The former Seoul Station, named "Gyeongseong Station" started operating in a 33m2 (10 pyeong) wooden building in July 1900 with the extension of the Gyeongin Line north of the Han River. It was originally located near Yeomcheon Bridge and was renamed as "Namdaemun Station" in 1905, due to its proximity to Namdaemun. The Gyeongbu Line opened in 1905, and the Gyeongui Line opened in 1906 – both lines connecting to the station. In 1910, when the original wooden building was demolished and a new train station was erected, the station reverted to the name "Gyeongseong Station," when the name of the city of Seoul changed from Hanseong to Gyeongseong ("Keijo" in Japanese). The construction of the current "Old Seoul Station" began on June 1, 1922, and was finished on September 30, 1925.
The station was renamed "Seoul Station" on November 1, 1947. The station was expanded throughout the post-Korean War era; the Southern Annex of Seoul station was completed on December 30, 1957, and the Western Annex was completed on February 14, 1969. In 1975, the Korea National Railroad's office moved from Seoul Station to the new West Annex Office. A raised walkway connecting the Seoul Station and the West Annex was completed on 1977, and Korea's first privately funded station was erected in 1988 in time for the Seoul Olympics. In 2004, a new terminal adjacent to the existing one was completed to coincide with the introduction of KTX high-speed rail service.
The Old Seoul Station (Hangul: 구서울역사; hanja: 舊서울驛舍, literally meaning "Old Seoul station building"; 37°33′21″N126°58′18″E / 37.5559°N 126.9716°E / 37.5559; 126.9716 (Old Seoul Station)), originally named Keijo (Gyeongseong) Station and designed by Tsukamoto Yasushi of Tokyo Imperial University, was finished on November 1925. This red brick building, designed in an eclectic style, features a Byzantine-style central dome and a centralized and symmetrical layout. The floor of the Central Hall on the ground floor was covered with granite and the walls were covered with man-made stone. The wooden floor inside the building's VIP Lounge was covered with birch wood and a western style restaurant was located on the 2nd floor.
On September 25, 1981, the old station was designated as Historic Site 284. A restoration project of the old station began on September 2007 to "transform the former Seoul Station, which had lost its functionality as a train station since the opening of the new KTX Station, into a premier national multidisciplinary cultural facility." On the same year, the management was transferred from the Cultural Heritage Administration to the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism. After the design for former Seoul Station's remodeling was developed in 2009, the remodeling construction began.
On August 9, 2011, the station was reopened as a culture complex with its original exterior, after a two-year of restoration project by the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism and the state-run Korea Craft and Design Foundation (KCDF). On April 2, 2012, "Culture Seoul Station 284" was officially launched "as a space for diverse artistic and cultural creation and exchange." The official name, which combines the station's historic, spatial, and urban symbolisms, was selected through a national open call. By combining the notion of a cultural space with the old Seoul Station's historic site number 284, the name aims to embody the concepts of preserving its appearance and value as a historic site while simultaneously cultivating the meaning of the station as a place of various cultural intersections. The restored station is a 9,202m2 building with two stories above ground and one story below ground level. The former station, before the renovation, has the main lobby, a waiting room, and a VIP room on the first floor, and a barber shop and restaurants on the second floor. Post-renovation, the first floor contains a venue for performances, exhibitions and events, and a multipurpose hall on the floor above.