From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Traditional Swedish semla
Alternative namesLaskiaispulla and Lent buns
TypeSweet roll
Place of originSweden
Region or stateNorthern Europe
Associated cuisineSweden
Serving temperatureMedium
Main ingredientsWheat bread, whipped cream, and almond paste or jam.
Ingredients generally usedIcing sugar
Food energy
(per serving)
298 kcal (1248 kJ)
Nutritional value
(per serving)
Protein6.8 g
Fat12.7 g
Carbohydrate38.2 g
Similar dishesPulla and cardamom bread

A semla, vastlakukkel, laskiaispulla, Swedish eclair, fastlagsbulle/fastelavnsbolle or vēja kūkas is a traditional sweet roll made in various forms in Sweden,[1] Finland, Norway, Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Estonia,[2] and Latvia, associated with Lent and especially Shrove Tuesday in most countries, Shrove Monday in Denmark, parts of southern Sweden, Iceland and Faroe Islands or Sunday of Fastelavn in Norway. In Sweden it is most commonly known as just semla (plural: semlor), but is also known as fettisdagsbulle, lit.'Fat Tuesday bun' or 'Shrove Tuesday bun'. In the southern parts of Sweden, as well as in Swedish-speaking Finland, it is known as fastlagsbulle (plural: fastlagsbullar; semla on the other hand means a plain wheat bun with butter, called bulle in Swedish). In Poland it is known as ptyś. In Estonia it is called vastlakukkel. In Norway and Denmark it is called fastelavnsbolle. In Iceland, it is known as a bolla and served on Bolludagur. In Faroe Islands it is called Føstulávintsbolli, and is served on Føstulávintsmánadagur. In Latvia, it is called vēja kūkas. Semla served in a bowl of hot milk is hetvägg.


The name semla (plural: semlor) is a loan word from German Semmel, originally deriving from the Latin simila, meaning 'flour', itself a borrowing from Greek σεμίδαλις (semidalis), "groats", which was the name used for the finest quality wheat flour or semolina. In the southernmost part of Sweden (Scania) and by the Swedish-speaking population in Finland, they are known as fastlagsbulle. In Denmark and Norway they are known as fastelavnsbolle (fastlagen and fastelavn being the equivalent of Shrove Tuesday). In Scanian, the feast is also called fastelann. In Finnish they are known as laskiaispulla (which refers to the Finnish laskiainen), in Latvian as vēja kūkas, and in Estonian as vastlakukkel.


Semla served with warm milk
Two Danish fastelavnsboller
A Swedish semla
A Finnish laskiaispulla

Today, the Swedish-Finnish semla consists of a cardamom-spiced wheat bun which has its top cut off, and is then filled with a mix of milk and almond paste, topped with whipped cream. The cut-off top serves as a lid and is dusted with powdered sugar. Today it is often eaten on its own, with coffee or tea. Some prefer to eat it in a bowl of hot milk.

In Finland, the bun is often filled with strawberry or raspberry jam instead of almond paste, and bakeries in Finland usually offer both versions. (Many bakeries distinguish between the two by decorating the traditional bun with almonds on top, whereas the jam-filled version has powdered sugar on top). Opinions on which of the two is the "correct" filling are divided, and it is a common topic of contention (similar to e.g. the matter of pineapple on pizza, i.e. usually not taken too seriously).[3] In Finland-Swedish, semla means a plain wheat bun, used for bread and butter, and not a sweet bun.

At some point Swedes grew tired of the strict observance of Lent, added cream and almond paste to the mix and started eating semla every Tuesday between Shrove Tuesday and Easter. Every year, at around the same time that the Swedish bakeries fill with semlor, local newspapers start to fill with semla taste tests. Panels of 'experts' dissect and inspect tables full of semlor to find the best in town.[4][5]

Some bakeries have created alternative forms of the pastry, such as the "semmelwrap" formed as a wrap rather than the traditional bun, while others have added e.g. chocolate, marzipan, or pistachios to the recipe.[6]

In Finland and Estonia the traditional dessert predates Christian influences.[citation needed] Laskiaissunnuntai and laskiaistiistai, both days included in laskiainen, were festivals when children and youth would go sledding or downhill sliding on a hill or a slope to determine how the crop would yield in the coming year. Those who slid the farthest were going to get the best crop. Hence the festival is named after the act of sliding or sledding downhill, laskea. Nowadays laskiainen has been integrated into Christian customs as the beginning of lent before Easter.[7]

In Estonia, vastlakukkel, is often a cardamom-spiced wheat bun with whipped cream only[2] or with jam or marzipan filling added. Similarly to Finland, vastlad or vastlapäev (Shrove Tuesday) involves sledding. Estonians believed that the one with the longest slide would have the best flax crop yield - specifically the longer the crop, the longer fiber which would mean a higher quality linen textile could be produced.


Norwegian fastelavnsbolle with whipped cream, jam and powdered sugar

Fastelavnsbolle consists of a cardamom-spiced wheat bun which has its top cut off, and is then filled with whipped cream, topped with jam. The cut-off top serves as a lid and is dusted with powdered sugar. The buns are served at Sunday of Fastelavn (Shrove Sunday), but were previously associated with Shrove Tuesday.[8]

Denmark/Iceland/Faroe Islands[edit]

The version sold in Danish bakeries on or around Shrove Monday is rather different, made from puff pastry and filled with whipped cream, a bit of jam and often with icing on top. At home people may bake a version more similar to a usual wheat roll, mixing plain yeast dough with raisins, succade and sometimes candied bitter orange peel.

In Iceland it is done in a similar way but in place of puff pastry more common is the choux pastry version.

In Icelandic, Shrove Monday is called bolludagur (bun day), named after the pastry.

In the Faroe Islands, it is done with choux pastry, and filled with vanilla cream, whipped cream and jam, and topped with chocolate icing.


The oldest version of the semla was a plain bread bun, eaten in a bowl of warm milk. In Swedish this is known as hetvägg, from Middle Low German hete Weggen (hot wedges) or German heisse Wecken (hot buns) and falsely interpreted as "hotwall".[9][10]

The semla was originally eaten only on Shrove Tuesday, or all of the three days before Lent, as the last festive food before Lent. However, with the arrival of the Protestant Reformation, the Swedes stopped observing a strict fasting for Lent. The semla in its bowl of warm milk became a traditional dessert every Tuesday between Shrove Tuesday and Easter. Today, semlor are available in shops and bakeries every day from shortly after Christmas until Easter. Each Swede consumes on average four to five bakery-produced semlor each year, in addition to any that are homemade.[11]

According to a popular myth, king Adolf Frederick of Sweden died of digestion problems on February 12, 1771, after consuming a hetvägg (semla), the king's favorite dessert, after a meal consisting of sauerkraut, turnips, caviar, smoked herring, and champagne.[12] In recent versions of the legend, the semla has turned into 14, and sometimes into cinnamon buns.[13]

This was the sweet chosen to represent Finland in the Café Europe initiative of the Austrian presidency of the European Union, on Europe Day 2006.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Semlor - Recept - Semlebullar". (in Swedish). Retrieved 2021-02-04.
  2. ^ a b ERR News. Vastlakuklid: The history of Estonia's traditional Shrove Tuesday treat. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Paulsson, Julia; Fors Wisbyse, Clara (2023-02-13). "Årets vinnarsemla är en "crowd-pleaser"". Hallandsposten. Retrieved 2023-02-14.
  5. ^ Norman, Ellen (2020-02-22). "Test: Lunds bästa fastlagsbulle 2020 är utsedd". Sydsvenskan. Retrieved 2023-02-14.
  6. ^ Hincks, Rob (25 February 2019). "The semla – more than just a bun". Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  7. ^ Savolainen, Irma. "Helsinki City Museum: Winter - Laskiainen". Archived from the original on January 14, 2012.
  8. ^ "Fastelavnsboller - Boller - Oppskrifter - Mollerens Web". 2013-03-31. Archived from the original on 2013-03-31. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  9. ^ Hincks, Rob (24 February 2006). "Swedish semla: more than just a bun". Archived from the original on June 6, 2011.
  10. ^ Magnus Carlstedt. "Hetvägg". Archived from the original on March 10, 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  11. ^ "Aftonbladet: Svenska folket laddar för fettisdagen" (in Swedish). 9 February 2005. Archived from the original on 9 February 2005.
  12. ^ "What's this cream bun I've been seeing everywhere in Sweden?". 12 February 2013. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 2021-02-04.
  13. ^ " Death by Cinnamon Bun? The Mystery of King Adolf Frederick's Last Meal". 20 September 2023.