Federal Senate

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Federal Senate
Senado Federal
55th Legislature of the National Congress
Coat of arms of Brazil
Coat of arms of Brazil
Type
Type
Term limits
None
History
Founded May 6, 1826 (1826-05-06)
New session started
February 2, 2016 (2016-02-02)
Leadership
President
Renan CalheirosPMDB
Since February 1, 2013
Majority Leader
Minority Leader
Government Leader
Delcídio Amaral, PT (under arrest, deputy leaders serving as acting leaders)
Structure
Seats 81
Senado Federal (Brasil) - atual.svg
Political groups

Government (55)

  • Government Support Bloc (19)
     PT (13)
     PDT (6)
  • Majority Bloc (18 seats)
     PMDB (17)
     PMB (1)
  • Progressive Democracy Bloc (9)
     PP (6)
     PSD (3)
  • Union and Strength Bloc (9)
     PR (4)
     PTB (3)
     PSC (1)
     PRB (1)

Mixed alignment and non-aligned (12)

  • Socialism and Democracy Bloc (10)
     PSB (7), non-aligned
     PCdoB (1), government
     PPS (1), opposition
     REDE (1), non-aligned

Opposition (14)

  • Opposition Bloc (14)
     PSDB (10)
     DEM (4)
Length of term
Eight years
Elections
Plurality voting, alternating every four years between single-member elections (FPTP) and dual-member elections (Block voting)
Last election
October 5, 2014
Next election
October 7, 2018
Meeting place
Senado2006.jpg
Senate plenary chamber
National Congress Palace
Brasília, Federal District, Brazil
Website
http://www.senado.gov.br
Coat of arms of Brazil.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
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Foreign relations

The Federal Senate (Portuguese: Senado Federal) is the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. Created by the first Constitution of the Brazilian Empire in 1824, it was initially similar to the United Kingdom's House of Lords.[1] Since the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 the Federal Senate has resembled the United States Senate.

Currently, the Senate comprises 81 seats. Three Senators from each of the 26 states and three Senators from the Federal District are elected on a majority basis to serve eight-year terms. Elections are staggered so that two-thirds of the upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third four years later. When one seat is up for election in each State, each voter casts one vote for the Senate; when two seats are up for election, each voter casts two votes, and the voter cannot give his two votes for the same candidate, but, in elections for the renewal of two-thirds of the Senate, each party can present two candidates for election. The candidate in each State and the Federal District (or the first two candidates, when two thirds of the seats are up for election) who achieve the greatest plurality of votes are elected.

The current president of the Brazilian Senate is Renan Calheiros, from the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party of Alagoas. He was elected in early 2013 for a two-year term.

History[edit]

The Federal Senate of Brazil was established as the Senate of the Empire by the Constitution of 1824, first enacted after the Declaration of Independence.

Following independence, in 1822, Emperor Pedro I ordered the convocation of a National Assembly to draft the country's first Constitution. Following several disagreements with the elected deputies (which included representatives from present-day Uruguay, then part of the Brazilian Empire under the name of Província Cisplatina), the Emperor dissolved the Assembly. In 1824 Pedro I implemented the first Constitution which established a Legislative branch with the Chamber of Deputies as the lower house, and the Senate as an upper house.

The first configuration of the Senate was a consulting body to the Emperor. Membership was for life and it was a place of great prestige, to which only a small part of the population could aspire.

Members of the Senate were elected, but they had to be at least 40 years old and have an annual income of 800,000 contos-de-réis, which limited candidates to wealthy citizens. Voters also faced an income qualification. Voting in an election for the Senate was limited to male citizens with an annual income of at least 200,000 contos-de-réis. Those who qualified for this did not vote directly for Senators; instead, they voted for candidates to be Senate electors. To be a Senate elector required an annual income of 400,000 contos-de-réis. Once elected, these electors would then vote for senator. The election itself would not result in a winner automatically. The three candidates receiving the most votes would make up what was called a "triple list", from which the Emperor would select one individual that would be considered "elected". The Emperor usually chose the candidate with the most votes, but it was within his discretion to select whichever of the three individuals listed. The unelected Princes of the Brazilian Imperial House were senators by right and would assume their seats in the Senate upon reaching age 25.

The original Senate had 50 members, representing all of the Empire's Provinces, each with a number of senators proportional to its population.

Following the adoption of the 1824 Constitution the first session of the Senate took place in May 1826. The Emperor had repeatedly delayed calling the first election, which had led to accusations that he would attempt to establish an absolutist government.

Current Senators[edit]

Federative Unit Senator Party Birth city Term Notes
Acre Gladson Cameli
PP
Cruzeiro do Sul, AC
2015-2023 Substitute of Tião Viana, elected State Governor of Acre.
Jorge Viana
PT
Rio Branco, AC
2011–2019
Sérgio Petecão
PMN
Rio Branco, AC
2011–2019
Alagoas Fernando Collor
PTB
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
2015–2023 Re-elected
Benedito de Lira
PP
Junqueiro, AL
2011–2019
Renan Calheiros
PMDB
Murici, AL
2011–2019 President of the Senate
Amapá João Capiberibe
PSB
Brasília, DF
2011–2019 Re-elected.
Davi Alcolumbre
DEM
Macapá, AP
2015 - 2023
Randolfe Rodrigues
REDE
Garanhuns, PE
2011–2019 Elected by PSOL, left the party to join REDE when the latter was sanctioned as an official political party in September 2015.[2]
Amazonas Sandra Braga
PMDB
Manaus, AM
2011 - 2019 Substitute for Eduardo Braga
Omar José Abdel Aziz
PSD
São Paulo, SP
2015 - 2023
Vanessa Grazziotin
PCdoB
Videira, SC
2011–2019
Bahia Walter Pinheiro
PT
Salvador, BA
2011–2019
Lídice da Mata
PSB
Cachoeira, BA
2011–2019
Otto Alencar
PSD
Bahia
2015–2023
Ceará Tasso Jereissati
PSDB
Fortaleza, CE
2015–2023
José Pimentel
PT
Picos, PI
2011–2019
Eunício Oliveira
PMDB
Lavras da Mangabeira, CE
2011–2019
Distrito Federal José Antônio Machado Reguffe
PDT
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
2015–2023
Cristovam Buarque
PDT
Recife, PE
2011–2019 Re-elected.
Hélio José
PMB
Corumbá de Goiás, GO
2015–2023
Espírito Santo Magno Malta
PR
Itapetinga, BA
2003 - 2019 Re-elected.
Ricardo Ferraço
PMDB
Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, ES
2011–2019
Rose de Freitas
PMDB
Caratinga, MG
2015–2023
Goiás Wilder Pedro de Morais
DEM
Taquaral de Goiás, GO
2011–2019 Replaced Demóstenes Torres, removed from office for breach of parliamentary ethics.
Lúcia Vânia
PSDB
Cumari, GO
2011–2019 Re-elected.
Ronaldo Caiado
DEM
Anápolis, GO
2015–2023
Maranhão Epitácio Cafeteira
PTB
João Pessoa, PB
2007–2015
Roberto Rocha
PSB
São Vicente Ferrer, MA
2015–2023
Edison Lobão
PMDB
Brasília, DF
2011–2019
Mato Grosso Wellington Fagundes
PR
Rondonópolis, MT
2015–2023
Blairo Maggi
PR
Torres, RS
2011–2019
José Medeiros
PPS
Caicó, RN
2011–2019
Mato Grosso do Sul Delcídio Amaral (arrested)
PT
Corumbá, MS
2011–2019 Re-elected.
Simone Tebet
PMDB
Três Lagoas, MS
2015–2023
Waldemir Moka
PMDB
Cáceres, MT
2011–2019
Minas Gerais Aécio Neves
PSDB
Belo Horizonte, MG
2011–2019 Leader of the Opposition in the Senate.
Antonio Anastasia
PSDB
Belo Horizonte, MG
2015–2023
Zezé Perrella
PDT
São Gonçalo do Pará, MG
2011–2019 Substitute of Itamar Franco, deceased.
Pará Flexa Ribeiro
PSDB
Belém, PA
2011–2019 Re-elected.
Marinor Brito
PSOL
Alenquer, PA
2011–2019
Paulo Rocha
PT
Curuçá, PA
2015–2023
Paraíba José Maranhão
PMDB
Araruna, PB
2015–2023
Vital do Rego Filho
PMDB
Campina Grande, PB
2011–2019
Wilson Santiago
PMDB
Uiraúna, PB
2011–2019
Paraná Álvaro Dias
PSDB
Quatá, SP
2015-2023
Gleisi Hoffmann
PT
Curitiba, PR
2011–2019
Roberto Requião
PMDB
Curitiba, PR
2011–2019
Pernambuco Fernando Bezerra Coelho
PSB
Petrolina, PE
2007–2015
Humberto Costa
PT
Campinas, SP
2011–2019
Armando Monteiro
PTB
Recife, PE
2011–2019
Piauí Ciro Nogueira
PP
Teresina, PI
2011–2019
Elmano Férrer
PTB
Lavras da Mangabeira, CE
2015–2023
Regina Sousa
PT
União, PI
2011–2019
Rio de Janeiro Romário de Souza Faria
PSB
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
2015 - 2023
Marcelo Crivella
PRB
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
2011–2019 Re-elected.
Lindberg Farias
PT
João Pessoa, PB
2011–2019
Rio Grande do Norte Paulo Davim
PV
Natal, RN
2011–2019 Substitute of Garibaldi Alves Filho, appointed as Minister of Social Security
José Agripino
DEM
Mossoró, RN
2011–2019 Re-elected.
Fátima Bezerra
PT
Nova Palmeira, PR
2015–2023
Rio Grande do Sul Paulo Paim
PT
Caxias do Sul, RS
2011–2019 Re-elected.
Lasier Martins
PDT
General Câmara, RS
2015–2023 Re-elected.
Ana Amélia Lemos
PP
Lagoa Vermelha, RS
2011–2019
Rondônia Acir Gurgacz
PDT
Cascavel, PR
2015–2023 Re-elected
Ivo Cassol
PP
Concórdia, SC
2011–2019
Valdir Raupp
PMDB
São João do Sul, SC
2011–2019 Re-elected.
Roraima Angela Portela
PT
Coreaú, CE
2011–2019
Telmário Mota
PDT
Normandia, RI
2007–2015
Romero Jucá
PMDB
Recife, PE
2011–2019 Re-elected. Leader of the Government in the Senate.
Santa Catarina Luiz Henrique da Silveira
PMDB
Blumenau, SC
2011–2019
Paulo Bauer
PSDB
Blumenau, SC
2011–2019
Dário Berger
PMDB
Bom Retiro, SC
2015–2023
São Paulo Aloysio Nunes
PSDB
São José do Rio Preto, SP
2011–2019
José Serra
PSDB
São Paulo, SP
2015–2023
Marta Suplicy
PMDB
São Paulo, SP
2011–2019 Elected as a member of PT, left the party in April 28, 2015.[3] Joined PMDB in September 2015[4]
Sergipe Eduardo Amorim
PSC
Itabaiana, SE
2011–2019
Antônio Carlos Valadares
PSB
Simão Dias, SE
2011–2019 Re-elected.
Ricardo Barreto Franco
DEM
Aracaju, SE
2015–2023
Tocantins João Ribeiro
PR
Campo Alegre de Goiás, GO
2011–2019 Re-elected.
Donizeti Nogueira
PT
Prata, MG
2015 - 2023
Vicentinho Alves
PR
Porto Nacional, TO
2011–2019

See also

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Senado Federal completa hoje 185 anos". R7 (in Portuguese). 6 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2012. O Senado Federal foi criado com a primeira Constituição do Império, outorgada em 1824, inspirado, primeiramente, na Câmara dos Lordes da Grã-Bretanha. Sua primeira reunião ocorreu em 6 de maio de 1826. .
  2. ^ http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/poder/2015/09/1687557-apos-deixar-psol-senador-randolfe-rodrigues-anuncia-filiacao-a-rede.shtml
  3. ^ http://g1.globo.com/jornal-nacional/noticia/2015/04/senadora-marta-suplicy-deixa-o-pt-depois-de-33-anos-de-filiacao.html
  4. ^ http://g1.globo.com/politica/noticia/2015/09/em-evento-em-sao-paulo-marta-suplicy-se-filia-ao-pmdb.html

External links[edit]