Semipalatinsk Test Site

Coordinates: 50°23′N 77°47′E / 50.383°N 77.783°E / 50.383; 77.783
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Near Kurchatov in Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
The 18,000 km2 expanse of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (indicated in red), attached to Kurchatov (along the Irtysh river), and near Semey, as well as Karagandy, and Astana. The site comprised an area the size of Wales
Coordinates50°07′N 78°43′E / 50.117°N 78.717°E / 50.117; 78.717
TypeNuclear test site
Area18,000 km2 (6,950 sq mi)
Site information
OperatorSoviet Union Soviet Union (1949–89)
Site history
In use1949 – 1991
Test information
Subcritical testsnot known
Nuclear tests456 (340 underground and 116 aboveground)[1]

The Semipalatinsk Test Site (Russian: Семипалатинск-21; Semipalatinsk-21), also known as "The Polygon", was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons. It is located in Zhanasemey District, Abai Region, Kazakhstan, south of the valley of the Irtysh River. The test site was part of the former Kazakh SSR. The scientific buildings for the test site were located around 150 km (93 mi) west of the town of Semipalatinsk, later renamed Semey, near the border of East Kazakhstan Region and Pavlodar Region. Most of the nuclear tests taking place at various sites further to the west and the south, some as far as into Karagandy Region.

The Soviet Union conducted 456 nuclear tests at Semipalatinsk from 1949 until 1989 with little regard for their effect on the local people or environment. The full impact of radiation exposure was hidden for many years by Soviet authorities and has only come to light since the test site closed in 1991.[2][3] According to estimates from Kazakh experts, 1.5 million people were exposed to fallout over the years.[4]

From 1996 to 2012, a secret joint operation of Kazakh, Russian, and American nuclear scientists and engineers secured the waste plutonium in the tunnels of the mountains.[5]

Since its closure on 29 August 1991, the Semipalatinsk Test Site has become the best-researched nuclear testing site in the world, and the only one in the world open to the public year-round.[6]


The various facilities grouped inside the Semipalatinsk Test Site
Crater from a USSR nuclear test at Semipalatinsk. 2008 photo
Igor Kurchatov's radio and a portrait of Vladimir Lenin, found at the old test site

The site was selected in 1947 by Lavrentiy Beria, political head of the Soviet atomic bomb project. Beria falsely claimed the vast 18,000 km² steppe was "uninhabited".[7][8] Gulag labour was employed to build the primitive test facilities, including the laboratory complex in the northeast corner on the southern bank of the Irtysh River. The first Soviet bomb test, Operation First Lightning, nicknamed Joe One by the Americans, was conducted in 1949 from a tower at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, scattering fallout on nearby villages, which Beria had neglected to evacuate.[citation needed] The same area, "the experimental field", a region 64 km (40 mi) west of Kurchatov city, was used for more than 100 subsequent above-ground weapons tests.

Later tests were moved to the Balapan complex by the Chagan River in the southeast of the Semipalatinsk Polygon, including the site of the Chagan test, which formed Chagan Lake. Once atmospheric tests were banned, testing was transferred to underground locations at Saryozen, Murzhik in the west, and at the Degelen mountain complex in the south, which is riddled with boreholes and drifts for both subcritical and supercritical tests. After the closure of the Semipalatinsk labour camp, construction duties were performed by the 217th Separate Engineering and Mining Battalion, who later built the Baikonur Cosmodrome.

Between 1949 and the cessation of atomic testing in 1989, 456 explosions were conducted at the STS, including 340 underground borehole and tunnel shots and 116 atmospheric, either air-drop or tower shots. The lab complex, still the administrative and scientific centre of the STS, was renamed Kurchatov City after Igor Kurchatov, leader of the initial Soviet nuclear programme. The location of Kurchatov city has been typically shown on various maps as "Konechnaya", the name of the train station, now Degelen, or "Moldary", the name of the village that was later incorporated into the city.

The Semipalatinsk Complex was of acute interest to foreign governments during its operation, particularly during the phase when explosions were carried out above ground at the experimental field. Several U-2 overflights examined preparations and weapons effects, before being replaced with satellite reconnaissance. The US Defense Intelligence Agency is said to have been convinced that the Soviets had constructed an enormous beam weapon station at a small research station located on the testing site.[9]

This smaller research station, known to the Department of Defense as PNUTS (Possible Nuclear Underground Test Site) and the CIA as URDF-3 (Unidentified Research and Development Facility-3) was of great interest to American observers. After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, it was discovered that the mysterious URDF-3 was tasked with researching a nuclear thermal rocket similar to the US's NERVA.[10]

The site was closed by the President of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic Nursultan Nazarbayev on 29 August 1991.[11]


Kazakh steppe landscape and a drilling tower in the Semipalatinsk test site (2003)
Console from the old Soviet test site. 2009 photo

The Soviet Union conducted its last tests in 1989.[12] After the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the site was neglected. Fissile material was left behind in mountain tunnels and bore holes, virtually unguarded and vulnerable to scavengers, rogue states, or potential terrorists. The secret cleanup of Semipalatinsk was made public in the 2010s.[13]

After some of the tests, radioactive material remained on the now abandoned area, including significant amounts of plutonium. The risk that material might fall into the hands of scavengers or terrorists was considered one of the largest nuclear security threats since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The operation to address the problem involved, in part, pouring special concrete into test holes, to bind the waste plutonium. In other cases, horizontal mine test holes were sealed and the entrances covered over. Finally in October 2012, Kazakh, Russian, and American nuclear scientists and engineers celebrated the completion of a secret 17-year, $150 million operation to secure the plutonium in the tunnels of the mountains.[5]

Large parts of the STS have opened up since 2014, and economic activity has resumed: mostly mining, but also agriculture and tourism. As with other areas affected by radioactivity, the lack of human interference has made the STS a haven for wildlife.[6]

Residents of the test site's surrounding area in the Kazakh Steppe have been affected by the radiation and have suffered from radiation caused illnesses just as other surrounding areas have. However, unlike other communities, some Kazakhs have formed an identity around this fact.[14] Some have even considered themselves to be a new breed of human, a step-up evolution. As they understand it, they are mutants who have grown and adapted to the radiation present in their home.[14] In their eyes, the air and food are poisonous, and the people consume this and yet live. Thus, they must be adapting to the radiation and that is why people only get a 'little sick'. They even have begun to believe that they are so used to radiation that their bodies require it.[14] This belief has stemmed from the fact that many individuals who left in favour of opportunities in cities have died soon after. Although the evidence villagers cite is anecdotal, and most of the deaths were as a result of alcoholism, overdose, and other challenges that arose after a failure to adapt to a new way of life, to some left behind, it seems that the lack of radiation killed them. This has further cemented their belief that they are 'radioactive mutants'.[14]

The locals also believe that their status is backed by science.[14] The basis of this was a training exercise performed by the Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO).[14] The exercise was based around a hypothetical nuclear explosion, so they came in wearing full protective gear. Citizens of a village surrounding the staging area witnessed this but were neither informed of the 'exercise' status nor the reason for the outsiders' presence. As such the citizens perceived strangers having to wear protective gear to enter the area around their community while they, the residents, had no need.[14] This further cemented their belief that they must be radioactive mutants as other people seemed to need protection to exist within their home.

Anti-nuclear movement[edit]

The anti-nuclear movement in Kazakhstan, "Nevada Semipalatinsk", was formed in 1989 and was one of the first major anti-nuclear movements in the former Soviet Union. It was led by author Olzhas Suleimenov and attracted thousands of people to its protests and campaigns which eventually led to the closure of the nuclear test site at Semipalatinsk in 1991.[15][16][17]

According to UNESCO, Nevada-Semipalatinsk played a positive role in promoting public understanding of "the necessity to fight against nuclear threats".[18] The movement gained global support and became "a real historical factor in finding solutions to global ecological problems".[18]

Health impacts[edit]

A 55-ton Cardwell drill rig being loaded onto a USAF C-5 Galaxy aircraft for shipment to Semipalatinsk in support of the Joint Verification Experiment, 1988

Studies conducted at Cambridge took blood samples from forty different families who lived in a district of Kazakhstan that were directly exposed at high levels to fallout from the Soviet bomb tests.[19] These studies concluded that individuals who had been exposed to the fallout between 1949 and 1956 had an approximate 80% increase of mutations in the Minisatellite regions of their DNA. The children of these individuals had 50% more mutations in their mini-satellite regions compared to their control counterparts.[19][20]

Some health scientists are still not sure what the germline mutations mean for the individuals' health, but there is increasing evidence these mutations may increase genetic predisposition to certain diseases such as cardiovascular diseases.[21] There has also been evidence that increased levels of DNA mutation rates are correlated with prolonged radiation exposure.[22]

A longitudinal study conducted over a 40-year span found a correlation between radiation fallout exposure and prevalence of solid tumors. The most frequent sites for solid tumors were the esophagus, stomach, lungs, breasts, and liver. These sites were found to have statistically significant increases in prevalence when compared to a control group. However some bodily sites had no significant difference in number: cervix uteri, kidney, rectum, and pancreas.[19] The study's data suggests that there is a link between exposure length, and amount, to overall and cancer mortality. Nonetheless the relationship between the level of radiation exposure and effect is still up for discussion.

The full impact of radiation exposure was hidden for many years by Soviet authorities. The general consensus of health studies conducted at the site since it was closed is that radioactive fallout from nuclear testing had a direct impact on the health of about 200,000 local residents. Specifically, scientists have linked higher rates of different types of cancer to post-irradiation effects. Likewise, several studies have explored the correlation between radiation exposure and thyroid abnormalities.[1] A BBC programme claimed in 2010 that in the worst affected locations one in twenty children born were with genetic defects. British film-maker Antony Butts documented some of the genetic health impacts in his 2010 film After the Apocalypse.[23][24]

A recently declassified CIA report provides a first-hand witness account of the immediate impacts of a nuclear test near Semipalatinsk in 1955. In this report, a source who was in the vicinity of a Soviet thermonuclear test in November 1955 describes experiencing loss of hearing, "the air...crackling up with pressure" as if the "air was tearing up," and the ground shaking.[25][26]

Ethnographic data from anthropological study detail some of the unique perspectives of those populations that are affected and still live within the area of radiation exposure that allow those populations to understand their circumstances and the biological subjectivity of concepts like safety and their survival within an area still affected by radiation.[14]

Although there are clear biological impacts of the radiation exposure, the surrounding communities rarely have a sense of nuclear victimization. The nation of Kazakhstan recognizes more than a million of their citizens as victims of Soviet-era radiation exposure. In one village adjacent to the test site, categorized as “minimal risk,” the Kazakh government allots each resident a one time lump sum roughly equivalent to $50 USD. Although their health is negatively impacted by the radiation, residents see themselves as resilient. Many believe that they have genetically adapted to survive the radiation and report that they have come to rely upon it. One villager claimed that “Our organism is different… now accustomed to radiation. For many years we were exposed to radioactive fallout, and now we eat it. Slowly and quietly, our bodies got used to it. Why do you think people don’t die [here], but only get a little sick?... Most of us can’t live in clean air—we need radiation to survive. Clean air is our death. We are not deformed, just a little sick.”[14] In the same manner, many within the village self-report that when they venture outside the area for supplies, they suffer symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, and stomach cramps, furthering the thought that they have come to rely on the radiation to live. Overall, residents have embraced the radiation as a sign of their own genetic adaptation.

Perception of Adaptation to Radiation[edit]

According to fieldwork in Koyan, with a population of 50, Koyaners have high rates of “anemia, cancer, hypertension, headaches, skin rashes, and bone pain” along with self-reported hair loss, nosebleeds, and cataracts.[14] While unhealthy, Stawkowski noted that there was an absence of “serious and life-threatening deformities” that are portrayed, in media and by doctors, to be prevalent in people exposed to long-term and low-dose radiation.[14] Examples of the mutations that could be found in Koyaners included “a man born with webbed feet, a woman with one slightly short thumb, and several people living with vitiligo”[14] The nature of these mutations, coupled with the fact that villagers experienced aggravated symptoms upon leaving Koyan, Koyaners insist that they have biologically adapted to and subsequently rely on the radiation.[14] To Koyaners, the prevalence of maladapted animals emphasized their resilience and further proved the success of their own adaptations.[14] As one Koyaner said, “the raditation exposure made everyone ‘a little sick,’ … but they have survived and live long lives”.[14]

Site of the signing of the Central Asian Nuclear Weapon Free Zone treaty[edit]

Semipalatinsk was the site that Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan chose for the signing of the Central Asian Nuclear Weapon Free Zone on 8 September 2006, also commemorating the 15th anniversary of the test site's closing.

In popular culture[edit]

The 2014 Russian film Test is a fictionalized account of the first Soviet nuclear test from the perspective of some of the local inhabitants.

The Dead Lake by Hamid Ismailov explores the effects of the nuclear tests on Kazakhs.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Togzhan Kassenova (28 September 2009). "The lasting toll of Semipalatinsk's nuclear testing". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.
  2. ^ "Slow Death In Kazakhstan's Land Of Nuclear Tests". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 2011-08-29. Retrieved 2015-08-31.
  3. ^ "Russia Covered Up a Nuclear Fallout Worse Than Chernobyl, Confidential Report Reveals" 27 March 2017
  4. ^ Yan, Wudan (2019-04-03). "The nuclear sins of the Soviet Union live on in Kazakhstan". Nature. 568 (7750): 22–24. Bibcode:2019Natur.568...22Y. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-01034-8. PMID 30944496.
  5. ^ a b Plutonium Mountain: Inside the 17-Year Mission to Secure a Legacy of Soviet Nuclear Testing, Eben Harrell & David E. Hoffman, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University, 15 August 2013, accessed 21 August 2013
  6. ^ a b "Semipalatinsk Test Site: How to Visit, History and Future | Caravanistan". Caravanistan. Retrieved 2018-02-01.
  7. ^ Brummell, Paul (2008). Kazakhstan. Bradt. p. 241. ISBN 978-1-84162-234-7.
  8. ^ Taylor, Jerome (10 September 2009). "The world's worst radiation hotspot". The Independent. London. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  9. ^ "Satellite photo of suspected Soviet beam weapon installation", Aviation Week & Space Technology (via PBS)
  10. ^ Richelson, Jefferey (2002). The Wizards of Langley. Boulder: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-4059-4.
  11. ^ Norris, Robert S. (January–February 1992). "The Soviet Nuclear Archipelago". Arms Control Today. 22 (1). Arms Control Association: 27. JSTOR 23624674.
  12. ^ Duff-Brown, Beth (28 September 2009). "The lasting toll of Semipalatinsk's nuclear testing". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Archived from the original on 7 October 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  13. ^ Duff-Brown, Beth (20 August 2013). "Into Thin Air: The Story of Plutonium Mountain". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Stawkowski, Magdalena E. (February 2016). ""I am a radioactive mutant": Emergent biological subjectivities at Kazakhstan's Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site: "I am a radioactive mutant"". American Ethnologist. 43 (1): 144–157. doi:10.1111/amet.12269.
  15. ^ World: Asia-Pacific: Kazakh anti-nuclear movement celebrates tenth anniversary BBC News, February 28, 1999.
  16. ^ Matthew Chance. Inside the nuclear underworld: Deformity and fear, August 31, 2007.
  17. ^ Krech III, Shepard; Merchant, Carolyn; McNeill, John Robert, eds. (2004). Encyclopedia of World Environmental History. Vol. 1: A–E. Routledge. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-0-415-93733-7.
  18. ^ a b "Kazakhstan – Audiovisual documents of the International antinuclear movement 'Nevada-Semipalatinsk'". Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  19. ^ a b c Bauer, Susanne; Gusev, Boris I.; Pivina, Ludmila M.; Apsalikov, Kazbek N.; Grosche, Bernd (2005-01-01). "Radiation Exposure Due to Local Fallout from Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing in Kazakhstan: Solid Cancer Mortality in the Semipalatinsk Historical Cohort, 1960-1999". Radiation Research. 164 (4): 409–419. Bibcode:2005RadR..164..409B. doi:10.1667/rr3423.1. JSTOR 3581526. PMID 16187743. S2CID 32679081.
  20. ^ Stone, Richard (2002). "DNA Mutations Linked to Soviet Bomb Tests". Science. 295 (5557): 946. doi:10.1126/science.295.5557.946a. JSTOR 3076055. PMID 11834788. S2CID 26534394.
  21. ^ Grosche, Bernd; Lackland, Daniel T.; Land, Charles E.; Simon, Steven L.; Apsalikov, Kazbek N.; Pivina, Ludmilla M.; Bauer, Susanne; Gusev, Boris I. (2011-01-01). "Mortality from Cardiovascular Diseases in the Semipalatinsk Historical Cohort, 1960-1999, and its Relationship to Radiation Exposure". Radiation Research. 176 (5): 660–669. Bibcode:2011RadR..176..660G. doi:10.1667/rr2211.1. JSTOR 41318233. PMC 3866702. PMID 21787182.
  22. ^ Dubrova, Yuri E.; Bersimbaev, Rakhmet I.; Djansugurova, Leila B.; Tankimanova, Maira K.; Mamyrbaeva, Zaure Zh.; Mustonen, Riitta; Lindholm, Carita; Hultén, Maj; Salomaa, Sisko (2002-01-01). "Nuclear Weapons Tests and Human Germline Mutation Rate". Science. 295 (5557): 1037. doi:10.1126/science.1068102. JSTOR 3076101. PMID 11834827. S2CID 816473.
  23. ^ "Life after nuclear testing". BBC World Service. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  24. ^ Butts, Antony (13 May 2011). "After the Apocalypse". IMDb.
  25. ^ Burr, William (6 April 2018). "CIA Debriefed Soviet H-Bomb Eye-Witness in 1957".
  26. ^ "The National Security Archive". Retrieved 18 March 2019.

External links[edit]

50°23′N 77°47′E / 50.383°N 77.783°E / 50.383; 77.783