Korean New Year
|Korean Lunar New Year's Day|
Traditional game tuho being played.
|Also called||Lunar New Year|
|Observed by||Korean people around the world|
|Significance||The first day of the Korean calendar (lunar calendar)|
|Date||Chinese lunar new year|
|2015 date||February 19|
|2016 date||February 8|
|2017 date||January 28|
|2018 date||February 16|
|Related to||Chinese New Year, Japanese New Year, Mongolian New Year, Tibetan New Year, Vietnamese New Year|
Korean New Year (Hangul: 설날; RR: Seolnal; MR: Sŏllal, also known as: Wondan (원단; 元旦), Wonil (원일; 元日), Sinwon (신원; 新元)) is the first day of the Korean lunar calendar. It is one of the most significant traditional Korean holidays. The celebration lasts three days: the day before Korean New Year day, Korean New Year day itself, and the day after Korean New Year day. "Seollal" generally refers to Eumnyeok Seollal (음력 설날, lunar new year), also known as Gujeong (Hangul: 구정; hanja: 舊正). "Seollal" may also refer to Yangnyeok Seollal (양력 설날, solar new year), also known as Sinjeong (Hangul: 신정; hanja: 新正).
Korean New Year generally falls on the day of the second new moon after winter solstice, unless there is a very rare intercalary eleventh or twelfth month in the lead-up to the New Year. In such a case, the New Year falls on the day of the third new moon after the solstice; the next occurrence of this will be in 2033.
Korean New Year is generally the same day as Chinese New Year except when new moon occurs between 15:00 UTC (Korean midnight) and 16:00 UTC (Chinese midnight). In such case (on average once every 24 years), new moon happens on the "next day" in Korea compared to China, and Korean New Year will be one day after Chinese New Year.
Records of Koreans celebrating Lunar New Year can be traced back to traditional Chinese literatures such as the Book of Sui and the Old Book of Tang, which contains excerpts about celebrations of new year in Silla. In the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1897), all the government officials gathered in the Five Grand Palaces to make New Year's greetings.
Korean New Year is typically a family holiday. The Korean New Year can also be known as seollal. The three-day holiday is used by many to return to their hometowns to visit their parents and other relatives, where they perform an ancestral ritual called charye. The three days are known as the day of, the day before, and the after. In 2016, it was reported that 36 million South Koreans would be traveling to visit their families during the Korean New Year. Koreans not only travel within the country but around the world as well. A lot of Koreans do travel from overseas to visit their families for this once in a year holiday. Since it's one of the very few times families get together to enjoy each other's comfort, and catch up on one another's lives it is considered respectful and important to attend the holiday altogether. Often times the family members will first visit the elders, and this includes the grandparents as well as the parents. It is also considered respectful for one to visit their mother and father in laws during the Korean New Year.
Including travel expense, preparation for this holiday is very costly. The holiday period usually witnesses a hike in overall consumer prices due to increasing demand. Gifts are usually given to family members and new clothes are worn during the holiday. Traditional food is prepared for many family members coming to visit for the holiday. Fruits are especially expensive. Food prices are inflated during the month of Seollal. Some people have chosen to forgo some traditions because they have become too expensive. These families will prepare a modest ancestral rite only with necessary foods for Seollal. The government has started taking certain measures to help stabilize and support ordinary people's livelihood for Seollal holiday period. They have raised the supply of agricultural, fishery, and livestock products. The government used the rice reserves and pork imports to lower inflation. The government is also putting money into small and medium-sized companies to help with cash-flow.
A lot of preparations go into celebrating the Korean New Year. During the first morning, Koreans pay their respect towards their ancestors. Foods are placed on a table as an offering to the ancestors, and a rite begins with deep bows from all family members. This is a sign of respect and a very important practice on the first day of the New Year in Korea. It's also where they pray for the well-being of all the family members. Many Koreans dress up in colorful traditional Korean clothing called hanbok. The hanbok is usually worn for special occasions only such as weddings, Korean New Year, child's first birthday etc. However, with modernization and with the change of culture, more people tend to prefer casual wear compared to the hanbok, due to the comfort aspect of it. After the rite, the members will have a big feast.
Additionally, similar to the Chinese zodiac animals, Koreans also follow a similar zodiac. There are 12 animals representing the years, and they all follow each other in order, the first animal is the rat/mouse.It is believed that the Buddha invited animals from all over the world to visit, to which only 12 visited. For their attendance, he honored them by naming the years after them in the order which they arrived. Koreans believe that specific zodiac animals bring specific resources. For example, the year 2014 was the year of the horse, and it was considered a good year in the money and career aspect of life. Interestingly, it is said that a person born in a speicifc year will carry the zodiac animal's characterisitcs. Due to the resources and characteristics specific zodiac animals bring, Koreans will plan their year and activities around it in order to have a good propsperous year. Parents may have even planned the birth year of their child, so the child may have a specific characteristic. Such planning may have brought some people good business dealings or careers. It is clear to say that the Korean zodiac is an important part of Korea's culture.
Another custom observed is the lighting of a "moon house" built out of burnable firewood and branches. This symbolizes the warding off of bad/evil spirits for the new year. Many also choose to add wishes they want come true in the next year to the moon house.
Sebae (세배, 歲拜, worship elders) is a traditionally observed activity on Seollal, and is a ritual of filial piety. Dressed in traditional clothing, children wish their elders (grandparents, aunts and uncles, parents) a happy new year by performing a deep traditional bow (rites with more than one bow involved are usually for the deceased) and the words saebae bok mani badeuseyo (Hangul: 새해 복 많이 받으세요), or "Please receive good fortune for the New Year". Elders typically reward this gesture by giving their children new year's money, or "pocket money," (usually in the form of crisp paper money) in luck bags made with beautiful silk designs, as well as offering words of wisdom (dŏkdam). Historically, parents gave out rice cakes (ddeok) and fruit to their children.
New Year food
Tteokguk (soup with sliced rice cakes) is a traditional Korean food that is customarily eaten for the New Year. According to Korean age reckoning, the Korean New Year is similar to a birthday for Koreans, and eating tteokguk is part of the birthday celebration. Once you finish eating your tteokguk, you are one year older.
On Korean New Year day, people prepare a lot of food and spend much of the day with family.
Jeon, sometimes called buchimgae, is a traditional Korean dish especially eaten on the Korean New Year's Day. As a type of a pancake, one would expect it to be sliced with a knife. However, the jeon is ripped apart with chopsticks in the belief of making it taste better.
Many traditional games are associated with the Korean New Year. The traditional family board game yunnori is still a popular game nowadays, especially during Korean New Year. It is played using different types of specially designed sticks. Traditionally men and boys would fly rectangle kites called Yeon (연, see yeonnalligi), and play jegichagi, a game in which a light object is wrapped in paper or cloth, and then kicked in a footbag like manner. Korean women and girls would have traditionally played neolttwigi, a game of jumping on a seesaw (시소), and gongginori, game played with five little gonggi (originally a little stone, but today many buy manufactured gongi in shops) while children spinning top paengi (팽이).[further explanation needed]
- 설 [Lunar New Year]. Encyclopedia of Korean culture (in Korean). the Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
- 설 [Lunar New Year]. Doopedia (in Korean). Doosan Corporation. Retrieved January 8, 2014.