|Planning Area and HDB Town|
|• Pinyin||Shèng Gǎng|
Central Singapore CDC
North East CDC
|• Members of Parliament||
Ang Mo Kio GRC
Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC
Punggol East SMC
Sengkang West SMC
|• Total||10.59 km2 (4.09 sq mi)|
|• Residential||3.97 km2 (1.53 sq mi)|
|• Density||20,000/km2 (51,000/sq mi)|
Sengkang (Chinese: 盛港, Tamil: செங்காங) is a planning area and residential town located in the North-East Region of Singapore. Sengkang shares boundaries with Seletar and Punggol in the north, Pasir Ris and Paya Lebar in the east, Hougang and Serangoon to the south, as well as Yishun and Ang Mo Kio to the west.
Originally a fishing village, the area is undergoing rapid development under the ambition of the Housing and Development Board (HDB) to transform it into a fully mature housing estate. The town is made up of four neighbourhoods.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Highlights
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Education
- 7 Places of worship
- 8 Sengkang Town Centre
- 9 Other amenities
- 10 Politics
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes and references
- 13 External links
The name Sengkang means "prosperous harbour" in Chinese. The name comes from a road called Lorong Sengkang, off Lorong Buangkok. The area was formerly known as Kangkar (Gang Jiao 港脚) or "foot of the port" as there was once a fishing port located along Sungei Serangoon. Fishing villages and rubber, pepper and pineapple plantations flourished in the area in the old days.
Before the town was developed into a modern housing estate, the area was home to vegetable and pig farms, and tropical forests. The only public housing estate then was the Punggol Rural Centre, comprising a few low-rise residential blocks (blocks 1–5, 206 & 207) accommodating resettled farmers, located along Punggol Road. These blocks at the rural centre have since been demolished in 2005, to make way for future high-rise residential apartment blocks.
In 1994, an urban design team of 10 from HDB started conceptualisation for a new town in Sengkang. Sengkang was carved up into six neighbourhoods that will eventually house a total of 95,000 public and private housing units in the long term.
Sengkang's rich history became the theme for its future – Town of the Seafarer. Three neighbourhoods carry a marine sub-theme, while the other three will reflect the past when sprawling plantations covered parts of the area. The six neighbourhoods are planned to have names and colour schemes to go with their respective themes. Its past is today reflected in the design of its housing, seen in the three-storey pilotis or stilt effect that all the housing blocks have, reminiscent of the stilts of fishing villages and trunks of the various plantations of bygone years.
The town's first apartment blocks (known locally as flats) at Rivervale were completed in 1997. By August 2001, about 33,700 dwelling units have been completed. As at 31 March 2006, there are 384 HDB apartment blocks with 39,982 units in Sengkang New Town, comprising 16,017 four-roomers, 19,477 five-roomers and 4,488 executive flats.
In October 1999, a steering committee chaired by Dr Michael Lim, Member of Parliament for Cheng San Group Representation Constituency, was formed to look into providing sufficient amenities in Sengkang New Town, in view of feedback from residents. The Sengkang Town Development Steering Committee comprises grassroots leaders and the representatives of government agencies, and has four sub-committees taking care of town development, transportation, education, and social aspects. It coordinated and sped up the provision of town amenities, and completed its report on the need for facilities and services in the new town in July 2000.
The town is bounded by the Tampines Expressway (TPE) to the north, Sungei Serangoon (Serangoon River) to the east, Buangkok Drive to the south and Jalan Kayu to the west. Sungei Punggol (Punggol River) cuts through the new town, and divides the town into Sengkang East and Sengkang West. The Sengkang Town Centre is located in Compassvale. A new industrial area, 'Sengkang West Industrial Area', is to be built to the west of Jalan Kayu in the near future, bounded by a road which was completed in 2015.
The new road, Sengkang West Road, begins where Yio Chu Kang Road and Jalan Kayu intersect, passes through the extended roads of Fernvale Lane, Sengkang West Avenue, Sengkang West Way in front of the Fernvale neighbourhood, cuts through TPE across the proposed Seletar Aerospace Flyover and links to the future upgraded Seletar Aerospace Park. A section of the road between Yio Chu Kang Road and Sengkang West Avenue was opened on 13 October 2013, following the closure of Jalan Kayu along that stretch. The remaining section of the road connecting to the Seletar Aerospace Flyover, TPE and the Seletar Aerospace Park (via Seletar Aerospace Way) was opened on 16 May 2015.
Sengkang New Town is divided into seven subzones.
Sengkang's two main rivers, Sungei Punggol and Sungei Serangoon, bring life through the town with a network of green connectors along their banks, linking housing precincts to neighbourhood parks such as Sengkang Riverside Park, as well as the Sengkang Swimming Complex, Sengkang Hockey Stadium and Anchorvale Community Centre. These park connectors are linked to the Coney Island Park in Punggol New Town and the existing Punggol Park in the south, to better serve the recreational needs of the residents of Sengkang. Sengkang Sculpture Park, located in Compassvale, is an elongated green space created below the LRT viaducts.
Besides the pilotis located at the foot of all apartment blocks, point blocks are designed with a unique C-shape that provide greater privacy. Other common features include perforated balcony screens, and mesh or net-like parapets at the multi-storey carparks.
Sengkang is also the first satellite new town in Singapore to have its major public transport amenities built in tandem with the main public housing development. The main heavy rail tunnels through Sengkang and the elevated track infrastructure of the intra-town Sengkang LRT were developed as the existing public housing blocks were being built in the late 1990s. An integrated approach to transport, housing and commercial uses was also adopted in the planning of the town centre of Sengkang. Commuters alighting at Sengkang MRT/LRT have direct access to the Sengkang Bus Interchange, the shopping mall at Compass Point and the residential development at Compass Heights in a contiguous building complex.)
City planners plan for public transport to eventually become the preferred mode of transport in the future. The government of Singapore ideally desires environmental towns, using public transport to reduce pollution caused by heavy road traffic. Sengkang is part of the Urban Redevelopment Authority's focus for realising this urban planning model. As Sengkang is relatively distant from the city centre at the Central Area, an efficient, high-volume and high-speed public transport system is also preferred to using road networks.
The Sengkang MRT/LRT and Sengkang Bus Interchange are fully integrated within a single building complex to allow seamless travel for the residents of Sengkang New Town across the different available modes of public transport.
North East Line
Sengkang New Town is linked to the Central Area and MRT lines that are operated by SMRT (to the Circle MRT Line at Serangoon, Dhoby Ghaut and HarbourFront, to the North South Line at Dhoby Ghaut, to the East West Line at Outram Park and to the Downtown Line, operated by SBS Transit, at Little India and Chinatown) through the North East Line (NEL) at Sengkang MRT/LRT Station, located at Sengkang Town Centre. The NEL system is a fully automated heavy rail mass rapid transit system, and started operations on 20 June 2003. It is operated by SBS Transit.
Buangkok (NE15), the other station along NEL in Sengkang New Town, serves the housing developments in Buangkok, at Compassvale, and the northern part of Hougang New Town. The station started operations on 15 January 2006.
Sengkang LRT Line
The intra-town Sengkang Light Rail Transit (LRT) system is a 10.7 km light rail line that serves to link residents to the town centre. It is a fully automated system, and its rolling stock is supplied by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. The system is operated by SBS Transit. The Sengkang LRT line forms two loops, East Loop and West Loop, that skirt the perimeter of the new town.
Sengkang Bus Interchange
The Sengkang Bus Interchange is located at the ground level of Compass Heights condominium, next to Compass One. It was opened on 18 January 2003, and is the second air-conditioned bus interchange in Singapore, after Toa Payoh Bus Interchange.
Buses through Sengkang New Town
There are several bus services which passes through Sengkang New Town:
- 3 goes to Pasir Ris, Tampines and Punggol.
- 27 goes to Hougang, Tampines and Changi Airport.
- 39 goes to Yishun, Pasir Ris and Tampines.
- 43 goes to Serangoon, Upper East Coast and Punggol.
- 50 goes to Ang Mo Kio, Bishan and Punggol.
- 82 goes to Serangoon and Punggol Central.
- 83 goes to Punggol East.
- 85 goes to Punggol and Yishun.
- 89 goes to Pasir Ris, Changi and Hougang.
- 102 goes to Jalan Kayu and Hougang.
- 109 goes to Serangoon, Pasir Ris and Changi Village.
- 118 goes to Tampines, Changi and Punggol.
- 119 goes to Hougang/Kovan and Punggol.
- 136 goes to Serangoon Gardens, Ang Mo Kio and Punggol.
- 161 goes to Woodlands and Hougang.
- 168 goes to Woodlands, Tampines and Bedok.
- 858 goes to Changi Airport, Yishun, Sembawang and Woodlands.
- 965 goes to Yishun and Woodlands.
- 969 goes to Woodlands, Yishun and Tampines.
- 550 (Premium), 654 and 671 (City Direct) all go to the Central Business District.
The Tampines Expressway (TPE) links Sengkang New Town up with Singapore's expressway network. The Kallang-Paya Lebar Expressway, which provides a direct route to the city area via TPE, was completed in late 2008. New roads were built to ease traffic congestion on Punggol Road. Extensions had been made to Sengkang West Avenue and ongoing for Sengkang West Way (3rd quarter 2015) to connect to the future Sengkang West Industrial Park.
- Punggol Road
- Sengkang East Road (opened in January 2001, links towards Ang Mo Kio New Town after Hougang New Town)
- Sengkang East Drive (bypasses TPE to Punggol, links towards the city area to the south)
The major road that links Sengkang New Town and Hougang New Town to the south is:
- Sengkang Central
- Sengkang West Road
- Jalan Kayu (ceased to connect to Seletar Hills Estate after closure of section between Yio Chu Kang Road and Sengkang West Avenue)
The arterial roads that run in the east-west direction within Sengkang New Town are:
- Sengkang East Avenue and Sengkang West Avenue
- Compassvale Drive and Anchorvale Drive
- Sengkang East Way and Sengkang West Way
- Compassvale Bow
- Buangkok Drive (opened in 1999, to be extended westwards from the junction of Buangkok Green and Sengkang East Road to Yio Chu Kang Road in the near future)
- Rivervale Drive and Fernvale Road
There are 11 primary schools and six secondary schools in Sengkang New Town. Land provision has also been made for a junior college in the town to meet future educational demand in the North-East Region.
- Anchor Green Primary School 安泰小学
- Compasvale Primary School 康柏小学
- Fernvale Primary School 丰伟小学
- Nan Chiau Primary School 南侨小学
- North Spring Primary School 北源小学
- North Vista Primary School 远景小学 Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Palm View Primary School
- Rivervale Primary School 立伟小学
- Seng Kang Primary School 成康小学
- Sengkang Green Primary School 康林小学
- Springdale Primary School
- CHIJ Saint Joseph's Convent 圣婴女中(圣若瑟)
- Compassvale Secondary School 康柏中学
- Nan Chiau High School 南侨中学
- North Vista Secondary School 德新中学
- Pei Hwa Secondary School 培华中学
- Seng Kang Secondary School 成康中学
Places of worship
- Chinese temples
- Chee Hwan Kog Temple (Anchorvale)
- Chong Ghee Temple (Rivervale)
- Chong Hua Tong Tou Teck Hwee (Rivervale)
- Chong Yee Temple (Fernvale)
- Nanyang Thong Hong Siang Tng (Anchorvale)
- Pu Ti Buddhist Temple (Buangkok, Compassvale)
- Puat Jit Buddhist Temple (Anchorvale)
- Singapore Buddhist Welfare Services (Buangkok, Compassvale)
- Hindu temples
Sengkang Town Centre
There are four major building complexes within the Sengkang Town Centre.
- Compass Heights, a private residential condominium development.
- Sengkang Interchange, comprising the bus interchange, and the NEL and LRT stations.
- Compass One, formerly known as Compass Point is Singapore's first thematic suburban shopping centre based on the theme of learning.
- Sengkang Community Hub, which houses the following facilities:
- Fire stations
- Sengkang Fire Station is Singapore's largest fire station, opened on 19 May 2001. The S$14 million fire station covers 7,000 square metres, and has state-of-the-art facilities for the Singapore Civil Defence Force. Sengkang Fire Station has a capacity for 700 fire fighters and rescue personnel. It is also the first station to employ a water conservation system where water used during drills are diverted to a pump well for recycling purposes.
- Shopping amenities
- Welfare Services
- Community Centres/Clubs
- Sports facilities
Rivervale, bounded by Punggol Road and Sengkang East Drive forms the Punggol East Single Member Constituency (SMC), which was carved out of Pasir Ris-Punggol Group Representation Constituency (GRC) in the 2011 General Elections. Punggol East SMC saw the only three-cornered fight in the 2011 elections, with Michael Palmer from the People's Action Party (PAP), Desmond Lim from the Singapore Democratic Alliance (SDA), and Lee Li Lian from the Workers' Party (WP) contesting. The SMC was retained by incumbent Michael Palmer, who was also the MP when the ward was part of Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC. In December 2012, Palmer quit the PAP over an extra-marital affair, thereby vacating his seat and paving the way for a by-election that was called by the Prime Minister in January 2013. Desmond Lim from the SDA and Lee Li Lian from the WP returned to contest the by-election, and the PAP fielded a newcomer, Dr Koh Poh Koon, who had joined the party only three weeks earlier. They were joined by a fourth competing party, the Reform Party (RP), represented by its secretary-general Kenneth Jeyaretnam. Despite this being a four-way fight, the opposition Workers' Party candidate Lee Li Lian emerged victorious with 54.52% of valid votes cast, shocking many on both sides of the political divide, who expected it to be a close fight. PAP's Koh came in second with 43.71% of the votes, with the RP and SDA candidates losing their electoral deposits with less than 2% of the votes combined.
Compassvale, including Buangkok, and a small portion south of Rivervale bounded by Sengkang East Avenue and Buangkok Drive come under the Pasir Ris-Punggol Group Representation Constituency. The current MP for Punggol South division of Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC, which covers a part of Hougang, Buangkok and the southern part of Rivervale, is Gan Thiam Poh. He took over Teo Ser Luck, who is the current MP for Punggol Central division that covers Compassvale. Michael Lim, who was the MP for Punggol Central, retired from politics in 2006 and did not take part in the election that year. In the 2006 general election, Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC was expanded from five to six MPs as the population in Sengkang and Punggol new towns has grown since 2001. Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC had 178,393 voters, which exceeded the limit of 170,000 for a five-MP GRC.
The Anchorvale and Fernvale neighbourhoods of Sengkang New Town form the Sengkang West SMC, formerly a division under the Ang Mo Kio Group Representation Constituency until GE2011. Its Member of Parliament (MP) is Lam Pin Min. The two neighbourhoods were under the Jalan Kayu division, under Wee Siew Kim, before the general election in 2006.
A small portion of Fernvale bounded between Jalan Kayu and Fernvale Road, is part of the Ang Mo Kio Group Representation Constituency under the Sengkang South Division. The area used to be under the Sengkang West SMC until it was carved out during GE2015. Its Member Of Parliament (MP) is Gan Thiam Poh.
Notes and references
- City Population - statistics, maps and charts | Sengkang
- HDB Key Statistics FY 2014/2015
- Tee Hun Ching (24 September 2000). "Life behind the vales". The Straits Times.
- Jose Raymond (8 February 2000). "Sengkang takes shape". The Straits Times. p. 28.
- "Fancy living in an ocean park?". The Straits Times. 24 September 2000.
- Cindy Lim (11 April 2000). "Slow start in Sengkang". The Straits Times. p. 40.
- Sarah Ng and Nur Dianah Suhaimi (26 November 2006). "Posh Punggol v 'Ulu' Sengkang". The Sunday Times.
- Natalie Soh and Kenneth Lim (18 June 1999). "Few amenities in Sengkang". The Straits Times. p. 56.
- "More amenities for Sengkang". The Straits Times. 12 June 2000. p. 34.
- "Task force became model for meeting people's needs". The Sunday Times. 19 March 2006.
- On 4 February 1997, the Urban Redevelopment Authority released the Development Guide Plan or blueprint for the long-term land use for Sengkang: Stephanie Yeo (5 February 1997). "Riverfront housing for Sengkang". The Straits Times. p. 2.
- Geraldine Yeo (20 April 1999). "Travel to be seamless in Sengkang". The Straits Times. p. 4.
- Khaw Boon Wan (26 November 2002). "The ticket to seamless travel". The Straits Times.
- Goh Chin Lian (21 June 2003). "It's a smooth ride on NEL – mostly". The Straits Times.
- Leonard Lim (21 June 2003). "NEL gets off to a promising start". The Business Times.
- Christopher Tan (31 December 2005). "Buangkok station opens on Jan 15". The Straits Times.
- The opening of the Sengkang LRT Line coincides with the opening of the new Sengkang Bus Interchange on 18 January 2003: Karamjit Kaur (17 January 2003). "Free rides for LRT opening tomorrow". The Straits Times.
- "First air-conditioned bus interchange opens on Sunday". The Straits Times. 17 May 2002.
- "Coming your way – Expressway: Longest underground road". The Straits Times. 29 April 2001. p. 1.
- Buangkok Green and Buangkok Drive were completed in the second half of 1999. They shorten the drive from the Central Expressway near Ang Mo Kio Avenue 5 to Punggol Road: Karamjit Kaur (21 December 1999). "New roads cut down travel time". The Straits Times. p. 40.
- "Traffic woes in Sengkang will be a thing of the past". The Straits Times. 21 May 2001. p. H5.
- The first part of a S$23 million project to make Sengkang town safer and less congested was opened on 7 April 2001. The completed work involved an extension to Sengkang East Road, which runs from Compassvale Street to Tampines Expressway (TPE), and a slip road to the TPE in the direction of the Seletar and Central Expressways. The second part of the project involved the completion of the Sengkang East Road and Sengkang East Drive Flyovers: "Road extension to ease Sengkang's traffic woes". The Straits Times. 8 April 2002. p. H5.
- The one-kilometre-long Sengkang Central Road, which joins Buangkok Drive and Compassvale Drive in Sengkang New Town, was opened on 15 June 2002: "New road links Hougang to Sengkang". The Straits Times. 15 June 2002.
- The Sengkang East Road and Sengkang East Drive Flyovers were officially opened on 16 May 2004, making it easier for residents of Sengkang and Punggol new towns in the north-east to travel to other parts of Singapore: "New flyovers ease traffic woes of residents". The Straits Times. 17 May 2004.
- "North East Region Set to Get More Exciting". Urban Redevelopment Authority. 24 April 2003. Retrieved 29 September 2007.
- Anchor Green and North Vista Primary Schools were two of the six new primary schools built in new housing estates and towns so as to cater to smaller class size
- Sarah Ng (17 April 2005). "Plan for six new primary schools by 2008". The Straits Times.
- 王珏琪 (1 August 2007). "家长对"未来学校"有信心, 明年才开班, 崇辉受欢迎 (in Mandarin)". Lianhe Zaobao. Retrieved 29 September 2007.
- "anchorgreenpri.moe.edu.sg". anchorgreenpri.moe.edu.sg. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Compassvale Primary School started in January 1999, and was operating from Seng Kang Primary School. On the morning of 15 June 1999, seven construction workers were hurt when the tiled roof of a multi-purpose hall in the uncompleted Compassvale Primary School collapsed suddenly: Chua Chin Hon and Yiak Tsi Jack (16 June 1999). "7 hurt after unfinished school's roof collapses". The Straits Times. p. 1.
- Compassvale Primary School moved into its current new building on 13 November 2000: Jane Lee (14 November 2000). "Accident-delayed school opens". The Straits Times. p. H6.
- Fernvale Primary School opened in January 2005: Lynn Lee (12 June 2004). "Fewer pupils per class at 70 schools". The Straits Times.
- "fernvalepri.sg". fernvalepri.sg. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Nan Chiau School moved from Kim Yam Road to Sengkang New Town as Nan Chiau Primary School and Nan Chiau High School in January 2001: "Nan Chiau to move to Sengkang". The Straits Times. 15 April 2000. p. 4.
- North Spring Primary School was one of the seven new primary schools in Singapore which started in January 2000: Ho Ka Wei (4 January 2000). "Kids will learn "to think global'". The Straits Times. pp. 26, 27.
-  Archived 9 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- Rivervale Primary School was one of the ten new primary schools in Singapore which opened in January 1999: Wong Chee Meng (1 August 1998). "63 schools to hold Phase 2C balloting". The Straits Times. p. H41.
- Seng Kang Primary School was one of the four new primary schools in Singapore which opened in January 1997. It was housed at the former Hai Sing Girls' High School building along Upper Serangoon Road for the whole of 1997: "Four new schools for Phase 2C registration". The Straits Times. 30 July 1996. p. H16.
- CHIJ Saint Joseph's Convent moved from Hillside Drive to Sengkang New Town in 2000: Dorothy Ho (21 January 1999). "Convent school given new site". The Straits Times. p. H31.
- Compassvale Secondary School was one of the 13 new secondary schools in Singapore which started in January 2000: "13 secondary schools to open in Jan". The Straits Times. 26 August 1999. p. 3.
- After Thomson Secondary vacated its old site in Thomson Road in 2000, it moved to Sengkang New Town and was renamed North Vista: Yvonne Koh (17 May 2004). "It's back to school for these old boys and girls". The Straits Times.
- Pei Hwa Secondary School opened in January 2005: Ho Ai Li, Liaw Wy-Cin (13 December 2004). "13 schools moving into new premises: Some of them have unique features". The Straits Times.
- Seng Kang Secondary School opened in January 1999: "'Kampung school' does well in O levels". The Straits Times. 10 March 2003.
- "sengkangmethodistchurch.wordpress.com". sengkangmethodistchurch.wordpress.com. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "stanneonline.org". stanneonline.org. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "sbws.org.sg". sbws.org.sg. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Buddhist group raises $1.4m for building of Hindu temple". The Straits Times. 14 February 2006.
- "Al-Mawaddah Mosque". Mosque.org.sg. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- The S$8 million mosque in Sengkang, which had its groundbreaking ceremony on 30 June 2007, has a capacity of 4,000, and will be ready by the end of 2008: Zakir Hussain (30 June 2007). "Public input on mosque's look". The Straits Times.
- The Compass Point Shopping Centre was constructed at a cost of S$230 million: Koh Boon Pin (26 July 2000). "It's not just a mall, it's a learning centre". The Straits Times. p. 49.
- The shopping mall started operations in August 2002: "2,000 flock to Sengkang mall job fair". The Straits Times. 8 July 2002.
- Sengkang Community Hub, and its community club and neighbourhood police centre, were officially opened by Teo Chee Hean, Minister for Defence and Member of Parliament for Pasir Ris-Punggol Group Representation Constituency, on 10 December 2005: "Community Club Housed at Community Hub Provides All Encompassing Community and Commercial Services for Residents" (PDF). People's Association. 9 December 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
- Archived 30 August 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
- Archived 10 March 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
- Archived 18 October 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
- "singpost.com.sg". singpost.com.sg. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "$14m state-of-the-art facility can house 700". The Straits Times. 20 May 2001. p. 31.
- Tee Hun Ching (17 April 2006). "Michael Lim is last of 24 PAP MPs to announce exit". The Straits Times.
- Leslie Koh (4 March 2006). "Oversized GRC to take on 6th MP". The Straits Times.
- Chua Mui Hoong (4 March 2006). "Few major changes to electoral boundaries". The Straits Times.
- Various authors (20 May 2006). "The road ahead". The Straits Times. p. S8.
- Laurel Teo (27 January 2001). "MPs, not the Elections Department, draw up wards". The Straits Times. p. H10.
- "No big changes to electoral map". The Straits Times. 11 March 2006.
- Victor R Savage, Brenda S A Yeoh (2003). Toponymics – A Study of Singapore Street Names. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press. ISBN 981-210-205-1.
- Tommy Koh, et al. (eds.) (2006). Singapore: The Encyclopedia. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet in association with the National Heritage Board. ISBN 981-4155-63-2.
- "Transcript of Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong's National Day Rally English Speech on 19 August 2007 at NUS University Cultural Centre". Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts. 19 August 2007. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
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