Semen cryopreservation (commonly called sperm banking) is a procedure to preserve sperm cells. Semen can be used successfully indefinitely after cryopreservation. For human sperm, the longest reported successful storage is 22 years. It can be used for sperm donation where the recipient wants the treatment in a different time or place, or as a means of preserving fertility for men undergoing vasectomy or treatments that may compromise their fertility, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy or surgery.
The most common cryoprotectant used for semen is glycerol (10% in culture medium). Often sucrose or other di-, trisaccharides are added to glycerol solution. Cryoprotectant media may be supplemented with either egg yolk or soy lecithin, with the two having no statistically significant differences compared to each other regarding motility, morphology, ability to bind to hyaluronate in vitro, or DNA integrity after thawing.
Additional cryoprotectants can be used to increase sperm viability and fertility rates post-freezing. Treatment of sperm with heparin binding proteins prior to cryopreservation showed decreased cryoinjury and generation of ROS. The addition of nerve growth factor as a cryoprotectant decreases sperm cell death rates and increased motility after thawing. Incorporation of cholesterol into sperm cell membranes with the use of cyclodextrins prior to freezing also increases sperm viability.
Semen is frozen using either a controlled-rate, slow-cooling method (slow programmable freezing or SPF) or a newer flash-freezing process known as vitrification. Vitrification gives superior post-thaw motility and cryosurvival than slow programmable freezing.
Thawing at 40 °C seems to result in optimal sperm motility. On the other hand, the exact thawing temperature seems to have only minor effect on sperm viability, acrosomal status, ATP content, and DNA. As with freezing, various techniques have been developed for the thawing process, both discussed by Di Santo et al. (2012)
In terms of the level of sperm DNA fragmentation, up to three cycles of freezing and thawing can be performed without causing a level of risk significantly higher than following a single cycle of freezing and thawing. This is provided that samples are refrozen in their original cryoprotectant and are not going through sperm washing or other alteration in between, and provided that they are separated by density gradient centrifugation or swim-up before use in assisted reproduction technology.
Effect on quality
Some evidence suggests an increase in single-strand breaks, condensation and fragmentation of DNA in sperm after cryopreservation. This can potentially increase the risk of mutations in offspring DNA. Antioxidants and the use of well-controlled cooling regimes could potentially improve outcomes.
In long-term follow-up studies, no evidence has been found either of an increase in birth defects or chromosomal abnormalities in people conceived from cryopreserved sperm compared with the general population.
- Planer NEWS and Press Releases > Child born after 22 year semen storage using Planer controlled rate freezer 14/10/2004
- Reed ML; et al. (2009). "Soy lecithin replaces egg yolk for cryopreservation of human sperm without adversely affecting postthaw motility, morphology, sperm DNA integrity, or sperm binding to hyaluronate". Fertility and Sterility. 92 (5): 1787–1790. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.05.026.
- Patel, M., Gandotra, V. K., Cheema, R. S., Bansal, A. K., & Kumar, A. (2016). Seminal Plasma Heparin Binding Proteins Improve Semen Quality by Reducing Oxidative Stress during Cryopreservation of Cattle Bull Semen. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 29(9), 1247–1255.
- Saeednia S, Bahadoran H, Amidi F, Asadi MH, Naji M, Fallahi P, Nejad NA (2015). "Nerve growth factor in human semen: Effect of nerve growth factor on the normozoospermic men during cryopreservation process". Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 18 (3): 292–299.
- Purdy PH, Graham JK (2004a). "Effect of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin on the cryosurvival of bull sperm". Cryobiology. 48: 36–45. doi:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2003.12.001.
- Vutyavanich T, Piromlertamorn W, Nunta S (April 2010). "Rapid freezing versus slow programmable freezing of human spermatozoa". Fertil. Steril. 93 (6): 1921–8. PMID 19243759. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.04.076.
- Calamera JC, Buffone MG, Doncel GF, et al. (December 2008). "Effect of thawing temperature on the motility recovery of cryopreserved human spermatozoa". Fertil. Steril. 93 (3): 789–794. PMID 19059590. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.10.021.
- Di Santo M, Tarozzi N, Nadalini M, and Borini A (2012). "Human Sperm Cryopreservation: Update on Techniques, Effect on DNA Integrity, and Implications for ART (Review)". Adv. Urology. 2012: 854837. PMC . PMID 22194740. doi:10.1155/2012/854837.
- Thomson LK, Fleming SD, Barone K, Zieschang JA, Clark AM (March 2010). "The effect of repeated freezing and thawing on human sperm DNA fragmentation". Fertil Steril. 93 (4): 1147–1156. PMID 19135665. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.11.023.
- Kopeika, J.; Thornhill, A.; Khalaf, Y. (2014). "The effect of cryopreservation on the genome of gametes and embryos: principles of cryobiology and critical appraisal of the evidence". Human Reproduction Update. 21 (2): 209–227. ISSN 1355-4786. PMID 25519143. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmu063.