Sevā

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Kar seva at the Golden Temple

Sevā (also transcribed as sewa), in Hinduism and Sikhism, is the concept of selfless service that is performed without any expectation of result or award for performing it. Such services can be performed to benefit other human beings or society. Seva means "service". A more recent interpretation of the word is "dedication to others".[1] In Hinduism, it is also known as karma yoga, as described in the Bhagavata Gita.[2]

Etymology and religious significance[edit]

Seva comes from the Sanskrit root sev-, "to serve", and is a central concept in both contemporary Hinduism and Sikhism.

In Hinduism, seva means selfless service and is often associated with karma yoga, disciplined action, and bhakti yoga, disciplined devotion. Seva is also connected to other Sanskrit concepts such as dāna (gift giving), karunā (compassion), and preman (kindness).[3]

In Sikhism, the word seva also means "to worship, to adore, to pay homage through the act of love." In the writings of Sikh gurus, these two meanings of seva (service and worship) have been merged. Seva is expected to be a labour of love performed without desire and intention, and with humility.[4]

Kar seva, a concept of Sikhism, is often translated as "voluntary labour". A volunteer for kar seva is called a kar sevak. A kar sevak is someone who freely offers their services to a religious cause.[5] Sikhs use the term kar sevak to represent people who engage in ministrations, altruistic philanthropy, and humanitarian endeavours in service to religion and society. Sevadar (Punjabi: ਸੇਵਾਦਾਰ; also transcribed as sewadar), literally "seva-supporter", is another Punjabi word for a volunteer who performs seva.[6][7]

The idea of selfless service (seva) is an important concept in several religions because God is perceived as having an interest in the well-being of others as well as oneself; serving other people is considered an essential devotional practise of indirectly serving God and living a religious life that is a benefit to others. People of every religion are included in this service.[8]

Seva in Hinduism[edit]

In Hinduism, seva is the concept of service to God and/or humanity, without the expectation of return. According to Hindu scriptures, seva is seen as the highest form of dharma (righteousness). Seva has been said to provide good karma which facilitates the atma (soul) to obtain moksha (emancipation from the cycle of death and rebirth).[9] Before the early nineteenth century, the meaning of seva (serving or honouring) had been virtually synonymous with that of puja (worship), which typically also included distribution of prasad (sacrificial offerings or consecrated food), such as food, fruits, and sweets to all gathered.[10][11][12] Thus, seva typically involved offering of food to a deity and its murti (idol), followed by the distribution of said food as prasad.[13] The concept of seva and karma yoga is explained in the Bhagavad Gita, where Krishna expounds on the subject. In modern times, the concept has been taken to volunteering for the greater good, such as in disaster relief and other major incidents.[14]

Seva in Sikhism[edit]

Kar seva, (Gurmukhi: ਕਾਰ ਸੇਵਾ) from the Sanskrit words kar, meaning hands or work, and seva, meaning service,[15][16] is one of the main teachings of Sikhism — including its ordained philosophy, in Sikh scripture, theology, and hermeneutics. A tradition set forth with the clear understanding that there is God within all of us, and thus by serving humanity you are serving God's creation.[17][18]

Seva in Sikhism takes three forms: tan (Gurmukhi: ਤਨ), meaning physical service, i.e. manual labour, man (Gurmukhi: ਮਨ), meaning mental service, such as studying to help others, and dhan (Gurmukhi: ਧਨ), meaning material service, including financial support.[19] Sikhism stresses kirat karō (Gurmukhi: ਕਿਰਤ ਕਰੋ), "honest work", and vaṇḍ chakkō (Gurmukhi: ਵੰਡ ਛਕੋ), sharing what you have by giving to the needy for the benefit of the community.[20] It is duty of every Sikh to engage in Seva wherever possible, such as volunteering at a Gurdwara, community center, senior living centers, care centers, sites of major world disasters etc.[21] Seva is also performed further by offering service for a religious cause, often for constructing a gurdwara, a place of worship serving the One Creator which performs community services such as liturgy and providing communal food kitchens open to all communities and religions, regardless of those who attended the service or not, where the volunteers prepare and serve meals.[22][23]

Criticism[edit]

Kar Sewa appeal for the construction of the clock tower gateway entrance to the Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab, ca.1951

Some Kar Seva groups and organizations have been criticized for their lack of care for and apathy towards preserving historical Sikh heritage sites, artwork, and architecture during renovation and construction projects.[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] Large amounts of historical Sikh scriptural manuscripts have been systematically "cremated" (burnt to destruction)[33][34] over the years at secretive ‘Angitha Sahib’ gurdwaras in Punjab and around India under the guise of kar seva.[35][36] This practice is criticized for systematically destroying historical manuscripts rendering them unable to be researched, archived, repaired, or conserved for future generations.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schlecker Markus, Fleischer Friederike (14 June 2013). Ethnographies of Social Support. p. 180. ISBN 978-1137330963.
  2. ^ Phillips, Stephen (26 June 2009). Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy. Columbia University Press. p. 100. ISBN 9780231144841. Thus outlined, yoga can be done in the world, in all kinds of action done for the sake of sacrifice. Yoga becomes seva, service.
  3. ^ Jacobsen, Knut A. (29 May 2018), "Sevā", Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism Online, Brill, retrieved 16 April 2022
  4. ^ Virdee, Gurmit Singh (2005). "Labour of love: Kar seva at Darbar Sahib's Amrit Sarover". Sikh Formations: Religion, Culture, Theory. 1 (1): 13–28. doi:10.1080/17448720500231409. S2CID 144267107.
  5. ^ Alter, Stephen (2001). Amritsar to Lahore: A Journey Across the India-Pakistan Border. University of Pennsylvania Press,Incorporated. p. 198. ISBN 9780812217438.
  6. ^ "Sewa". Khalsa VA Primary School.
  7. ^ McLeod, W. H. (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press. p. 184. ISBN 9780810863446.
  8. ^ Sewa, Selfless Service sikhphilosophy.net.
  9. ^ Gibson, Lynne (2002). Hinduism. Heinemann Educational. p. 56. ISBN 9780435336196.
  10. ^ "Prasada". Encyclopædia Britannica.
    • "Puja". Encyclopædia Britannica.

  11. ^ Jensen, Lene (2020). The Oxford Handbook of Moral Development: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 341. ISBN 9780190676056. The communal preparing and sharing of food or prasad (sacred food offered to the deity and then distributed among the followers) is particularly important as an activity binding together a community of followers.
  12. ^ Hawley, John (2006). The Life of Hinduism. University of California Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780520249141.
  13. ^ Cush, Denise (2012). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Routledge. p. 783. ISBN 9781135189792.
  14. ^ "Tip Sheets: Engaging Faith Communities . Engagement Guidelines: Hindu Leaders" (PDF). FEMA. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  15. ^ Singha, H. S. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism. Hemkunt Press. p. 121. ISBN 8170103010.
  16. ^ Christiane Brosius, Melissa Butcher (1999). Image journeys: audio-visual media and cultural change in India. Sage Publications. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-7619-9325-4.
  17. ^ Goshen-Gottstein, Alon (2018). Interreligious Reflections, Six Volume Set. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 259. ISBN 9781532671524.
  18. ^ Hett, Geoffrey (2021). Diversity, Culture and Counselling. Brush Education. p. 162. ISBN 9781550598759.
  19. ^ Wood, Angela (1997). Movement and Change. Cheltenham, England: Nelson Thornes. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-17-437067-3.
  20. ^ Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (2005). A Popular Dictionary of Sikhism: Sikh Religion and Philosophy. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge. pp. 31, 59. ISBN 978-1-135-79760-7.
  21. ^ Volz, Christian (2014). Six Ethics A Rights-Based Approach to Establishing an Objective Common Morality. Ebookit.com. p. 278. ISBN 9781456606916.
  22. ^ Kim-Prieto, Chu (2014). Religion and Spirituality Across Cultures. Springer Netherlands. p. 129. ISBN 9789401789509.
  23. ^ Singha, H.S. (2000). The encyclopedia of Sikhism : over 1000 entries. Hemkunt Publishers. p. 121. ISBN 9788170103011.
  24. ^ Singh, Gurnam (21 April 2021). "Who's really destroying Sikh heritage?". Asia Samachar. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  25. ^ Singh, I. P.; Aug 23, Yudhvir Rana / TNN / Updated; 2021; Ist, 08:19. "Sikhs wake up late to the loss of religious heritage | Ludhiana News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  26. ^ Mar 31, Yudhvir Rana / TNN /; 2019; Ist, 18:02. "Karsewa group demolish historical darshani deori | Amritsar News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  27. ^ "Beleaguered over Destruction of Heritage, SGPC Plans to Initiate Sikh Archives Project". Sikh24.com. Sikh24 Punjab Bureau. 31 July 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  28. ^ Apr 15, TNN /; 2003; Ist, 23:45. "Stop 'kar seva': SAD-A to SGPC | Chandigarh News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  29. ^ "Sikhs aghast with tearing down of historic Sikh site in name of 'kar seva'". asiasamachar.com. Asia Samachar Team. Retrieved 8 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  30. ^ "UPDATE: Kar Seva's Baba Jagtar Singh Evicted from Sri Tarn Taran Sahib". Sikh24.com. Sikh24 Editors. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  31. ^ Oct 7, IP Singh / TNN /; 2018; Ist, 07:35. "Heritage under the hammer | Ludhiana News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  32. ^ "Frescos of Hindu gods whitewashed". The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Main News - www.tribuneindia.com. Tribune News Service. 26 July 2003. Retrieved 8 January 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  33. ^ Mann, Gurinder Singh (2001). "8 The Guru Granth Sahib". The Making of Sikh Scripture. Oxford Academic. pp. 121–136. ...all old manuscripts were sent to Goindval for "cremation" in the late 1980s
  34. ^ Sikh art from the Kapany Collection. P. M. Taylor, Sonia Dhami, Sikh Foundation, National Museum of Natural History. Asian Cultural History Program (First Indian ed.). New Delhi, India. 2021. pp. 296–302. ISBN 978-81-949691-2-9. OCLC 1258082801.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  35. ^ Dogra, Chander Suta (27 May 2013). "Endangered texts". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  36. ^ Saxena, Shivani (23 November 2014). "For 25 years, a gurdwara near Dehradun has been cremating old copies of sacred texts | Dehradun News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 January 2023.