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Senkaku Islands

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Senkaku Islands
Disputed islands
Other names:
Diaoyu Islands / Diaoyutai Islands / Pinnacle Islands
Diaoyutai senkaku.png
Location of the islands (yellow rectangle and inset)
LocationPacific Ocean
Coordinates25°44′42″N 123°29′06″E / 25.74500°N 123.48500°E / 25.74500; 123.48500Coordinates: 25°44′42″N 123°29′06″E / 25.74500°N 123.48500°E / 25.74500; 123.48500
Total islands5 + 3 rocks (reefs)
Major islands
  • Uotsuri-shima / Diaoyu Dao
  • Taishō-tō / Chiwei Yu
  • Kuba-shima / Huangwei Yu
  • Kita-Kojima / Bei Xiaodao
  • Minami-Kojima / Nan Xiaodao
Area7 square kilometres (1,700 acres)
Highest point
  • 383 metres (1,257 ft)
Administered by
CityIshigaki, Okinawa
Claimed by
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[3][4][5]
TownshipToucheng Township, Yilan County, Taiwan
 People's Republic of China[6]
CountyYilan County, Taiwan
Senkaku Islands
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿
Literal meaningDiaoyu Island and its affiliated islands
Taiwanese name
Traditional Chinese釣魚臺列嶼
Literal meaningDiaoyutai Islands / Tiaoyutai Islands
Japanese name

The Senkaku Islands (, Senkaku-shotō, variants: 尖閣群島 Senkaku-guntō[7] and 尖閣列島 Senkaku-rettō[8]) are a group of uninhabited islands in the East China Sea, administered by Japan. They are located northeast of Taiwan, east of China, west of Okinawa Island, and north of the southwestern end of the Ryukyu Islands. They are known in mainland China as the Diaoyu Islands or Diaoyu Dao and its affiliated islands (Chinese: 钓鱼附属岛屿; pinyin: Diàoyúdǎo jí qí fùshǔ dǎoyǔ; also simply 钓鱼岛),[9] in Taiwan as the Diaoyutai Islands or Tiaoyutai Islands[10][11][12][13] (Chinese: 釣魚臺列嶼; pinyin: Diàoyútái liè yǔ),[14][15][16][17] and sometimes in the Western world by the historical name Pinnacle Islands.[18][19][20][21] In Okinawan they are called ʔiyukubajima (魚蒲葵島).[22] In the Yaeyama language, they are called iigunkubajima.

The islands are the focus of a territorial dispute between Japan and China and between Japan and Taiwan.[23] China claims the discovery and ownership of the islands from the 14th century, while Japan maintained ownership of the islands from 1895 until its surrender at the end of World War II. The United States administered the islands as part of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands from 1945 until 1972, when the islands returned to Japanese control under the Okinawa Reversion Agreement between the United States and Japan.[24] The discovery of potential undersea oil reserves in 1968 in the area was a catalyst for further interest in the disputed islands.[25][26][27][28][29] Despite the diplomatic stalemate between China and Taiwan, both governments agree that the islands are part of Taiwan as part of Toucheng Township in Yilan County. Japan administers and controls the Senkaku islands as part of the city of Ishigaki in Okinawa Prefecture. It does not acknowledge the claims of China nor Taiwan, but it has not allowed the Ishigaki administration to develop the islands.

As a result of the dispute, the public is largely barred from approaching the uninhabited islands, which are about a seven-hour boat ride from Ishigaki. Vessels from the Japan Coast Guard pursue Chinese ships crossing the maritime boundary in what one visiting journalist described in 2012 as "an almost cold war-style game of cat-and-mouse", and fishing and other civilian boats are prevented from getting too close to avoid a provocative incident.[30]

The Senkaku Islands are important nesting sites for seabirds, and are one of two remaining nesting sites in the world for the short-tailed albatross, alongside Tori-shima, Izu Islands.[31]


An extract from a map of Asia (China and Tartary) drawn by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville in 1752.

Early history

Chinese records of these islands date back to as early as the 15th century when they were referred as Diaoyu in books such as Voyage with a Tail Wind (Chinese: 順風相送; pinyin: Shùnfēng Xiāngsòng) (1403) [32] and Record of the Imperial Envoy's Visit to Ryūkyū (Chinese: 使琉球錄; pinyin: Shǐ Liúqiú Lù) (1534). Adopted by the Chinese Imperial Map of the Ming Dynasty, the Chinese name for the island group (Diaoyu) and the Japanese name for the main island (Uotsuri) both mean "fishing".

Historically, the Chinese had used the uninhabited islands as navigational markers in making the voyage to the Ryukyu Kingdom upon commencement of diplomatic missions to the kingdom, "resetting the compass at a particular isle in order to reach the next one".[33]

The first published description of the islands in Europe appears in a book imported by Isaac Titsingh in 1796. His small library of Japanese books included Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu (三國通覧圖說, An Illustrated Description of Three Countries) by Hayashi Shihei.[34] This text, which was published in Japan in 1785, described the Ryūkyū Kingdom.[35] Hayashi followed convention in giving the islands their Chinese names in his map in the text, where he coloured them in the same pink as China.[36]

In 1832, the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland supported the posthumous abridged publication of Titsingh's French translation.[37]

The name, "Pinnacle Isles" was first used by James Colnett, who charted them during his 1789-1791 voyage in the Argonaut.[38] William Robert Broughton sailed past them in November 1797 during his voyage of discovery to the North Pacific in HMS Providence, and referred to Diaoyu Island/Uotsuri Island as "Peaks Island".[39] Reference was made to the islands in Edward Belcher's 1848 account of the voyages of HMS Sammarang.[40] Captain Belcher observed that "the names assigned in this region have been too hastily admitted."[41] Belcher reported anchoring off Pinnacle Island in March 1845.[42]

In the 1870s and 1880s, the English name Pinnacle Islands was used by the British navy for the rocks adjacent to the largest island Uotsuri-shima / Diaoyu Dao (then called 和平嶼 hô-pîng-sū, "Peace Island" in Hokkien); Kuba-shima / Huangwei Yu (then called Ti-a-usu); and Taishō-tō / Chiwei Yu.[43]

A Japanese navy record issued in 1886 first started to identify the islets using equivalents of the Chinese and English terms employed by the British. The name "Senkaku Retto" is not found in any Japanese historical document before 1900 (the term "Senkaku Gunto" began being used in the late 19th century), and first appeared in print in a geography journal published in 1900. It was derived from a translation of the English name Pinnacle Islands into a Sinicized Japanese term "Sento Shoto" (as opposed to "Senkaku Retto", i.e., the term used by the Japanese today), which has the same meaning.[44]

The collective use of the name "Diaoyutai" to denote the entire group began with the advent of the controversy in the 1970s.[45]

Control of the islands by Japan and the US

Japanese workers at a bonito fishery processing plant on Uotsuri-shima sometime around 1910[46]
Map including Uotsuri-Shima (labeled as UOTSURI-SHIMA 魚釣島) (1954)
Map including Taishō-tō (labeled as SEKIBI-SHO 赤尾屿) (1954)

As the uninhabited islets were historically used as maritime navigational markers, they were never subjected to administrative control other than the recording of the geographical positions on maps, descriptions in official records of Chinese missions to the Ryukyu Kingdom, etc.[33]

The Japanese central government annexed the islands in early 1895 while still fighting China in the First Sino-Japanese War.[36] Around 1900, Japanese entrepreneur Koga Tatsushirō (古賀 辰四郎) constructed a bonito fish processing plant on the islands, employing over 200 workers. The business failed around 1940 and the islands have remained deserted ever since.[46] In the 1970s, Koga Tatsushirō's son Zenji Koga and Zenji's wife Hanako sold four islets to the Kurihara family of Saitama Prefecture. Kunioki Kurihara[47] owned Uotsuri, Kita-Kojima, and Minami-Kojima. Kunioki's sister owned Kuba.[48]

The islands came under US government occupation in 1945 after the surrender of Japan ended World War II.[46] In 1969, the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) identified potential oil and gas reserves in the vicinity of the Senkaku Islands.[49] In 1971, the Okinawa Reversion Treaty passed the U.S. Senate, returning the islands to Japanese control in 1972.[50] Also in 1972, the Republic of China government and People's Republic of China government officially began to declare ownership of the islands.[51]

Since 1972, when the islands reverted to Japanese government control, the mayor of Ishigaki has been given civic authority over the territory. The Japanese central government, however, has prohibited Ishigaki from surveying or developing the islands.[46][52]

In 1978, a Japanese political group constructed the first lighthouse on Uotsuri island and grazed two goats. Goats have since proliferated and affected the island's vegetation.[53]

In 1979 an official delegation from the Japanese government composed of 50 academics, government officials from the Foreign and Transport ministries, officials from the now-defunct Okinawa Development Agency, and Hiroyuki Kurihara, visited the islands and camped on Uotsuri for about four weeks. The delegation surveyed the local ecosystem, finding moles and sheep, studied the local marine life, and examined whether the islands would support human habitation.[48]

In 1988, a Japanese political group reconstructed a lighthouse on Uotsuri Island.[54]

In 2005, a Japanese fisherman who owned a lighthouse at Uotsuri Island expressed his intention to relinquish the ownership of the lighthouse, and the lighthouse became a national property pursuant to the provisions of the Civil Code of Japan. Since then, the Japan Coast Guard has maintained and managed the Uotsuri lighthouse.[54]

From 2002 to 2012, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications paid the Kurihara family ¥25 million a year to rent Uotsuri, Minami-Kojima and Kita-Kojima. Japan's Ministry of Defense rents Kuba island for an undisclosed amount. Kuba is used by the U.S. military as a practice aircraft bombing range. Japan's central government completely owns Taisho island.[48][55]

On December 17, 2010, Ishigaki declared January 14 as "Pioneering Day" to commemorate Japan's 1895 annexation of the Senkaku Islands. China condemned Ishigaki's actions.[56] In 2012, both the Tokyo Metropolitan and Japanese central governments announced plans to negotiate purchase of Uotsuri, Kita-Kojima, and Minami-Kojima from the Kurihara family.[48]

On September 11, 2012, the Japanese government nationalized its control over Minami-kojima, Kita-kojima, and Uotsuri islands by purchasing them from the Kurihara family for ¥2.05 billion.[57] China's Foreign Ministry objected saying Beijing would not "sit back and watch its territorial sovereignty violated."[58]

In 2014, Japan constructed a lighthouse and wharf featuring Japanese flag insignia on the islets.[59]


Map of the Senkaku Islands area (1944)
A cluster of islets – Uotsuri-shima (left), Kita-Kojima and Minami-Kojima (right)

The island group are known to consist of five uninhabited islets and three barren rocks.[60] China has identified and named as many as 71 islets that belong to this group after the Japanese Cabinet released names of 39 uninhabited islands.[61][62]

These minor features in the East China Sea are located approximately 120 nautical miles northeast of Taiwan, 200 nautical miles east of the Chinese mainland and 200 nautical miles southwest of the Japanese island of Okinawa.[63]

According to one visitor, Uotsuri-shima, the largest of the islands, consists of a pair of rocky gray mountains with steep, boulder-strewn slopes rising almost straight from the water's edge. Other, nearby islands were described as large rocks covered by low vegetation.[30]

In ascending order of distances, the island cluster is located:

Islands in the group
No. Japanese name[65] Republic of China name[66][67] China (PRC) name[68][69] Coordinates Area (km2)[67] Highest elevation (m) Images
1 Uotsuri Island (魚釣島)[70] 釣魚臺[71] / 釣魚台 Diaoyutai
POJ: Tiò-hî-tâi[72]
Diaoyu Dao (钓鱼岛/釣魚島) 25°44′36″N 123°28′33″E / 25.74333°N 123.47583°E / 25.74333; 123.47583 4.32 383
2 Taisho Island (大正島)[73] 赤尾嶼 Chiwei Isle Chiwei Yu (赤尾屿/赤尾嶼) 25°55′21″N 124°33′31″E / 25.92250°N 124.55861°E / 25.92250; 124.55861 0.0609 75
Taisyoujima of Senkaku Islands.jpg
3 Kuba Island (久場島)[74] 黃尾嶼 Huangwei Isle Huangwei Yu (黄尾屿/黄尾嶼) 25°55′26″N 123°40′55″E / 25.92389°N 123.68194°E / 25.92389; 123.68194 1.08 117
Senkaku kubajima COK20082-C2-3+4.jpg
4 Kitakojima Island (北小島)[75] 北小島 Beixiao Island Beixiao Dao (北小岛/北小島) 25°43′47″N 123°32′29″E / 25.72972°N 123.54139°E / 25.72972; 123.54139 0.3267 135
Kita-Kojima (left) and Minami-Kojima (right)
5 Minamikojima Island (南小島)[76] 南小島 Nanxiao Island Nanxiao Dao (南小岛/南小島) 25°43′25″N 123°33′00″E / 25.72361°N 123.55000°E / 25.72361; 123.55000 0.4592 149
6 Okinokitaiwa Island (沖ノ北岩)[77] 沖北岩 Chongbeiyan Bei Yu (北屿/大北小岛/大北小島) 25°46′45″N 123°32′30″E / 25.77917°N 123.54167°E / 25.77917; 123.54167 0.0183 nominal
Okinokitaiwa of Senkaku Islands.jpg
7 Okinominamiiwa Island (沖ノ南岩)[78] 沖南岩 Chongnanyan Nan Yu (南屿/大南小岛/大南小島/南岩) 25°45′19″N 123°34′01″E / 25.75528°N 123.56694°E / 25.75528; 123.56694 0.0048 nominal
Okinominamiiwa of Senkaku Islands.jpg
8 Tobise Island (飛瀬)[79] 飛瀨 Feilai Fei Yu (飞屿/飞礁岩/飛礁岩) 25°44′08″N 123°30′22″E / 25.73556°N 123.50611°E / 25.73556; 123.50611 0.0008 nominal
Tobise rocks (bottom right)
The five islands and three rocks, numbered for the table above.

The depth of the surrounding waters of the continental shelf is approximately 100–150 metres (330–490 ft) except for the Okinawa Trough on the south.[80] The shelf is shallow enough that the western islands were likely connected to the mainland during the Last Glacial Period.[81]


A geological map of Uotsuri-shima drawn by Japanese geologist Hisashi Kuroiwa in 1900.

Uotsuri, Kitakojima, Minamikojima and surrounding islets are sedimentary in origin, predominantly consisting of probably Miocene aged sandstone and sandstone-conglomerate, with subordinate conglomerate, coal seams up to 10 centimetres thick, and rare siltstone beds. The sedimentary strata have around 300 metres of exposed thickness at Uotsuri, and have SW-NE, EW and NW-SE strikes, with a general inclination of a dip of less than 20 degrees towards the North.[82] These strata are intruded by sheets of Mio-Pliocene porphyritic hornblende diorite, and are fringed by recent coral outcrops and surface talus deposits. Kuba and Taisho are volcanic in origin, with Kuba comprising "pyroxene andesite, lava, volcanic bombs, pumice, limestone, and other rocky material" and Taisho is thought to be consist of "andesite, tuff breccia, and tuffaceous sandstone".[83]



Permission for collecting herbs on three of the islands was recorded in an Imperial Chinese edict of 1893.[84]

Several floral surveys have been conducted on the Senkaku islands,[85][86] with a 1980 survey finding that Uotsuri had 339 species of plants. These ecological communities varied based on altitude, with the communities being divided into windswept mountaintop vegetation with Podocarpus macrophyllus trees, with the understory including Liriope muscari and Rhaphiolepis umbellata, inclined high forest including the palms Livistona chinensis and Arenga engleri, lowland windswept shrub forest includling Ficus microcarpa and Pouteria obovata, and seashore plants. Minamikojima was much less diverse, and dominated by grasses, while Kitakojima only had sparse plant life.[87] Kuba has a forest near the crater, which includes a variety of flora including Ceodes umbellifera, Macaranga tanarius, Ficus benjamina, Diospyros maritima, Trema orientalis, Machilus thunbergii, and Livistona subglobosa, with forest floor plants being sparse.[86]


In an account by Hisashi Kuroiwa [ja] in 1900, it was noted the large number of birds present on the islands, tens of thousands of short-tailed and black-footed albatross would flock on Uotsuri-shima, in the colder months, while hundreds of thousands of sooty tern and brown noddy would descend on Kitakojima and Minamikojima in the warmer months. He also described the air of Uotsuri as swarming with bluebottle flies and mosquitoes. In the same year, an account by Miyajima Mikinosuke [ja], surveying Kuba Island, noted the presence of whimbrel, Von Schrenck's bittern, the streaked shearwater, and the brown booby. Mikinosuke also noted the large number of chickens and feral cats on the island, with dozens of cats descending on the seabirds at night.[88] Kitakojima and Minamikojima are one of only two significant breeding places of the rare short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus).[31] The islands have been recognised as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife International.[89]

Uotsuri-shima, the largest island, has a number of endemic species such as the Senkaku mole (Mogera uchidai) and Okinawa-kuro-oo-ari ant. Due to the introduction of domestic goats to the island in 1978, the Senkaku mole is now an endangered species.[90] The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) has also been noted to be present on Uotsuri. Surveys from 1900 to 1953 and noted the presence of the Asian house shrew, black rats and fruit bats but these were not noted in more recent surveys.[85][87]

Six species of reptile have been recorded from the islands, including Gekko hokouensis (Uotsuri, Minami) Eumeces elegans (Uotsuri, Minami), an indeterminate species of Scincella (Uotsuri) Ramphotyphlops braminus (Uotsuri) Elaphe carinata (Uotsuri) and Dinodon rufozonatus (Uotsuri).[81]

Rich marine biodiversity adjacent to the islands has been recognized but poorly studied. Seemingly, varieties of larger fish and animals inhabit or migrate through the area, including tunas, sharks, marlins, critically endangered hawksbill sea turtles, dolphins, pilot whales, sperm whales, and humpback whales.[91]

Sovereignty dispute

Territorial sovereignty over the islands and the maritime boundaries around them are disputed between the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, and Japan.

The People's Republic and Republic of China claim that the islands have been a part of Chinese territory since at least 1534. China acknowledge that Japan took control of the islands in 1894–1895 during the first Sino-Japanese War, through the signature of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. China assert that the Potsdam Declaration required that Japan relinquish control of all islands except for "the islands of Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū, Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine", and China state that this means control of the islands should pass to Republic of China, which was part of China at the time of the first Sino-Japanese War as well as of the San Francisco Peace Treaty. Both the People's Republic of China (PRC)[92] and the Republic of China (ROC)[93] respectively separately claim sovereignty based on arguments that include the following points:

  • Discovery and early recording in maps and travelogues.[94]
  • The islands being China's frontier off-shore defence against wokou (Japanese pirates) during the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368–1911).
  • A Chinese map of Asia, as well as the Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu map[93] compiled by Japanese cartographer Hayashi Shihei[95] in the 18th century,[94] showing the islands as a part of China.[94][96]
  • Japan taking control of the islands in 1895 at the same time as the First Sino-Japanese War was happening. Furthermore, correspondence between Foreign Minister Inoue and Interior Minister Yamagata in 1885, warned against the erection of national markers and developing their land to avoid Qing Dynasty suspicions.[94][96][97]
  • The Potsdam Declaration stating that "Japanese sovereignty shall be limited to the islands of Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū, Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine", and "we" referred to the victors of the Second World War who met at Potsdam and Japan's acceptance of the terms of the Declaration when it surrendered.[96][98][99]
  • China's formal protest of the 1971 US transfer of control to Japan.[100]

Japan does not accept that there is a dispute, asserting that the islands are an integral part of Japan.[101] Japan has rejected claims that the islands were under China's control prior to 1895, and that these islands were contemplated by the Potsdam Declaration or affected by the San Francisco Peace Treaty.[102]

The existence of the back-arc basin complicates descriptive issues. According to Professor Ji Guoxing of the Asia-Pacific Department at Shanghai Institute for International Studies,

The Okinawa trough in context of back-arc basins of the world.
  • China's interpretation of the geography is that

...the Okinawa Trough proves that the continental shelves of China and Japan are not connected, that the Trough serves as the boundary between them, and that the Trough should not be ignored ....[103]

  • Japan's interpretation of the geography is that

...the trough is just an incidental depression in a continuous continental margin between the two countries ... [and] the trough should be ignored ....[103]

Map including the Senkaku Islands (labeled as SENKAKU-GUNTŌ) and surrounding areas from the International Map of the World (1954)

The stance given by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs is that the Senkaku Islands are clearly an inherent territory of Japan, in light of historical facts and based upon international law, and the Senkaku Islands are under the valid control of Japan. They also state "there exists no issue of territorial sovereignty to be resolved concerning the Senkaku Islands."[104][105] The following points are given:

  • The islands had been uninhabited and showed no trace of having been under the control of China prior to 1895.[106]
  • The islands were neither part of Republic of China nor part of the Pescadores Islands, which were ceded to Japan by the Qing Dynasty of China in Article II of the May 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki,[106] thus were not later renounced by Japan under Article II of the San Francisco Peace Treaty.[107]
  • A resident of Okinawa Prefecture who had been engaging in activities such as fishery around the Senkaku Islands since around 1884 made an application for the lease of the islands, and approval was granted by the Meiji Government in 1896. After this approval, he sent a total of 248 workers to those islands and ran the following businesses: constructing piers,[108] collecting bird feathers, manufacturing dried bonito, collecting coral, raising cattle, manufacturing canned goods and collecting mineral phosphate guano (bird manure for fuel use). The fact that the Meiji Government gave approval concerning the use of the Senkaku Islands to an individual, who in turn was able to openly run these businesses mentioned above based on the approval, demonstrates Japan's valid control over the Islands.[109]
  • Though the islands were controlled by the United States as an occupying power between 1945 and 1972, Japan has since 1972 exercised administration over the islands.
  • Japanese allege that Republic of China and China only started claiming ownership of the islands in 1971, following a May 1969 United Nations report that a large oil and gas reserve may exist under the seabed near the islands.[110][111]

In 2012 the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs created a website in support of its claims;[112] in late 2014 the National Marine Data and Information Service, a department under the State Oceanic Administration of People's Republic of China created a website of its own to support its claims.[113][114] In 2016, Chinese fishing, Coast Guard and other vessels were entering the territorial waters around the islands almost daily and in August 2016 the Japanese foreign minister Fumio Kishida reportedly told China's foreign minister Wang Yi "that the activity represented an escalation of tensions" according to Japanese sources. It was the first meeting of the top diplomats since the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruling against China's South China Sea claims[115][116] and was coincident with a three-party meeting (including South Korea) relative to a North Korean submarine-launched missile in the Sea of Japan.[117]

On 22 June 2020, the Ishigaki City Council voted to change the name of the area containing the Senkaku Islands from "Tonoshiro" to "Tonoshiro Senkaku".[118] Republic of China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs responded that the islands belong to Republic of China, and any moves to deny this fact are invalid.[119] The Kuomintang also condemned the council's move, saying the Islands are ROC territory and the nation would not give up even "an inch" of its sovereignty.[120]

In popular culture

Diaoyu Islands: The Truth is a documentary film produced by Chris D. Nebe and J.J. Osbun of Monarex Hollywood Corporation and directed by Chris D. Nebe. Nebe calls on the Japanese Government to cede the islands to China, asserting that Japan has no justifiable claim to the islands, and that the United States of America has turned a blind eye in Japan's favor due to the need of the United States to have a strong ally between it and China. Reception of the film was positive in Chinese media. A 2015 Global Times article reports that Nebe is "regarded by many as a 'Chinese propagandist'" an assertion also made in 2014 on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Correspondents Report.[121]

In 2018 the National Museum of Territory and Sovereignty (currently located in the Toranomon Mitsui Building, Chiyoda, Tokyo) was established by the Japanese government to raise public awareness of Japanese territorial rights issues concerning the Senkaku Islands, as well as issues concerning territorial claims to Takeshima and southernmost Kuril Islands.[122]

See also


  1. ^ The Guardian (November 23, 2013). "China imposes airspace restrictions over Japan-controlled Senkaku islands". Retrieved December 3, 2013. China imposes airspace restrictions over Japan-controlled Senkaku islands
  2. ^ France24 (November 27, 2013). "US defies China to fly over disputed Senkaku islands". Retrieved December 3, 2013. The zone covers the Tokyo-controlled Senkaku islands
  3. ^ 釣魚臺列嶼相關文獻 (in Chinese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Taiwan). Archived from the original on October 24, 2013.
  4. ^ 地理位置圖. 宜蘭縣頭城鎮公所 Toucheng Township Office (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Retrieved October 19, 2019. 另轄兩小島(龜山島及龜卵嶼)及一群島(釣魚臺列嶼)。
  5. ^ 我們的釣魚臺 (in Chinese). Central News Agency (Republic of China). Archived from the original on January 14, 2019. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
  6. ^ 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室 (September 25, 2012). 《钓鱼岛是中国的固有领土》白皮书 (in Chinese). 新华社. Archived from the original on September 27, 2012. 1871年......将钓鱼岛列入海防冲要,隶属台湾府噶玛兰厅(今台湾省宜兰县)管辖。
  7. ^ National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Senkaku-guntō, Japan, retrieved September 20, 2010.
  8. ^ National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Senkaku-rettō, Japan, retrieved September 20, 2010.
  9. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying's Remarks on the Japanese Government Opening a Link about Diaoyu Dao on the Official Cabinet Website". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China. August 28, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
  10. ^ "The ROC government reiterates its sovereignty over the Tiaoyutai Islands". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved August 10, 2020. According to a report appearing in the Japanese newspaper Yomiuri Shimbun on January 1, 2003, the Japanese government began leasing three uninhabited islands (Kita-kojima, Minami-kojima and Uotsurishima) out of the five islets that comprise the Tiaoyutai Islands (known as the "Senkaku Islands" in Japan) in October 2002 at the rate of 22 million Japanese yen annually. The ROC's Ministry of Foreign Affairs has instructed the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in Japan to ascertain the current position of the Japanese government on this issue and to express the ROC's solemn position regarding its claim to sovereignty over the Tiaoyutai Islands.
  11. ^ Jesse Johnson (July 27, 2020). "China's 100-day push near Senkaku Islands comes at unsettling time for Sino-Japanese ties". Japan Times. Retrieved August 10, 2020. There are few better examples that underscore Japan's complicated relationship with China than the uninhabited but strategically positioned Senkakus, which are also claimed by China, which calls them Diaoyu, as well as Taiwan, which calls them Tiaoyutai.
  12. ^ Harold C. Hinton (1980). The China Sea: The American Stake in its Future. National Strategy Information Center. p. 13, 14, 25, 26. ISBN 0-87855-871-3 – via Internet Archive. The other territorial dispute in the East China Sea is considerably more complicated and more serious. It relates to a group of eight small uninhabited islands known in China as the Tiaoyutai and in Japan as the Senkaku and claimed by Japan and both Chinas; they lie on the edge of the continental shelf about 120 miles northeast of Taiwan.
  13. ^ "Media Reaction: Cross-Strait Talks, Taiwan-Japan Dispute, U.S. Global Influence". United States Department of State. 2008 – via Internet Archive. A separate "Liberty Times" column discussed the recent dispute between Taiwan and Japan over the Tiaoyutai Islands and urged the Ma administration to seek to form an equilateral triangular relationship with the United States, Japan and China, so that no side will feel threatened of will overpower the other.
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  20. ^ What's in a name?, BusinessMirror: "The disputed islands East China Sea are called the Senkaku Islands by Japan, Diaoyu Islands in China and the Diaoyutai Islands by the government of Taiwan. In the West, these rocks are called the Pinnacle Islands as a loose translation of the Japanese name."
  21. ^ Japan's Territorial Disputes, American Diplomacy: "The Chinese call them the Diaoyu Islands, and on foreign maps in the past they have been called the Pinnacle Islands."
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  26. ^ Pan, Junwu (2009). Toward a New Framework for Peaceful Settlement of China's Territorial and Boundary Disputes. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 140. ISBN 978-9004174283. Obviously, primarily regional interests in oil and gas resources that may lie under the seas drive the two major disputes. The Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands issue did not re-surface until 1969 when the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East of the United Nations Economic and Social Council reported that the continental shelf of the East China "might contain one of the most prolific oil and gas reservoirs of the world, possibly comparing favourably with the Persian Gulf." Then both China and Japan had high expectations that there might be large hydrocarbon deposits in the waters off the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands. The Law of the Sea at that time emphasized the theory of natural prolongation in determining continental shelf jurisdiction. Ownership of the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands would permit the owner to a large area of the continental shelf that may have rich sources of gas and oil. Such a dispute is obviously related to the awakening interest by the world's states in developing offshore energy resources to meet the demand of their economies.
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  28. ^ Drifte, Reinhard (2012). Japan's Security Relations with China Since 1989: From Balancing to Bandwagoning?. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN 978-1134406678. The dispute surfaced with the publication of a seismic survey report under the auspices of the UN Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECSFE) in 1968, which mentioned the possibility of huge oil and gas reserves in the area; this was confirmed by a Japanese report in 1969. Greg Austin mentions that Beijing started its claim to the Senkaku Islands for the first time in 1970, after Japanese government protested to the government in Taiwan about its allocation of oil concessions in the East China Sea, including the area of the Senkaku Islands.
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Further reading

External links