Semarang

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This article is about the city. For the regency, see Semarang Regency.
"Samarang" redirects here. For the 1933 American action film, see Samarang (film).
Semarang
City
Other transcription(s)
 • Hanacaraka ꦯꦼꦩꦫꦁ
 • Chinese 三寶瓏
 • Pinyin Sān bǎo lǒng
Becak Tugu Muda Semarang Central Java.jpg
Lawang sewu (2013).jpg
Mesjid Agung Semarang 2009.jpg Sam Po Kong Temple Semarang Indonesia.jpg Exterior of Blenduk Church, Semarang, 2014-06-18.jpg
Clockwise from top:
Tugu Muda monument, Old Town area of Semarang, Blenduk Church, Sam Poo Kong temple, Great Mosque of Central Java and Lawang Sewu
Official seal of Semarang
Seal
Nickname(s): Venetië van Java, Lumpia City
Motto: Semarang Kota ATLAS
Semarang is located in Indonesia
Semarang
Semarang
Location of Semarang in Indonesia
Coordinates: 6°58′S 110°25′E / 6.967°S 110.417°E / -6.967; 110.417Coordinates: 6°58′S 110°25′E / 6.967°S 110.417°E / -6.967; 110.417
Country Indonesia
Province Central Java
Government
 • Mayor Hendrar Prihadi
Area
 • City 373.78 km2 (144.32 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,643.4 km2 (634.5 sq mi)
Elevation 4 m (13 ft)
Population (2010 Census)
 • City 1,555,984
 • Density 4,200/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 3,183,516
 • Metro density 1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Semarangian
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Area code(s) +6224
License plate H
Website www.semarangkota.go.id
Semarang
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 三寶壟
Simplified Chinese 三宝垄
Javanese name
Javanese ꦯꦼꦩꦫꦁ

Semarang (formerly Dutch: Samarang, Indonesian: Kota Semarang), is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. It is the capital and largest city of the province of Central Java.

It has an area of 373.78 square kilometres (144.32 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1.8 million people, making it Indonesia's fifth most populous city [1] and the fifth largest Indonesian city after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, and Medan. The built-up (metro) area had 3,183,516 inhabitants at the 2010 census spread on 2 cities and 26 districts.[2] Greater Semarang (a.k.a. Kedungsapur) has a population of close to 6 million (see Greater Semarang section), and is located at 6°58′S 110°25′E / 6.967°S 110.417°E / -6.967; 110.417. A major port during the Dutch colonial era, and still an important regional center and port today, the city has a dominant Javanese population.

History[edit]

A Chinese house in Semarang at the turn of the 20th century
Historical affiliations

Demak Sultanate 1547-1554
Kingdom of Pajang 1568-1587
 Mataram Sultanate 1587-1705
 Dutch East India Company 1705-1799
 Dutch East Indies 1800-1942
 Empire of Japan 1942-1945
 Dutch East Indies 1945-1949
United States of Indonesia 1949-1950
 Indonesia 1950-present

In 1678, Sunan Amangkurat II promised to give control of Semarang to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a part of a debt payment. In 1682, the Semarang state was founded by the Dutch colonial power. On 5 October 1705 after years of occupations, Semarang officially became a VOC city when Susuhunan Pakubuwono I made a deal to give extensive trade rights to the VOC in exchange of wiping out Mataram's debt. The VOC, and later, the Dutch East Indies government, established tobacco plantations in the region and built roads and railroads, making Semarang an important colonial trading centre.[citation needed]

NIS company head office (Gedung Lawang Sewu), Semarang, Dutch East Indies.

The historic presence of a large Indo (Eurasian) community in the area of Semarang is also reflected by the fact a creole mix language called Javindo existed there.[3]

Classical Indische Town (1678–1870)[edit]

The early VOC settlement of Semarang with its prominent pentagonal fortress.

Semarang was handed by the Sultan of Mataram to the Dutch East Indies in 1678. The city was pictured as a small settlement with a pious Muslim area called Kauman, a Chinese quarter, and a Dutch fortress. The fortress has a pentagonal form with only one gate in the south and five monitoring towers to protect the Dutch settlement from rebellion actions, segregating the spaces between Dutch settlement and other areas.[4] In fact, the city of Semarang was only referred to the Dutch quarter while the other ethnic settlement were considered as villages outside the city boundary. The city, known as de Europeesche Buurt, was built in classical European style with church located in the centre, wide boulevards and streets skirted by beautiful villas.[5] According to Purwanto (2005),[6] the urban and architectural form of this settlement is very similar to the design principles applied in many Dutch cities, which begun to concern on the urban beautification.

Due to the long and costly Java War, there were not much of funding from the Dutch East Indies government, effecting the development of Semarang. The majority of land was used for rice fields and the only small improvement was the development of surrounding fortress. Although less developed, Semarang has a fairly arranged city system, in which urban activities were concentrated along the river and the settlement was linked to a market where different ethnic groups met to trade. The existence of the market, in the later years, become a primary element and a generator of urban economic growths.[7]

An important influence on urban growth was the Great Mail Road project in the 1847, which connected all the cities in northern coast of Central and East Java and made Semarang as the trade centre of agricultural production.[8] The project was soon followed by the development of the Netherlands Indies railway and the connecting roads into the inner city of Semarang at the end of 19th century.[7] Colombijn (2002)[8] marked the development as the shift of urban functions, from the former river orientation to all services facing the roads.

The modern city (1870–1922)[edit]

Aerial picture of Old Semarang area in 1920s.
Old locomotive next to the Lawang Sewu building

Improved communication, as the result of the Mail and Railway projects, had brought an economic booming for the city in the 1870s. There were hospital, churches, hotels, and large houses built along the new main roads; Bojongscheweg, Pontjolscheweg, and Mataram street, causing denser population in the ethnic settlements and creating the urban kampong.[5]

Urban growth had made acutely dense the urban kampong, reaching the number of 1000 inhabitants per hectare and degrading the quality of living condition.[9] In this early 20th century, mortality rate was very high due to the overcrowding and lack of hygiene that triggered the invasion of cholera and tuberculosis.[10] Cobban (1993)[9] noted the ethical movement of kampongverbetering led by Henry Tillema in 1913 and the concern of the Advisor for Decentralisation for kampong improvement through the betterment of public toilets, drainage, and the planning of public housing.

In 1917, a healthy housing project was implemented in the Southern part of Semarang called Candi Baru. Thomas Karsten, the advisor for city planning, transformed the concept of ethnic segregation that divided previous urban settlements into a new housing district plan based on economic classes. Although practically the three ethnic groups were also divided into three economic classes where the Dutch and rich Chinese occupied the largest lots in the housing district,[5] Karsten had effectively emerged the developed district by integrating the road network, introducing newly improved public wash and bathing, squares and sporting facilities that can be utilised communally.[11] Following the Candi Baru, there were three other housing plans between 1916–1919 to accommodate 55% population increase in Semarang; 45,000 Javanese, 8500 Chinese and 7000 Europeans. Karsten marked a new approach to town planning which emphasis on the aesthetic, practical and social requirements, articulated not in terms of racial terms but economic zones.[11]

Driven by economic growth and spatial city planning, the city had doubled in size and expanded to the south by the 1920s, creating a nucleus of a metropolis where multi-ethnic groups lived and traded in the city. The villages in the suburbs such as Jomblang and Jatingaleh steadily became the satellite towns of Semarang, more populated with a bigger market area. Before the invasion of Japan in 1942, Semarang had already become the capital of Central Java Province, as the result of trade and industrial success and spatial planning.[5]

Japanese occupation and early independence[edit]

The Japanese military occupied the city, along with the rest of Java, in 1942, during the Pacific War of World War II. During that time, Semarang was headed by a military governor called a Shiko, and two vice governors known as Fuku Shiko. One of the vice governors was appointed from Japan, and the other was chosen from the local population.[citation needed]

After Indonesian independence in 1945, Semarang became the capital of Central Java province.[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

Semarang is located on the northern coast of Java.

Climate[edit]

Semarang features a tropical rainforest climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate. The city features distinctly wetter and drier months, with June through August being the driest months. However, in none of these months does average precipitation fall below 60 mm, hence the tropical rainforest categorization. Semarang on average sees approximately 2800 mm of rain annually. Average temperatures in the city are relatively consistent, hovering around 28 degrees Celsius.

Climate data for Semarang
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
(85)
29
(85)
30
(86)
31
(88)
32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(90)
32
(90)
31
(88)
30
(86)
31
(88)
Average low °C (°F) 25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
26
(78)
26
(78)
25
(77)
24
(76)
24
(76)
25
(77)
26
(78)
26
(78)
25
(77)
25
(77)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 430
(16.93)
360
(14.17)
320
(12.6)
230
(9.06)
160
(6.3)
80
(3.15)
80
(3.15)
60
(2.36)
100
(3.94)
160
(6.3)
220
(8.66)
330
(12.99)
2,780
(109.45)
Source: Weatherbase [12]

Ethnicity[edit]

The dominant Semarang ethnic is Javanese, followed by minorities of Chinese, India, Arab, and others (including local ethnics such as Sundanese, Batak, Madura, etc.).

Semarang Chinese[edit]

There are only about 4-5 % of Chinese ethnic and around 139.878 in central java .Chinese Ethnicity in Semarang is centered on China town that are located in Gang Pinggir. China town warungs open every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evening. Other similar warungs closed from Monday – Thursday. The Chinatown is called “Kampong Pecinan Semawis” and it offers a great variety of meals, Chinese accessories, and Chinese worship equipment.

Flood control[edit]

In August 2011, a 421 metres (1,381 ft) tunnel dodger at Kreo river has been finished and Jatibarang Dam construction can begin, with completion targeted for July 2013. The dam is planned to ease 230 cubic metres (8,100 cu ft) per second of flood water and will generate 1.5 Megawatts of electricity, provide a drinking water resource and a boost to tourism.[13]

Indonesian teak furniture in the city center

Transport[edit]

Air[edit]

Semarang's Achmad Yani airport is served by a number of operators including Air Asia, Garuda and Lion Air.[14]

Road[edit]

The primary means of public transportation is by minibus, called "bis." Semarang's largest bus terminals are Mangkang and Terboyo.[15]

A bus rapid transit serves Semarang, called Trans Semarang.[16]

Semarang has a toll road, the Semarang Toll Road.[17] The Semarang-Solo Toll Road is under construction.[18]

Semarang is on Indonesian National Route 1 that connects it to Merak and Ketapang (Banyuwangi). Indonesian National Route 14 toward Bawen starts here.

Rail[edit]

Semarang Old Town.

Semarang was connected to Surakarta (Solo) by a rail line in 1870.[19]

There are two large train stations in Semarang: Semarang Poncol and Semarang Tawang.

Sea[edit]

The main seaport is the Tanjung Mas seaport.

The Great Mosque of Central Java, the largest mosque in the city.

Sights and Landmarks[edit]

Tugu Muda[edit]

Tugu Muda (English “Young Monument”) is a monument built to commemorate the services of the heroes who have fallen in the Battle of Five Days in Semarang. The height of Tugu Muda is 53 meters. Tugu Muda is located in front of Lawang Sewu at Pemuda street. It depicts the Tugu Muda fighting spirit and patriotism of Semarang residents, especially the youth who are persistent, self-sacrificing in high spirits maintaining the independence of Indonesia. The laying of the first stone took place on October 28, 1945, by Mr. Wongsonegoro (Governor of Central Java) at the originally planned location is near the square.

Education[edit]

There are 600 elementary schools, 219 junior high schools and 97 senior high schools, both public and private in Semarang [1].

Universities[edit]

There are 20 universities in Semarang, 12 of them private and 8 public. The most renowned universities of Semarang are Diponegoro University and Soegijapranata University.

Dipenegoro University (UNDIP) is one of national or state-owned universities in Semarang, founded in 1956. The university has 11 faculties: Faculty of Economics and Business, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Fishery and Marine Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Faculty of Public Health, Faculty of Animal Agriculture, and Faculty of Psychology. The university also offers a postgraduate program.

Soegijapranata Catholic University (UNIKA) is on of private universities in Semarang, founded in 1982. There are 8 faculties in UNIKA: Faculty of Architecture and Design, Faculty of Law and Communication, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Language and Arts, Faculty of Economics and Business, Faculty of Agricultural and Technology, Faculty of Psychology, and Faculty of Computer Science.

Sport Centers[edit]

There are several sport centers in Semarang. Jatidiri sport centre or Jatidiri Stadium is one of the biggest sport centres in Semarang, located in Karangrejo, Gajah Mungkur. The centre comprises a soccer field, in line skate track, tennis filed, climbing wall, swimming pool, and many others. The capacity of the centre is about 21.000 people [2].

Knight Stadium is a futsal and basketball center in Semarang, located in Grand Marina complex. There is a café and fitness center in Knight Stadium [3].

Temples[edit]

Blenduk Church, the oldest church in Central Java.
Statue of Admiral Cheng Ho that located in front of the Kelenteng Kay Tak Sie, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia.
A holy place dedicated to Sam Poo Tay Djien inside of Kelenteng Kay Tak Sie in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia

The Sam Poo Kong temple is the oldest Chinese temple in the city.[20]

Semarang River[edit]

As Singapore River, Semarang is constructing Semarang River at Banjir Kanal Barat (Garang River) near Karangayu Bridge. In medio July 2011, gardens in river banks and some traditional boats have available to use. The project will be finished in 2013 with river gardens, trotoars, gardens lighting, water activities, art sites, sport sites and balcony-and-stairs for sightseeing.[21]

Food[edit]

Lumpia Semarang.

Semarang is widely known for its Bandeng presto (pressure-cooked milkfish), Lumpia, Wingko, Tahu Gimbal, and Ganjel Rel. Semarang has also been called 'The city of Jamu' because it is an important centre for the production of jamu which are a wide range of Indonesian herbal medicines that are very popular across Indonesia.[22]

Greater Semarang[edit]

Suburbanization has occurred to a great extent in Java, and Semarang is no exception. Greater Semarang was initially defined as Semarang, Semarang Regency, the newly carved Salatiga city, Kendal Regency, and Demak Regency.[23]

Administrative division Area (km²) Population (2010 Census) Population density (/km²)
Semarang Municipality 373.70 2,067,254 5,531.85
Semarang Regency 981.95 930,727 947.83
Salatiga Municipality 56,781 177,088 3,118.79
Kendal Regency 1,002.23 900,313 898.31
Demak Regency 897.43 1,055,579 1,176.2
Grobogan Regency 1,975.865 1,413,328 715.3
Greater Semarang 5,287.96 6,544,289 1,238.83

Notable people born in Semarang[edit]

Festivals[edit]

Dugderan is an annual festival in Semarang desecrated to welcome the Ramadan month (a fasting month for Moslems). The word “dug” describes the sound of bedug (traditional Indonesian musical instrument). The word “der” describes the sound of fireworks.

The icon of the festival is a special puppet dragon-like animal called Warak Ngendog. The word “warak“ stands for “holy” and the word “ngendog“ expresses a reward for Moslems. Warak Ngendog’s feet are chained, representing people’s desire that should be postponed during this holy month. As Dugderan is a festival unique for Semarang, it represents an important attraction for both local and non-residential people [4].

Sister cities[edit]

Semarang is twinned with:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Jumlah Penduduk Kota Semarang" [Population of Semarang] (in Indonesian). Dinas Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil Kota Semarang. October 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2016. 
  2. ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/php/indonesia-jawa-admin.php
  3. ^ De Gruiter, Miel. "Javindo, a contact language in pre-war Semarang". (Peter Bakker & Maarten Mous. Mixed Languages: 15 Case Studies in Language Intertwining. Amsterdam: IFOTT. 1994.) pp. 151–159.
  4. ^ Purwanto, L. M. F. (2005). Kota Kolonial Lama Semarang. Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, 33(1), 27-33
  5. ^ a b c d Pratiwo. (2005). The City Planning of Semarang 1900–1970. In F. Colombijn, M. Barwegen, P. Basundoro & J. A. Khusyairi (Eds.), Old City, New City: The History of the Indonesian City Before and After Independence. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Ombak.
  6. ^ Purwanto, L. M. F. (2005). Kota Kolonial Lama Semarang. Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, 33(1), 27-33.
  7. ^ a b Nas, P. J. M., & Pratiwo. (2002). Java and De Groote Postweg, La Grande Route, the Great Mail Road, Jalan Raya Pos’. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde, 158(4), 707–725.
  8. ^ a b Colombijn, F. (2002). Introduction; On the road. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde, 158(4), 595-617.
  9. ^ a b Cobban, J. L. (1993). Public Housing in Colonial Indonesia 1900–1940. Modern Asian Studies, 27(04), 871-896.
  10. ^ Silver, C. (2008). Planning the megacity: Jakarta in the twentieth century: Psychology Press.
  11. ^ a b Cote, J. (2004). Colonial designs: Thomas Karsten and the planning of urban Indonesia. Imprint, 2004, 01-01.
  12. ^ "Weatherbase: Weather for Semarang, Indonesia". Weatherbase. 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  13. ^ Wijaya, Royce (13 August 2011). "Bendungan Utama Waduk Jatibarang Dikerjakan". Suara Merdeka. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. 
  14. ^ "Flights". Semarang. Lonely Planet. Retrieved 3 December 2015. 
  15. ^ "Terminal Terboyo Rusak Parah, Terminal Mangkang Sepi". Jawa Pos (in Indonesian). 13 June 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2016. 
  16. ^ Purbaya, Angling Adhitya (8 December 2016). "Pengguna Angkutan Umum Meningkat, Kota Semarang Diganjar Penghargaan". detikNews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 December 2016. 
  17. ^ "Semarang". Jasa Marga. Retrieved 28 December 2016. 
  18. ^ Munir, Syahrul (6 December 2016). Alexander, Hilda B, ed. "Tol Bawen-Salatiga Dijadwalkan Beroperasi Maret 2017". Kompas. Retrieved 28 December 2016. 
  19. ^ Cohen, Matthew Isaac (2006). The Komedie Stamboel: Popular Theater in Colonial Indonesia, 1891-1903. Ohio University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-89680-246-9. 
  20. ^ Suherdjoko (8 February 2016). "It's Chinese New Year for all in Semarang". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 8 February 2016. 
  21. ^ Isti, Bambang (16 July 2011). "Eloknya Singapore River di Banjirkanal Barat". Suara Merdeka (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 December 2016. 
  22. ^ Kamah, Wahyuni (26 March 2012). "Semarang: Indonesia's City of Jamu". The Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. 
  23. ^ Soetomo, Sugiono (2004). "Urban Development as the interface of Regional Development from Below in central Java - Indonesia: the Case of Semarang Metropolitan" (PDF). 40th ISoCaRP Congress. International Society of City and Regional Planners. Retrieved 28 December 2016. 
  24. ^ "Semarang - Indonesia". Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 15 March 2011. 
  25. ^ Mardiani, Dewi (6 September 2012). "Kerja Sama Sister City Semarang-Da Nang Akan Ditingkatkan". Republika. Retrieved 28 December 2016. 
  26. ^ "Marzuki: Hubungan Indonesia-Vietnam Harus Ditingkatkan" (in Indonesian). Antara. 5 September 2012. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014 – via Yahoo News. 
  • Graaf, H. J. de (Hermanus Johannes), 1899-(?), "Chinese Muslims in Java in the 15th and 16th centuries : the Malay Annals of Semarang and Cerbon / translated and provided with comments by H.J. de Graaf and Th.G.Th. Pigeaud; edited by M.C. Ricklefs. Publisher: [Melbourne] : Monash University, 1984. Description: xiii, 221 p. : folded map ; 21 cm. ISBN 0-86746-419-4 : Series: Monash papers on Southeast Asia ; no. 12

External links[edit]