It was a hereditary title of nobility used in the Maratha Empire. During wartime, a Sardar Senapati or Sarsenapati (also colloquially termed Sarnaubat) functioned as the Commander-in-Chief of all Maratha forces, coordinating the commands of the various Sardars in battle.
Ranking under the heir-apparent crown prince and other hereditary princes, the title Senapati most closely resembles a British Duke or German Herzog in rank and function. On occasion, the title Mahasenapati (Sanskrit: महा maha- meaning "great") was granted; this best equates to a Grand Duke or a German Großherzog.
Outside of India
In Indonesia, the term senapati has been absorbed into Old Javanese and eventually Javanese language to refer to "general" or "army commander". In Javanese it can be rendered as Senapati or Senopati. For example, the title of Sutawijaya, the founder of 16th century Javanese Mataram Sultanate, was Senapati ing Alaga, which means "general of battle".
- Jayadewa - recorded Senapati of Tondo, based on Laguna Copperplate Inscription 
- Sarsenapati Yesaji Kank
- Mankoji Dahatonde
- Prataprao Gujar
- Hambirrao Mohite
- Santaji Ghorpade, Senapati of Kolhapur
- Dhanaji Jadhavrao
- Chandrasen Jadhav
- Khanderao Dabhade, Senapati of Satara