments, LLC. p. D1. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  13. ^ a b c d Kaufman, Gil (September 12, 1996). "Nine Inch Nails & Other Tales From CMJ". MTV. Viacom Media Networks. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  14. ^ Kaufman, Gil (September 30, 1996). "About That NIN/ Filter Reconciliation". MTV. Viacom Media Networks. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  15. ^ a b Manson & Strauss 1998, p. 247
  16. ^ Manson & Strauss 1998, p. 218-244
  17. ^ Jackson, Alex (September 10, 1996). "Recording Antichrist Superstar A "Trying Experience" For Manson". MTV. Viacom Media Networks. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  18. ^ a b c d Micallef, Ken (1996). "Marilyn Manson's Ginger Fish". Pulse!. Sacramento, California: Tower Records (MTS Inc).
  19. ^ a b c d Circus Magazine staff (December 1, 1996). "Ginger Fish & Zim Zum". Circus. United States: Gerald Rothberg. ISSN 0009-7365.