Sense of place
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The term sense of place has been used in many different ways. To some[weasel words], it is a characteristic that some geographic places have[clarification needed] and some do not, while to others it is a feeling or perception held by people[who?] (not by the place itself). It is often used in relation to those characteristics that make a place special or unique, as well as to those that foster a sense of authentic human attachment and belonging. Others, such as geographer Yi-Fu Tuan, have pointed to senses of place that are not "positive," such as fear. Some students and educators engage in "place-based education" in order to improve their "sense(s) of place," as well as to use various aspects of place as educational tools in general. The term is used in urban and rural studies in relation to place-making and place-attachment of communities to their environment or homeland.[original research?]
Cultural geographers, anthropologists, sociologists and urban planners study why certain places hold special meaning to particular people or animals. Places said to have a strong "sense of place" have a strong identity that is deeply felt by inhabitants and visitors. Sense of place is a social phenomenon. Codes aimed at protecting, preserving and enhancing places felt to be of value include "World Heritage Site" designations, the British "Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty" controls and the American "National Historic Landmark" designation.
Places that lack a "sense of place" are sometimes referred[by whom?] to as "placeless" or "inauthentic." Placeless landscapes are those that have no special relationship to the places in which they are located—they could be anywhere.[original research?] Roadside strip shopping malls, gas/petrol stations and convenience stores, fast food chains, and chain department stores are often cited[who?] as examples of placeless landscape elements. Some historic sites or districts that have been heavily commercialized for tourism and new housing estates are defined as having lost their sense of place. Gertrude Stein's "there is no there there" has been used as a description of such places.
Human geographers and social psychologists have studied how a sense of place develops, including the importance of comparisons between places, learning from elders and observing natural disasters and other events. Of particular note is the importance of childhood experiences. Environmental psychologists have quantified links between exposure to natural environments in childhood and environmental preferences later in life. Learning about surrounding environments during childhood is strongly influenced by the direct experience of playing, as well as through the role of family, culture, and community. The special bond which develops between children and their childhood environments has been called a ‘primal landscape’ by human geographers. This childhood landscape forms part of people’s identity and constitutes a key point of comparison for considering subsequent places later in life. As people move around as adults, they tend to consider new places in relation to this baseline landscape experienced during childhood. Sense of place is used as a model for community based psychosocial support programs
- Genius loci
- Spirit of place
- Cultural landscape
- Place identity
- Yi-Fu Tuan
- Ian Nairn
- Marc Augé
- Tuan, Yi-Fu (1980). Landscapes of Fear. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
- Anyone's Autobiography, 1937: see Gertrude Stein.
- Measham TG (2006) Learning about environments: The significance of primal landscapes, Environmental Management 38(3), pp. 426–434
- Bixler, R. D., M. F. Floyd, and W. E. Hammitt. (2002). Environmental socialization: Quantitative tests of the childhood play hypothesis, Environment and Behavior 34(6) pp. 795–818
- Derr, V. (2002). Children’s sense of place in northern New Mexico. Journal of Environmental Psychology 22(1–2):125–137
- Gayton (1996) Landscapes of the Interior: Re-explorations of Nature and the Human Spirit. Gabriola Island, Canada: New Society Publishers
- Measham, TG (2007) Primal Landscapes: insights for education from empirical research on ways of learning about environments, International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education 16 (4) pp. 339–350
- Prewitt Diaz, J.O. and Dayal, A. (2008). Sense of Place: A Model for Community Based psychosocial support programs. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies. http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/2008-1/prewitt_diaz.htmJoseph O. Prewitt Diaz
- Chigbu, U.E. (2013). Fostering rural sense of place: the missing piece in Uturu, Nigeria. Development In Practice, 23 (2): pp. 264-277. View link: , http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09614524.2013.772120
- Chigbu, U.E. (2013). Fostering rural sense of place: the missing piece in Uturu, Nigeria. Development In Practice, 23 (2): pp. 264–277. View and download article: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09614524.2013.772120
- Alexander, Christopher. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction, Oxford University Press, 1977. ISBN 0-19-501919-9
- Casey, Edward S. The Fate of Place, University of California Press, 1998. ISBN 0-520-21649-0
- Cresswell, T. (2005) Place: a short introduction, Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-0672-7
- Cresswell, T. (2009). Place. In Thrift, N., Kitchen, R., (eds) International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookvolume.cws_home/722034/vol1) pages 384-395.
- Cross, Jennifer E. (2001). What is Sense of Place? Department of Sociology, Colorado State University
- Gussow, Alan. 1972. A Sense of Place: The Artist and the American Land. San Francisco: Friends of the Earth. ISBN 1559635681
- Hubbard, Phil, Rob Kitchen, and Gil Valentine, eds. 2004. Key Thinkers on Space and Place. London: Sage. ISBN 0-7619-4963-1
- Inge, John A Christian Theology of Place, Ashgate, 2003. ISBN 0-7546-3498-1
- Kunstler, James. Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape, Free Press, 1994. ISBN 0-671-88825-0
- Lippard, Lucy. The Lure of the Local: Senses of Place in a Multicentered Society, New Press, 1998. ISBN 978-156584248-9
- Long, Joshua. 2010. Weird City: Sense of Place and Creative Resistance in Austin, Texas. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-72241-9
- Massey, Doreen B. 2005. For Space. London: Sage. ISBN 1-4129-0362-9
- Relph, E. C. Place and Placelessness, Pion, 1976. ISBN 0-85086-111-X
- Roudavski, Stanislav (2008). Staging Places as Performances: Creative Strategies for Architecture (PhD, University of Cambridge)
- Snyder, Gary. 1996. A Place in Space. Counterpoint. ISBN 1-887178-27-9
- Soja, Edward W. 1996. Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-And-Imagined Places. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-55786-675-9
- Tuan, Yi Fu. 1977. Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-3877-2
- Tuan, Yi Fu. 1990. Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes and Values. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-07395-X