Senior Wrangler

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1842 in the Senate House, Cambridge: the Senior Wrangler, achiever of "academic supremacy" (here, Arthur Cayley), is admitted to his degree as the top scorer in the university's final-year examinations in mathematics.
2013 in the same room: the examiner announces the results of the same examinations. In keeping with recent tradition, he raises his academic cap to identify the Senior Wrangler (here, Arran Fernandez); at the end he follows the older tradition of throwing printed notices of the results from the balcony.

The Senior Wrangler is the top mathematics undergraduate at the University of Cambridge in England, a position which has been described as "the greatest intellectual achievement attainable in Britain".[1]

Specifically, it is the person who achieves the highest overall mark among the Wranglers – the students at Cambridge who gain first-class degrees in mathematics. The Cambridge undergraduate mathematics course, or Mathematical Tripos, is famously difficult.

Many Senior Wranglers have become world-leading figures in mathematics, physics, and other fields. They include George Airy, Jacob Bronowski, Christopher Budd, Kevin Buzzard, Arthur Cayley, Donald Coxeter, Arthur Eddington, Ben Green, John Herschel, James Inman, J. E. Littlewood, Lee Hsien Loong, Jayant Narlikar, Morris Pell, John Polkinghorne, Frank Ramsey, Lord Rayleigh (John Strutt), Sir George Stokes, Isaac Todhunter, Sir Gilbert Walker, and James H. Wilkinson.

Senior Wranglers were once fêted with torchlit processions and took pride of place in the university's graduation ceremony.[2] Years in Cambridge were often remembered by who had been Senior Wrangler that year.[1]

The annual ceremony in which the Senior Wrangler becomes known was first held in the 18th century. Standing on the balcony of the university's Senate House, the examiner reads out the class results for mathematics,[3] and printed copies of the results are then thrown to the audience below. The examiner no longer announces the students' exact rankings, but they still identify the Senior Wrangler, nowadays by tipping their academic hat when reading out the person's name.

Others who finished in the top 12[edit]

Those who have achieved second place, known as Second Wranglers, include Alfred Marshall, James Clerk Maxwell, J. J. Thomson, Lord Kelvin, William Clifford, and William Whewell.

Those who have finished between third and 12th include Archibald Hill, Karl Pearson and William Henry Bragg (third), George Green, G. H. Hardy, and Alfred North Whitehead (fourth), Adam Sedgwick (fifth), John Venn (sixth), Bertrand Russell, Nevil Maskelyne and Sir James Timmins Chance (seventh), Thomas Malthus (ninth), and John Maynard Keynes and William Henry Fox Talbot (12th).


Between 1748 and 1909, the university publicly announced the ranking,[4] which was then reported in newspapers such as The Times. The examination was considered to be by far the most important in Britain and the Empire. The prestige of being a high Wrangler was great; the respect accorded to the Senior Wrangler was immense. Andrew Warwick, author of Masters of Theory, describes the term 'Senior Wrangler' as "synonymous with academic supremacy".[5]

Since 1910, successful students in the examinations have been told their rankings privately, and not all Senior Wranglers have become publicly known as such. In recent years, the custom of discretion regarding ranking has progressively vanished, and all Senior Wranglers since 2010 have announced their identity publicly.

The youngest person to be Senior Wrangler is probably Arran Fernandez, who came top in 2013, aged 18 years and 0 months.[6] The previous youngest was probably James Wilkinson in 1939, aged 19 years and nine months.[7] The youngest up to 1909 were Alfred Flux in 1887, aged 20 years and two months[8] and Peter Tait in 1852, aged 20 years and eight months.[9]

Two individuals have placed first without becoming known as Senior Wrangler. One was the student Philippa Fawcett in 1890. At that time, although the university allowed women to take the examinations, it did not allow them to be members of the university, nor to receive degrees. Therefore, they could not be known as 'Wranglers', and were merely told how they had performed compared to the male candidates, for example, "equal to the Third Wrangler", or "between the Seventh and Eighth Wranglers". Having gained the highest mark, Fawcett was declared to have finished "above the Senior Wrangler".

The other was the mathematics professor George Pólya. As he had contributed to reforming the Tripos with the aim that an excellent performance would be less dependent on solving hard problems and more so on showing a broad mathematical understanding and knowledge, G.H. Hardy asked Pólya to sit the examinations himself, unofficially, during his stay in England in 1924–5. Pólya did so, and to Hardy's surprise, received the highest mark, an achievement which, had he been a student, would have made him the Senior Wrangler.[10]

Derived uses of the term[edit]

Senior Wrangler's Walk is a path in Cambridge, the walk to and along which was considered to be sufficient constitutional exercise for a student aspiring to become the Senior Wrangler. The route was shorter than other walks, such as Wranglers' Walk and the Grantchester Grind, undertaken by undergraduates whose aspirations were lower.[11]

Senior Wrangler sauce is a Cambridge term for brandy butter, a type of hard sauce made from brandy, butter, and sugar, traditionally served in Britain with Christmas pudding and warm mince pies.[12]

Senior Wrangler is also the name of a solitaire card game, alternatively known as Mathematics and Double Calculation, played with two decks of cards and involving elementary modular arithmetic.[13][14]

Literary references[edit]

Fictional Senior Wranglers appearing in novels include Roger Hamley, a character in Elizabeth Gaskell's Wives and Daughters, and Tom Jericho, the cryptanalyst in Robert Harris's novel Enigma, who is described as having been Senior Wrangler in 1938. In Catherine Hall's The Proof of Love, Victor Turner is listed as having been Senior Wrangler in 1968.

In George Bernard Shaw's play Mrs. Warren's Profession, the title character's daughter Vivie is praised for "tieing with the third wrangler," and she comments that "the mathematical tripos" means "grind, grind, grind for six to eight hours a day at mathematics, and nothing but mathematics."

In Ford Madox Ford's Parade's End, the character Christopher Tietjens is described as having settled deliberately for only being Second Wrangler, in order to avoid the weight of expectation that the title would create.

In his Discworld series of novels, Terry Pratchett has a character called the Senior Wrangler, a faculty member at the Unseen University, whose first name is Horace.

The compiler of crosswords for The Leader in the 1930s used 'Senior Wrangler' as a pseudonym.[15]


The two most successful 19th-century coaches of Senior Wranglers were William Hopkins and Edward Routh. Hopkins, the 'Senior Wrangler Maker', who himself was the 7th Wrangler, coached 17 Senior Wranglers. Routh, who had himself been the Senior Wrangler, coached 27.[16] Another, described by his student (and Senior Wrangler) J.E. Littlewood as "the last of the great coaches", was another Senior Wrangler, Robert Alfred Herman.[17]

Senior Wranglers and runners up, 1748–1909[edit]

During 1748–1909, the top two colleges in terms of number of Senior Wranglers were Trinity and St John's with 56 and 54 respectively. Gonville and Caius was third with 13.

William Paley, Senior Wrangler, 1763.
Sir Frederick Pollock, 1st Baronet, Senior Wrangler, 1806.
John Herschel, Senior Wrangler, 1813.
George Biddell Airy, Senior Wrangler, 1823.
George Gabriel Stokes, Senior Wrangler, 1841.
Arthur Cayley, Senior Wrangler, 1842.
John Couch Adams, Senior Wrangler, 1843.
Isaac Todhunter, Senior Wrangler, 1848.
Peter Guthrie Tait, who at 20 years 8 months in 1852 was younger than all previous Senior Wranglers.
Edward Routh, Senior Wrangler in 1854 and coach to many subsequent Senior Wranglers.
John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Senior Wrangler, 1865.
Thomas Oliver Harding, Senior Wrangler, 1863.
Donald MacAlister, Senior Wrangler, 1877. The postcard portrait is a sign of the fame associated with the position of Senior Wrangler.
Philippa Fawcett, ranked "above the Senior Wrangler" in 1890.
Thomas John I'Anson Bromwich, Senior Wrangler, 1895.
Arthur Eddington, Senior Wrangler, 1904
Peter Swinnerton-Dyer, Senior Wrangler in the 1940s
Michael Edward Ash, Senior Wrangler, 1948
Jayant Narlikar, Senior Wrangler, 1959
Lee Hsien Loong, Senior Wrangler, 1973
Kevin Buzzard, Senior Wrangler, 1990
Ben Joseph Green, Senior Wrangler, 1998
Year Senior Wrangler(s)[18][note 1] College Proxime accessit/accesserunt
(runner(s) up)
1748 John Bates Gonville and Caius John Cranwell Sidney Sussex
1749 John Greene Corpus Christi Francis Coventry Magdalene
1750 William Hazeland St John's John Gooch Gonville and Caius
1751 John Hewthwaite Christ's William Cardale Pembroke
1752 Henry Best Magdalene John Cay Clare
1753 William Disney Trinity William Preston Trinity
1754 William Abbot St John's Samuel Hallifax Jesus
1755 Thomas Castley Jesus John Hatsell Queens'
1756 John Webster Corpus Christi William Bearcroft Peterhouse
1757 Edward Waring Magdalene John Jebb
1758 Robert Thorp Peterhouse George Wollaston Sidney Sussex
1759 Joshua Massey St John's Richard Watson Trinity
1760 George Cross Clare Anthony Hamilton Corpus Christi
1761 John Wilson Peterhouse Timothy Lowten St John's
1762 Richard Haighton Christ's Jeremiah Pemberton Pembroke
1763 William Paley John Frere Gonville and Caius
1764 Luke Heslop Corpus Christi John Fairfax Francklin Emmanuel
1765 John White Gonville and Caius John Clement Ives Gonville and Caius
1766 William Arnald St John's John Law Christ's
1767 Joseph Turner Pembroke George Dutens Queens'
1768 Thomas Kipling St John's George Fielding Trinity
1769 Thomas Parkinson Christ's William Burslem St John's
1770 Lewis Hughes St John's William Smith
1771 Thomas Starkie Roger Kedington Gonville and Caius
1772 George Pretyman Tomline Pembroke Mark Anthony Stephenson Clare
1773 John Jelland Brundish Gonville and Caius George Whitmore St John's
1774 Isaac Milner Queens' George Mounsey Peterhouse
1775 Samuel Vince Gonville and Caius Henry William Coulthurst St John's
1776 John Oldershaw Emmanuel Gilbert Wakefield Jesus
1777 David Owen Trinity Thomas Cautley Trinity
1778 William Farish Magdalene William Taylor Emmanuel
1779 Thomas Jones Trinity Herbert Marsh[note 2] St John's
1780 St John Priest Pembroke William Frend Christ's
1781 Henry Ainslie Montague Farrer Ainslie & George Henry Law Trinity & Queens'
1782 James Wood St John's John Hailstone Trinity
1783 Francis John Hyde Wollaston Sidney Sussex Richard Buck Magdalene
1784 Robert Acklom Ingram Queens' John Holden Sidney Sussex
1785 William Lax Trinity John Dudley Clare
1786 John Bell Edward Otter Jesus
1787 Joseph Littledale St John's Algernon Frampton St John's
1788 John Brinkley Gonville and Caius Edmund Outram
1789 William Millers St John's Joseph Bewsher Trinity
1790 Bewick Bridge Peterhouse Fletcher Raincock Pembroke
1791 Daniel Mitford Peacock Trinity William Gooch Gonville and Caius
1792 John Palmer St John's George Frederick Tavel Trinity
1793 Thomas Harrison Queens' Thomas Strickland
1794 George Butler Sidney Sussex John Singleton Copley
1795 Robert Woodhouse Gonville and Caius William Atthill Gonville and Caius
1796 John Kempthorne St John's William Dealtry Trinity
1797 John Hudson Trinity John Lowthian
1798 Thomas Sowerby Robert Martin
1799 William Fuller Boteler St John's John Brown
1800 James Inman George D'Oyly Corpus Christi
1801 Henry Martyn William Woodall Pembroke
1802 Thomas Penny White Queens' John Grisdale Christ's
1803 Thomas Starkie St John's Charles James Hoare St John's
1804 John Kaye Christ's William Albin Garratt[19] Trinity
1805 Thomas Turton St Catharine's Samuel Hunter Christie
1806 Frederick Pollock Trinity Henry Walter St John's
1807 Henry Gipps St John's John Carr Trinity
1808 Henry Bickersteth Gonville and Caius Miles Bland St John's
1809 Edward Hall Alderson John Standly Gonville and Caius
1810 William Henry Maule Trinity Thomas Shaw Brandreth Trinity
1811 Thomas Edward Dicey William French Caius
1812 Cornelius Neale St John's Joseph William Jordan Trinity
1813 John Herschel George Peacock
1814 Richard Gwatkin Henry Wilkinson St John's
1815 Charles George Frederick Leicester Trinity Frederick Calvert Jesus
1816 Edward Jacob Gonville and Caius William Whewell Trinity
1817 John Thomas Austen St John's Temple Chevallier Pembroke
1818 John George Shaw-Lefevre Trinity John Hind St John's
1819 Joshua King Queens' George Miles Cooper
1820 Henry Coddington Trinity Watkin Maddy
1821 Solomon Atkinson Henry Melvill
1822 Hamnett Holditch Gonville and Caius Mitford Peacock Corpus Christi
1823 George Biddell Airy Trinity Charles Jeffreys St John's
1824[20] John Cowling St John's James Bowstead Corpus Christi
1825 James Challis Trinity William Williamson Clare
1826 William Law John Hymers[21] St John's
1827 Henry Percy Gordon Peterhouse Thomas Turner Trinity
1828 Charles Perry Trinity John Baily St John's
1829 Henry Philpott St Catharine's William Cavendish Trinity
1830 Charles Thomas Whitley St John's James William Lucas Heaviside Sidney Sussex
1831 Samuel Earnshaw Thomas Gaskin St John's
1832 Douglas Denon Heath Trinity Samuel Laing
1833 Alexander Ellice Gonville and Caius Joseph Bowstead Pembroke
1834 Philip Kelland Queens' Thomas Rawson Birks Trinity
1835 Henry Cotterill St John's Henry Goulburn[note 3]
1836 Archibald Smith Trinity John William Colenso St John's
1837 William Nathaniel Griffin St John's James Joseph Sylvester
1838 Thomas John Main James George Mould Corpus Christi
1839 Benjamin Morgan Cowie Percival Frost St John's
1840 Robert Leslie Ellis Trinity Harvey Goodwin Caius
1841 George Gabriel Stokes Pembroke Henry Cadman Jones Trinity
1842 Arthur Cayley Trinity Charles Turner Simpson St John's
1843 John Couch Adams St John's Francis Bashforth
1844 George Wirgman Hemming William Bonner Hopkins Gonville and Caius
1845 Stephen Parkinson William Thomson (later known as Lord Kelvin)[note 4] Peterhouse
1846 Lewis Hensley Trinity John Alfred Airey (or Lumb) Pembroke
1847 William Parkinson Wilson St John's Robert Walker Trinity
1848 Isaac Todhunter Charles Mackenzie Gonville and Caius
1849 Morris Birkbeck Pell Henry Carlyon Phear
1850 William Henry Besant Corpus Christi Henry William Watson Trinity
1851 Norman Macleod Ferrers Gonville and Caius William Charles Evans St John's
1852 Peter Guthrie Tait Peterhouse William John Steele Peterhouse
1853 Thomas Bond Sprague St John's Robert Braithwaite Batty Emmanuel
1854 Edward Routh[note 5] Peterhouse James Clerk Maxwell Peterhouse & Trinity
1855 James Savage St John's Leonard Courtney St John's
1856 Augustus Vaughton Hadley John Rigby Trinity
1857 Gerard Brown Finch Queens' Thomas Savage Pembroke
1858 George Middleton Slesser Charles Abercrombie Smith Peterhouse
1859 James Wilson St John's Frederick Brown & Anthony William Wilson Steel Trinity & Gonville and Caius
1860 James Stirling Trinity Walter Baily St John's
1861 William Steadman Aldis John Bond Magdalene
1862 Thomas Barker John George Laing St John's
1863 Robert Romer Trinity Hall Edward Tucker Leeke Trinity
1864 Henry John Purkiss Trinity William Peverill Turnbull
1865 John Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) Alfred Marshall St John's
1866 Robert Morton Peterhouse Thomas Steadman Aldis Trinity
1867 Charles Niven Trinity William Kingdon Clifford
1868 John Fletcher Moulton St John's George Darwin
1869 Numa Edward Hartog[note 6] Trinity John Eliot St John's
1870 Richard Pendlebury St John's Alfred George Greenhill
1871 John Hopkinson Trinity James Whitbread Lee Glaisher Trinity
1872 Robert Rumsey Webb St John's Horace Lamb
1873 Thomas Oliver Harding Trinity Edward John Nanson
1874 George Constantine Calliphronas Gonville and Caius W. W. Rouse Ball
1875 John William Lord Trinity William Burnside & George Chrystal Pembroke & Peterhouse
1876 Joseph Timmis Ward St John's William Loudon Mollison Clare
1877 Donald MacAlister Frederic Brian De Malbisse Gibbons Gonville and Caius
1878 E. W. Hobson Christ's John Edward Aloysius Steggall Trinity
1879 Andrew James Campbell Allen Peterhouse George Francis Walker Queens'
1880 Joseph Larmor St John's J. J. Thomson[note 4] Trinity
1881 Andrew Forsyth[note 7] Trinity Robert Samuel Heath
1882[24] Robert Alfred Herman John Shapland Yeo St John's
1882[note 8] William Welsh Jesus Herbert Hall Turner Trinity
1883 George Ballard Mathews St John's Edward Gurner Gallop
1884 William Fleetwood Sheppard Trinity Walter Percy Workman
1885 Arthur Berry King's Augustus Edward Hough Love St John's
1886 Alfred Cardew Dixon Trinity William Charles Fletcher
1887 H. F. Baker, Sir Alfred William Flux, John Henry Michell & John Cyril Iles St John's, St John's, Trinity & Trinity James Bennet Peace Emmanuel
1888 William McFadden Orr St John's William Edwin Brunyate Trinity
1889 Gilbert Walker Trinity Frank Watson Dyson & Percy Cory Gaul[25] Trinity & Trinity
1890 Geoffrey Thomas Bennett;
Philippa Fawcett placed "Above the Senior Wrangler"[note 9]
St John's
(Fawcett: Newnham)
Hugh William Segar Trinity
1891 James Goodwillie Corpus Christi David Beveridge Mair & Robert Hume Davison Mayall Christ's & Sidney Sussex
1892 Philip Herbert Cowell Trinity Francis Robert Sharpe Christ's
1893 George Thomas Manley Christ's Gilbert Harrison John Hurst & Charles Percy Sanger King's & Trinity
1894 Walter Sibbald Adie & William Fellows Sedgwick Trinity & Trinity William Edward Philip Clare
1895 Thomas John I'Anson Bromwich St John's John Hilton Grace & E. T. Whittaker Peterhouse & Trinity
1896 William Garden Fraser Queens' Ernest William Barnes, George Edward St Lawrence Carson & Algernon Charles Legge Wilkinson Trinity, Trinity & Trinity
1897 William Henry Austin Trinity Francis John Welsh Whipple Trinity
1898 Ronald William Henry Turnbull Hudson St John's John Forbes Cameron & James Hopwood Jeans Gonville and Caius & Trinity
1899 George Birtwhistle & R. P. Paranjpye[note 10] Pembroke & St John's Samuel Bruce McLaren Trinity
1900 Joseph Edmund Wright Trinity Arthur Cyril Webb Aldis Trinity Hall
1901 Alexander Brown Gonville and Caius Herbert Knapman Emmanuel
1902 Ebenezer Cunningham St John's Frank Slator St John's
1903 Harry Bateman & Philip Edward Marrack Trinity & Trinity James Sidney Barnes, Ernest Gold, George Frederic Sowden Hills and Sidney Hill Phillips Trinity, St John's, Trinity and St John's
1904 Arthur Stanley Eddington[note 11] Trinity G. R. Blanco-White Trinity
1905 John Edensor Littlewood & James Mercer Trinity & Trinity H. Smith Trinity Hall
1906 Arunachala Tyaga Rajan & Clarence John Threlkeld Sewell Trinity & Trinity W. J. Harrison Clare
1907 G. N. Watson Trinity Herbert Westren Turnbull Trinity
1908 Selig Brodetsky & A. W. Ibbotson Trinity & Pembroke H. Minson Christ's
1909 Percy John Daniell Trinity E. H. Neville Trinity

Senior Wranglers since 1910[edit]

Year Senior Wrangler College
1912 Bhupati Mohan Sen [27][circular reference] King's
1914 Brian Charles Molony[28] Trinity
1923 Frank Ramsey[29]
1928 Donald Coxeter[30]
1930 Jacob Bronowski[31] Jesus
1934 David Scott Dunbar[32] Clare
1939 James Wilkinson[33] Trinity
1940 Hermann Bondi[34]
1944 Denis Sargan[35] St John's
1948 Michael Edward Ash[36] Trinity
1952 John Polkinghorne[citation needed]
1953 Crispin Nash-Williams[37] Trinity Hall
1959 Jayant Narlikar[38] non-collegiate
1964 Geoffrey Fox[39] Trinity
1966 Nigel Kalton[citation needed]
1967 Colin Myerscough[40] Churchill
1970 Derek Wanless[41] King's
1972 Gordon Woo[42] Christ's
1973 Lee Hsien Loong[43][44] Trinity
1975 Peter J. Young[45] St John's
1977 Glyn Moody[46][47] Trinity
1981 Mike Giles Churchill
1982 Christopher Budd[48] St John's
1983 John Lister Trinity
1985 Nick Mee[49]
1990 Kevin Buzzard[50]
1992 Ruth Hendry[51][52] Queens'
1993 Ian Dowker Trinity
1994 Wee Teck Gan Churchill
1995 Balazs Szendroi Trinity
1996 David W. Essex
1997 Alexander G. Barnard
1998 Ben Joseph Green[53]
1999 Paul Russell Peterhouse
2000 Toby Gee[54][55] Trinity
2001 Mohan Ganesalingam[56]
2002 Jeremy Young
2003 Thomas Barnet-Lamb[57]
2004 David Loeffler[58]
2005 Tim Austin
2006 Antonio Lei
2007 Paul Jefferys[59]
2008 Le Hung Viet Bao[60]
2009 Thomas Beck[61] Trinity Hall
2010 Zihan Hans Liu[62] Trinity
2011 Sean Eberhard[63] Gonville and Caius
2012 Sean Moss[64] Trinity
2013 Arran Fernandez[6][65] Fitzwilliam
2014 Yang Li[66] Downing
2015 Timothy Large[67] Trinity
2016 Leo Lai[68] Churchill
2017 Jonathan Zheng Trinity
2018 Barnabas Janzer
2019 Warren Li[69]
2020 Exam cancelled due to COVID-19 outbreak N/A
2021 Alejandro Epelde Blanco Trinity
2022 Gheehyun Nahm
2023 Rubaiyat Khondaker

Senior Wranglers since 1910 also include:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ In years where there was a tie, individuals tied have been shown as Senior Wrangler, with the next placed candidate(s) as Proxime Accessit; strictly speaking, if n individuals are tied as Senior Wrangler, any runner up is (n+1)-st Wrangler .
  2. ^ Thomas Jones, the Senior Wrangler that year, acted as his tutor.
  3. ^ Also senior classic.
  4. ^ a b According to legend, Kelvin was so confident he had come top that he asked his servant to run to the Senate House and check who the Second Wrangler was. The servant returned and told him, "You, sir!" Kelvin was reportedly beaten largely on the basis of Parkinson's superior exam technique. The result was reversed in the Smith Prize. This story has also been attributed to J.J. Thomson in 1880, and others.[22]
  5. ^ Routh found more fame subsequently as a coach of other Senior Wranglers. Indeed for twenty-two consecutive years from 1862, one of his pupils was Senior Wrangler, and he coached twenty-seven in all. His first pupil in 1856 was Third Wrangler, and in 1858 both the Senior and Second Wrangler were coached by him.[23]
  6. ^ First Jewish Senior Wrangler. A special grace was passed to allow him to be graduated using a special form of the wording in order to not offend his religious beliefs.
  7. ^ Forsyth was one of the men who were principally responsible for the reform of the Tripos system that led to the end of the Tripos ranking.
  8. ^ Regulations were changed to split the class list into Parts I & II, and Part III. The examinations for the former were held in June and retained the ordered class list (in contrast to Part III), so two sets of results exist for this year.
  9. ^ Women were allowed to take the Tripos from 1881, when Charlotte Scott achieved the eighth highest mark (but was not officially ranked as eighth wrangler); but their results were published on a separate list and they were not officially ranked among the wranglers, so Fawcett was not officially Senior Wrangler despite receiving the highest mark on the tripos. Women students were finally admitted as full members of the university in 1948.
  10. ^ First Indian Senior Wrangler.
  11. ^ Eddington was the first person to be Senior Wrangler after only two years of study.[26]


  1. ^ a b Forfar, David (1996). "What became of the Senior Wranglers?". Mathematical Spectrum. 29 (1).
  2. ^ Moore, Gregory (2005). "Masters of Theory and its Relevance to the History of Economic Thought". History of Economics Review. 42 (1): 77–99. doi:10.1080/18386318.2005.11681216. S2CID 148477456.
  3. ^ "Peter Guthrie Tait" (PDF).
  4. ^ Craik, A.D.D. (2007). Mr Hopkins' Men. Springer London. doi:10.1007/978-1-84628-791-6. ISBN 978-1-84628-790-9.
  5. ^ Warwick, Andrew (2003). Masters of Theory: Cambridge and the Rise of Mathematical Physics. University Of Chicago Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-226-87375-7.
  6. ^ a b "Student, 18, youngest ever to come top in Cambridge maths finals". Daily Telegraph. 21 June 2013.
  7. ^ Wilkinson, James H. Hammarling, Sven (2003). Encyclopedia of Computer Science. Springer London. ISBN 0-470-86412-5.
  8. ^ "To the Editor of the Spectator". The Spectator. 24 June 1899. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  9. ^ Crilly, Tony (2006). Arthur Cayley: mathematician laureate of the Victorian age. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 160. ISBN 0-8018-8011-4.
  10. ^ Alexanderson, Gerald L. (2000). The random walks of George Pólya. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 68.
  11. ^ Shapin, Stephen; Lawrence, Christopher, eds. (1998). Science incarnate: historical embodiments of natural knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 303. ISBN 0-226-47014-8.
  12. ^ "Brandy butter". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  13. ^ Coops, Helen L (1939). 100 Games of Solitaire (Complete with layouts for playing). Whitman Publishing Company. p. 205.
  14. ^ Goren, Charles Henry (1961). Goren's Hoyle Encyclopedia of Games: With Official Rules and Pointers on Play, Including the Latest Laws of Contract Bridge. Greystone Press. p. 643.
  15. ^ "Senior Wrangler" of the Leader (1932). The Handy Crossword Companion. Odhams Press.
  16. ^ Aris, Rutherford; Davis, H. Ted; Stuewer, Roger H., eds. (1983). Springs of scientific creativity : essays on founders of modern science. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. p. 164. ISBN 0-8166-6830-2. OCLC 814078408.
  17. ^ Littlewood, John Edensor (1953). A Mathematician's Miscellany. Methuen Publishing. p. 70.
  18. ^ Neale, Charles Montague (1907). The senior wranglers of the University of Cambridge, from 1748 to 1907. With biographical, & c., notes. Bury St. Edmunds: Groom and Son.
  19. ^ It appears that '22nd wrangler' in the entry for William Albin Garratt in Venn. "Garratt, William Albin (GRT800WA)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. is a misprint for '2nd wrangler'; cf Neale, Charles Montague (1907), The Senior Wranglers of the University of Cambridge, from 1748 to 1907: With Biographical, etc., Notes (Bury St. Edmunds: F.T. Groom and Son; 61pp), p. 26; at all events, Garratt took the First Smith's Prize in 1804, with the Senior Wrangler, Kaye, placing Second, although Kaye also took the Senior Classical Medal (for reference without prejudice, at the time, other things being equal, undergraduates at Trinity were given preference for the Smith's Prizes)
  20. ^ Classical Tripos established.
  21. ^ Founded Hymers College.
  22. ^ A History of Mathematics in Cambridge
  23. ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (October 2003). "Routh biography". Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  24. ^ An account exists of the 1882 graduation ceremony. "University Intelligence". The Times. 30 January 1882. Retrieved 25 September 2008.
  25. ^ John Venn (15 September 2011). Alumni Cantabrigienses: A Biographical List of All Known Students, Graduates and Holders of Office at the University of Cambridge, from the Earliest Times to 1900. Cambridge University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-108-03613-9.
  26. ^ Hutchinson, Ian H. (December 2002). "Astrophysics and Mysticism: the life of Arthur Stanley Eddington". Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2008.
  27. ^ "Bhupati Mohan Sen". Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  28. ^ "Brian Charles Molony (1892–1963)". Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  29. ^ Krantz, Stephen; Parks, Harold (2014). A Mathematical Odyssey: Journey from the Real to the Complex. Springer. p. 64. ISBN 978-1461489382.
  30. ^ Roberts, Siobhan; Ivić Weiss, Asia (2006). "Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter. 9 February 1907 — 31 March 2003". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 52. The Royal Society: 45–66. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2006.0004. ISSN 0080-4606. S2CID 70400674.
  31. ^ Bronowski's biography at the MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive: "Jacob Bronowski". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  32. ^ Uppingham School and Clare College Archives.
  33. ^ Wilkinson's biography at the MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive: "James Hardy Wilkinson". University of St Andrews. Archived from the original on 22 November 2008. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  34. ^ "Oral History Transcript — Dr. Hermann Bondi". American Institute of Physics. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  35. ^ "John Denis Sargan" (PDF). Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  36. ^ Trinity College Cambridge,"Making Guinness Guinness – Michael Ash", The Fountain, Issue 23”
  37. ^ "Crispin St John Alvah Nash-Williams". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  38. ^ Mitton, Simon (2005). Fred Hoyle: A Life in Science. Aurum. p. 275. ISBN 978-1-85410-961-3.
  39. ^ "Geoffrey Charles Fox". Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  40. ^ "Sudden end to the first Mastership". Churchill College, Cambridge. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  41. ^ "Profile: Banking's boy wonder: Derek Wanless – NatWest's chief has a personal touch but a pragmatic vision, says William Kay". Independent. 27 March 1994.
  42. ^ Woo, Gordon (1999). The Mathematics of Natural Catastrophes. Imperial College Press. p. 292. ISBN 1-86094-182-6.
  43. ^ Kuan Yew, Lee (2000). From Third World to First: The Singapore Story: 1965-2000. Harper. pp. 750–751. ISBN 978-0-06019-776-6.
  44. ^ Neo Hui Min (12 August 2004). "Dennis Marrian, University Tutor". Straits Times. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  45. ^ "Oral history interview with Wallace Sargent". 24 September 2021. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
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