|55th Legislature of the National Congress|
|Founded||May 6, 1826|
New session started
|February 1, 2017|
Length of term
|Plurality voting, alternating every four years between single-member elections (FPTP) and dual-member elections (block voting)|
|October 5, 2014|
|October 7, 2018|
|Senate plenary chamber
National Congress building
Brasília, Federal District, Brazil
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The Federal Senate (Portuguese: Senado Federal) is the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. Created by the first Constitution of the Brazilian Empire in 1824, it was initially similar to the United Kingdom's House of Lords. Since the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 the Federal Senate has resembled the United States Senate.
Currently, the Senate comprises 81 seats. Three Senators from each of the 26 states and three Senators from the Federal District are elected on a majority basis to serve eight-year terms. Elections are staggered so that two-thirds of the upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third four years later. When one seat is up for election in each State, each voter casts one vote for the Senate; when two seats are up for election, each voter casts two votes, and the voter cannot give his two votes for the same candidate, but, in elections for the renewal of two-thirds of the Senate, each party can present two candidates for election. The candidate in each State and the Federal District (or the first two candidates, when two thirds of the seats are up for election) who achieve the greatest plurality of votes are elected.
The Federal Senate of Brazil was established as the Senate of the Empire by the Constitution of 1824, first enacted after the Declaration of Independence.
Following independence, in 1822, Emperor Pedro I ordered the convocation of a National Assembly to draft the country's first Constitution. Following several disagreements with the elected deputies (which included representatives from present-day Uruguay, then part of the Brazilian Empire under the name of Província Cisplatina), the Emperor dissolved the Assembly. In 1824, Pedro I implemented the first Constitution which established a Legislative branch with the Chamber of Deputies as the lower house, and the Senate as an upper house.
The first configuration of the Senate was a consulting body to the Emperor. Membership was for life and it was a place of great prestige, to which only a small part of the population could aspire.
Members of the Senate were elected, but they had to be at least 40 years old and have an annual income of 800,000 contos-de-réis, which limited candidates to wealthy citizens. Voters also faced an income qualification. Voting in an election for the Senate was limited to male citizens with an annual income of at least 200,000 contos-de-réis. Those who qualified for this did not vote directly for Senators; instead, they voted for candidates to be Senate electors. To be a Senate elector required an annual income of 400,000 contos-de-réis. Once elected, these electors would then vote for senator. The election itself would not result in a winner automatically. The three candidates receiving the most votes would make up what was called a "triple list", from which the Emperor would select one individual that would be considered "elected". The Emperor usually chose the candidate with the most votes, but it was within his discretion to select whichever of the three individuals listed. The unelected Princes of the Brazilian Imperial House were senators by right and would assume their seats in the Senate upon reaching age 25.
The original Senate had 50 members, representing all of the Empire's Provinces, each with a number of senators proportional to its population.
Following the adoption of the 1824 Constitution the first session of the Senate took place in May 1826. The Emperor had repeatedly delayed calling the first election, which had led to accusations that he would attempt to establish an absolutist government.
The current composition of the Board of the Federal Senate is as follows:
|1st Vice-President||Cassio Cunha Lima||PSDB||Paraíba|
|2nd Vice-President||João Alberto Souza||MDB||Maranhão|
|1st Secretary||José Pimentel||PT||Ceará|
|2nd Secretary||Gladson Cameli||PP||Acre|
|3rd Secretary||Antônio Carlos Valadares||PSB||Sergipe|
|4th Secretary||Zeze Perrella||MDB||Minas Gerais|
|1st Substitute||Eduardo Amorim||PSDB||Sergipe|
|2nd Substitute||Sérgio Petecão||PSD||Acre|
|3rd Substitute||Davi Alcolumbre||DEM||Amapá|
|4th Substitute||Cidinho Santos||PR||Mato Grosso|
Composition and leaderships
The current composition of the House (55th Legislature) is as follows:
|PP||7||Benedito de Lira||Government|
|PSB||4||Antônio Carlos Valadares||Opposition|
|PTC||1||Fernando Collor de Mello||Government|
|Committee of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform||Ivo Cassol||Rondônia|
|Committee of Economic Issues||Tasso Jereissati||Ceará|
|Committee of Social Issues||Marta Suplicy||São Paulo|
|Committee of Science, Technology, Innovation, Communication and Informatic||Otto Alencar||Bahia|
|Committee of Constitution, Justice and Citizenship||Antônio Anastasia (acting)||Minas Gerais|
|Committee of Regional Development and Tourism||Fátima Bezerra||Rio Grande do Norte|
|Committee of Human Rights and Participative Legislation||Regina Sousa||Piauí|
|Committee of Education, Culture and Sport||Lúcia Vânia||Goiás|
|Committee of Environment, Consumer Defense, Fiscalization and Control||Davi Alcolumbre||Amapá|
|Committee of Foreign Affairs and National Defense||Fernando Collor||Alagoas|
|Committee of Infrastructure Services||Eduardo Braga||Amazonas|
|Committee of Transparence and Public Governance||Ataídes Oliveira||Tocantins|
|Committee Senate of the Future||Hélio José||Distrito Federal|
|Federative Unit||Senator||Party||Birth city||Term||Notes||Term Month Day Year|
|Acre||Gladson Cameli||PP||Cruzeiro do Sul, AC||2015-2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Jorge Viana||PT||Rio Branco, AC||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Sérgio Petecão||PSD||Rio Branco, AC||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Alagoas||Fernando Collor||PTC||Rio de Janeiro, RJ||2007–2023||Re-elected.||February 1, 2007-January 31, 2023|
|Benedito de Lira||PP||Junqueiro, AL||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Renan Calheiros||MDB||Murici, AL||2003–2019||February 1, 2003-January 31, 2019|
|Amapá||João Capiberibe||PSB||Afuá, PA||2003–2019||Re-elected.||February 1, 2003-April 28, 2004; October 28, 2005-October 14, 2010; November 29, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Davi Alcolumbre||DEM||Macapá, AP||2015-2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Randolfe Rodrigues||REDE||Garanhuns, PE||2011–2019||Elected by PSOL, left the party to join REDE when the latter was sanctioned as an official political party in September 2015.||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Amazonas||Eduardo Braga||MDB||Belem, PA||2011-2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Omar Aziz||PSD||São Paulo, SP||2015-2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Vanessa Grazziotin||PCdoB||Videira, SC||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Bahia||Roberto Muniz||PP||Salvador, BA||2011–2019||Substitute of Walter Pinheiro||June 7, 2016-January 31, 2019|
|Lídice da Mata||PSB||Cachoeira, BA||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Otto Alencar||PSD||Bahia||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Ceará||Tasso Jereissati||PSDB||Fortaleza, CE||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|José Pimentel||PT||Picos, PI||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Eunício Oliveira||MDB||Lavras da Mangabeira, CE||2011–2019||President of the Senate||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Distrito Federal||Reguffe||Independent||Rio de Janeiro, RJ||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Cristovam Buarque||PPS||Recife, PE||2011–2019||Re-elected as a member of PDT, left the party to join PPS on February 17, 2016.||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Hélio José||PROS||Corumbá de Goiás, GO||2015–2023||Substitute of Rodrigo Rollenberg.||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Espírito Santo||Magno Malta||PR||Itapetinga, BA||2003-2019||Re-elected.||February 1, 2003-January 31, 2019|
|Ricardo Ferraço||PSDB||Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, ES||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Rose de Freitas||MDB||Caratinga, MG||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Goiás||Wilder Morais||PP||Taquaral de Goiás, GO||2012–2019||Replaced Demóstenes Torres, removed from office for breach of parliamentary ethics.||July 13, 2012-January 31, 2019|
|Lúcia Vânia||PSB||Cumari, GO||2003–2019||Re-elected.||February 1, 2003-January 31, 2019|
|Ronaldo Caiado||DEM||Anápolis, GO||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Maranhão||João Alberto Souza||MDB||João Pessoa, PB||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Roberto Rocha||PSB||São Vicente Ferrer, MA||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Pastor Bel||PRTB||Brasília, DF||2011–2019||Temporary substitute of Edison Lobão.||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Mato Grosso||Wellington Fagundes||PR||Rondonópolis, MT||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Cidinho Santos||PR||Janiópolis, PR||2011–2019||May 15, 2016-January 31, 2019|
|José Medeiros||PODE||Caicó, RN||2011–2019||Substitute of Pedro Taques. Elected as a member of the PPS, switched to PSD in March 2016 and to PODE in August 2017.||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Mato Grosso do Sul||Pedro Chaves||PRB||Campo Grande, MS||2016–2019||Substitute of Delcídio Amaral, removed from office on May 10, 2016, on account of "breach of parliamentary decorum."||May 17, 2016-January 31 2019|
|Simone Tebet||MDB||Três Lagoas, MS||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Waldemir Moka||MDB||Cáceres, MT||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Minas Gerais||Aécio Neves||PSDB||Belo Horizonte, MG||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Antonio Anastasia||PSDB||Belo Horizonte, MG||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Zezé Perrella||MDB||São Gonçalo do Pará, MG||2011–2019||Substitute of Itamar Franco, deceased. Left PDT to join PTB in March 2016. Joins MDB in January 2017.||July 3, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Pará||Flexa Ribeiro||PSDB||Belém, PA||2003–2019||Re-elected.||February 1, 2003-January 31, 2019|
|Jader Barbalho||MDB||Belém, PA||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Paulo Rocha||PT||Curuçá, PA||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Paraíba||Cássio Cunha Lima||PSDB||Campina Grande, PB||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|José Maranhão||MDB||Araruna, PB||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Raimundo Lira||Independent||Cajazeiras, PB||2014–2019||Substitute of Vital do Rego Filho, appointed member of the Federal Court of Accounts (TCU), taking office on December 17, 2014.||December 22, 2014-January 31, 2019|
|Paraná||Álvaro Dias||PODE||Quatá, SP||2015-2023||Elected as a member of PSDB, switched to PV on January 8, 2016 and to PODE in July 2017.||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Gleisi Hoffmann||PT||Curitiba, PR||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Roberto Requião||MDB||Curitiba, PR||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Pernambuco||Fernando Bezerra Coelho||MDB||Petrolina, PE||2015–2023||Elected as a member of the PSB, switched to PMDB in September 2017.||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Humberto Costa||PT||Campinas, SP||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Armando Monteiro||PTB||Recife, PE||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Piauí||Ciro Nogueira||PP||Teresina, PI||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Elmano Férrer||MDB||Lavras da Mangabeira, CE||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Regina Sousa||PT||União, PI||2011–2019||Substitute of Wellington Dias||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Rio de Janeiro||Romário||PODE||Rio de Janeiro, RJ||2015-2023||Elected as a member of the PSB, switched to PODE in July 2017.||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Eduardo Lopes||PRB||Rio de Janeiro, RJ||2003–2019||Substitute of Marcelo Crivella, who resigned to assume office as mayor of Rio de Janeiro.||January 1, 2017-January 31, 2019|
|Lindberg Farias||PT||João Pessoa, PB||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Rio Grande do Norte||Garibaldi Alves Filho||MDB||Rio Grande do Norte||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|José Agripino||DEM||Mossoró, RN||1995–2019||Re-elected.||February 1, 1995-January 31, 2019|
|Fátima Bezerra||PT||Nova Palmeira, PR||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Rio Grande do Sul||Paulo Paim||PT||Caxias do Sul, RS||2003–2019||Re-elected.||February 1, 2003-January 31, 2019|
|Lasier Martins||PSD||General Câmara, RS||2015–2023||Elected as member of the PDT, left the party in December 2016. Joined PSD in January 2017.||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Ana Amélia Lemos||PP||Lagoa Vermelha, RS||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Rondônia||Acir Gurgacz||PDT||Cascavel, PR||2009–2023||Re-elected.||February 1, 2009-January 31, 2023|
|Ivo Cassol||PP||Concórdia, SC||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Valdir Raupp||MDB||São João do Sul, SC||2003–2019||Re-elected.||February 1, 2003-January 31, 2019|
|Roraima||Angela Portela||PT||Coreaú, CE||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Telmário Mota||PTB||Santa Quitéria, CE||2015–2023||Elected as member of the PDT, was kicked of the party in January 2017. Joined the PTB in February 2017.||December 15, 2016-January 31, 2023|
|Romero Jucá||MDB||Recife, PE||1995–2019||Re-elected.||February 1, 1995-January 31, 2019|
|Santa Catarina||Dalírio Beber||PSDB||Massaranduba, SC||2011–2019||Substitute of Luiz Henrique da Silveira, deceased.||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Paulo Bauer||PSDB||Blumenau, SC||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Dário Berger||MDB||Bom Retiro, SC||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|São Paulo||Airton Sandoval||MDB||Itirapuã, SP||2011–2019||Substitute of Aloysio Nunes, who assumed the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.||March 9, 2017-January 31, 2019|
|José Serra||PSDB||São Paulo, SP||2015–2023||February 1, 2015-January 31, 2023|
|Marta Suplicy||MDB||São Paulo, SP||2011–2019||Elected as a member of PT, left the party on April 28, 2015. Joined PMDB in September 2015.||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Sergipe||Eduardo Amorim||PSC||Itabaiana, SE||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
|Antônio Carlos Valadares||PSB||Simão Dias, SE||1995–2019||Re-elected.||February 1, 1995-January 31, 2019|
|Maria do Carmo Alves||DEM||SE||1999–2023||February 1, 1999-January 31, 2023|
|Tocantins||Ataídes Oliveira||PSDB||Estrela do Norte, GO||2013–2019||Substitute of João Ribeiro, deceased on December 18, 2013. Originally a member of PROS, he switched to PSDB on December 11, 2014.||December 23, 2013-January 31, 2019|
|Kátia Abreu||PDT||Goiânia, Goiás,||2007-2023||February 1, 2007-January 31, 2023|
|Vicentinho Alves||PR||Porto Nacional, TO||2011–2019||February 1, 2011-January 31, 2019|
- "Senado Federal completa hoje 185 anos". R7 (in Portuguese). 6 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
O Senado Federal foi criado com a primeira Constituição do Império, outorgada em 1824, inspirado, primeiramente, na Câmara dos Lordes da Grã-Bretanha. Sua primeira reunião ocorreu em 6 de maio de 1826..
- "Lideranças e Bancadas - 55ª Legislatura" (in Portuguese). Senado Federal. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- "Senado aprova perda de mandato de Delcídio do Amaral" (in Portuguese). Senado Federal. 10 May 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- Maurício Lima (20 April 2016). "PDT manda carta ameaçando expulsar senador do PTB" (in Portuguese). Radar On-Line. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- Juliana Cipriani (1 February 2017). "Zeze Perrella se filia ao PMDB e bancada na Assembleia de MG contesta". O Estado de Minas. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- Pacheco, Paula (8 January 2016). "Álvaro Dias troca PSDB pelo PV e vai aumentar artilharia contra o governo" (in Portuguese). Último Segundo. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- Freitas, Carolina (29 June 2017). "Senadores Romário e Álvaro Dias se filiam ao Podemos, antigo PTN" (in Portuguese). Valor Econômico. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- Ilimar Franco (21 December 2016). "Ameaçado por Lupi, senador Lasier deixa o PDT" (in Portuguese). O Globo. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- Gustavo Garcia (24 January 2017). "Após deixar PDT, senador Lasier Martins anuncia filiação ao PSD" (in Portuguese). G1. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- "Cúpula do PDT decide expulsar senador que votou a favor da PEC do teto" (in Portuguese). G1. 17 January 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- "Senador Telmário Mota se filia ao PTB e assume o partido em Roraima" (in Portuguese). PTB 14. 2 February 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- Pedro Venceslau (2 March 2017). ""Quercista" histórico, Airton Sandoval, do PMDB, assume vaga de Aloysio Nunes no Senado" (in Portuguese). Estadão. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- Edson Sardinha (18 December 2013). "Morre o senador João Ribeiro, do Tocantins" (in Portuguese). Congresso em Foco. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- Marcos Martins (11 December 2014). "Senador Ataídes Oliveira troca de partido para ser oposição ao governo" (in Portuguese). G1. Retrieved 17 March 2017.