Seoul Metropolitan Subway

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Seoul Metropolitan Subway
South Korea subway logo.svg
Native name 수도권 전철
Sudogwon Jeoncheol
Owner Government of South Korea, Seoul Metropolitan Government, Incheon City, Bucheon City, Uijeongbu City, Yongin City and private companies
Locale Seoul Capital Area
Transit type Rapid transit, Commuter rail
Number of lines 20
Annual ridership 2.619 billion (2013, Lines 1-9)[1]
1.027 billion (2012, Korail)[2]
Began operation 15 August 1974; 42 years ago (1974-08-15)
Operator(s) Seoul Metro, Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation, Korail, Incheon Transit Corporation, and private rapid transit operators
System length 331.5 km (206.0 mi) (Seoul Metro / SMRT / Line 9 only)[3][not in citation given]
1,097.3 km (681.8 mi)[4][not in citation given] (all lines)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
System map

Seoul subway linemap en.svg

The Seoul Metropolitan Subway is a metropolitan railway system consisting of 20 rapid transit, light metro, commuter rail and people mover lines South Korea. The system serves most of the Seoul Metropolitan Area including the Incheon metropolis and satellite cities in Gyeonggi province. Some regional lines in the network cross large rural areas to reach major cities in northern Chungnam province and western Gangwon province that lie over 100 km away from the capital.[5]

The network consists of numbered lines 1–9, which serve Seoul City proper and its surroundings and named wide-area lines that serve the greater metropolitan region.[6] Most of the system is operated by four companies – Seoul Metro, Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit (SMRT), Korail (Korea National Railroad) and Metro 9.[7]

Its first metro line, Line 1, started construction in 1971 and opened in 1974, with through-operation to Korail suburban railways. Today, it is one of the largest and most efficient metro systems in the world, with 331.5 km (206.0 mi) of track on lines 1–9 alone; wireless and internet service on all trains; and platform screen doors at the majority of stations.


The first line of the Seoul Subway network started construction in 1971 with economic and technical assistance from Japan.[8] The first section of subway was built using the cheaper cut and cover construction method. Line 1 opened in 1974 with through services joining surrounding Korail suburban railway lines similar to the Tokyo subway.[9] Today, many of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway's lines are operated by Korail, South Korea's national passenger and freight railway operator.[10] This is similar to Europe and Japan, where the national railroad often operates local mainline urban railways, such as the S-Bahns in Germany, operated by subsidiaries of Deutsche Bahn, or JR East in Japan, which operates many other urban rail systems in Japanese cities.

It has been described as the world's longest multi-operator metro system by route length.[11] The system was rated as one of the world's best subway systems by CNN,[12] and Jalopnik[13] It is notable for its cleanliness and ease of use along with advanced technology such as 4G LTE, WiFi, DMB, and WiBro accessible in all stations and trains.[14] Nearly all stations have platform screen doors installed; only Gaewha and some minor Korail-operated stations remain with open platforms.[15] By 2017, Korail will completely install screen doors in every station and platform.[16] The world's first virtual mart for smartphone users opened at Seolleung Station in 2011.[12]

All directional signs in the system are written in Korean, English and Hanja. In trains there are in addition many LCD screens giving service announcements, upcoming stop names, YTN news, stock prices and animated shorts. There are also prerecorded voice announcements that give the upcoming station, any possible line transfer, and the exiting side in Korean, followed by English. At major stations, this is followed by Japanese, then Mandarin Chinese, as well.[17] Seoul Subway uses full-color LCD screens at all stations to display real-time subway arrival times,[18] which are also available on apps for smartphones.[19] Most trains have digital TV screens, and all of them have air conditioning and climate controlled seats installed that are automatically heated in the winter. In 2014, it became the world's first metro operator to use transparent displays for ads when it installed 48 transparent displays on major stations of Line 2 in Gangnam District.[18] All lines use the T-money smart payment system using RFID and NFC technology for automatic payment by T-money smart cards, smartphones, or credit cards and one can transfer to any of the other line within the system for free.[Note 1]

Trains on numbered lines generally run on the right-hand track, while trains on the named lines (e.g. Shinbundang Line, Bundang Line, and AREX) run on the left-hand track. The exceptions are the trains on Line 1, as well as those on Line 4 south of Namtaeryeong Station. These lines run on the left-hand track because these rail lines are operated by Korail, South Korea's national railway operator.[20]

Lines and branches[edit]

The system is organised such that numbered lines, with some exceptions, are considered as urban rapid transit lines located within the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA), whereas wide-area commuter lines operated by Korail provide a metro-like commuter rail service that usually extends far beyond the boundaries of the SNCA, rather similar to the RER in Paris. The AREX is an airport rail link that links Incheon International Airport and Gimpo Airport to central Seoul, and offers both express service directly to Incheon International Airport and all-stop commuter service for people living along the vicinity of the line. While operating hours may vary depending on the line in question, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway generally operates from 5.30 am until 1 am on weekdays, and from 5.30 am until midnight on weekends.

Line name
Line name
Termini Stations Total length Operator Owner
     Line 1 1호선 Soyosan Incheon / Sinchang / Gwangmyeong / Seodongtan 114 192.8 km (Korail)[21]
7.8 km (Seoul Metro)[3]
Korail / Seoul Metro Government of South Korea / Seoul City
     Line 2 2호선 City Hall / Seongsu / Sindorim City Hall / Sinseol-dong / Kkachisan 51 60.2 km[3] Seoul Metro / Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation Seoul City
     Line 3 3호선 Daehwa Ogeum 44 19.2 km (Korail)[21]
38.2 km (Seoul Metro)[3]
Korail / Seoul Metro / Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation Government of South Korea / Seoul City
     Line 4 4호선 Dangogae Oido 51 40.4 km (Korail)[21]
31.7 km (Seoul Metro)[3]
Korail / Seoul Metro Government of South Korea / Seoul City
     Line 5 5호선 Banghwa Sangil-dong / Macheon 51 52.3 km[3] Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit / Seoul Metro Seoul City
     Line 6 6호선 Eungam Bonghwasan 38 35.1 km[3] Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit / Seoul Metro Seoul City
     Line 7 7호선 Jangam Bupyeong-gu Office 51 57.1 km[3] Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Seoul City / Bucheon City / Incheon City
     Line 8 8호선 Amsa Moran 17 17.7 km[3] Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Seoul City
     Line 9 9호선 Gaehwa Sports Complex 30 31.4 km[3] Seoul Metro Line 9 Corporation Seoul City / Seoul Metro Line 9 Corporation
     AREX 공항철도 Incheon International Airport Seoul Station 13 58.0 km[22] Airport Railroad Corporation Government of South Korea
     Gyeongui–Jungang Line 경의·중앙선 Munsan Yongmun 52 121.7 km[23] Korail Government of South Korea
     Gyeongchun Line 경춘선 Sangbong Chuncheon 22 81.3 km[21] Korail Government of South Korea
     Bundang Line 분당선 Wangsimni Suwon 36 52.1 km[24] Korail Government of South Korea
     Suin Line 수인선 Oido Incheon 14 19.9 km[21] Korail Government of South Korea
     Shinbundang Line 신분당선 Gangnam Gwanggyo 12 31.0 km[25] NeoTrans Government of South Korea / Shinbundang Line & Gyeonggi Railway[26]
     Incheon Line 1 인천 1호선 Gyeyang International Business District 29 29.4 km[27] Incheon Transit Incheon City
     Incheon Line 2 인천 2호선 Geomdan Oryu Unyeon 27 29.1 km Incheon Transit Incheon City
     EverLine 용인 경전철 Giheung Jeondae – Everland 15 18.1 km[28] Yongin Rapid Transit Corporation Yongin City / Yongin Rapid Transit Corporation
     U Line 의정부 경전철 Balgok Tapseok 15 11.1 km[29] Uijeongbu LRT Corporation Uijeongbu City / Uijeongbu LRT Corporation
     Gyeonggang Line 경강선(성남~여주) Pangyo Yeoju 11 54.8 km Korail Government of South Korea


Line 1, from Seongbuk Station to Incheon Station and Suwon Station, opened on 15 August 1974. On 9 December 1978, the Yongsan-Cheongnyangni line (now part of the Jungang Line) was added to Line 1. Line 2 opened on 10 October 1980. In 1985, the fare system changed from charging by distance to zone and the Edmondson railway ticket changed to a magnetic paper ticket. Line 4 opened on 20 April 1985, and Line 3 on 12 July. On 1 April 1994, the Indeogwon-Namtaeryeong extension of Line 4 opened. The Bundang Line, from Suseo Station to Ori Station, opened on 1 September. On 15 November 1995, Line 5 opened. The Jichuk-Daehwa extension of Line 3 opened on 30 January 1996. On 20 March, the Kkachisan-Sindorim extension of Line 2 opened. Line 7 opened on 11 October, and Line 8 on 23 November. On 6 October 1999, Incheon Subway Line 1 opened.

Seoul Subway Line 6 opened on 7 August 2000. In 2004 the fare system reverted to charging by distance, and free bus transfers were introduced. The Byeongjeom-Cheonan extension of Line 1 opened on 20 January 2005. On 16 December, the Jungang Line from Yongsan Station to Deokso Station opened. The Uijeongbu-Soyosan extension of Line 1 opened and shuttle service from Yongsan Station to Gwangmyeong Station began (with the route now shortened from Yeongdeungpo to Gwangmyeong) on 15 December 2006. On 23 March 2007, AREX opened. The Deokso-Paldang extension of the Jungang Line opened on 27 December. On 15 December 2008, the Cheonan-Sinchang extension of Line 1 opened. The magnetic paper ticket changed to an RFID-based card on 1 May 2009. On 1 July the Gyeongui Line from Seoul Station to Munsan Station opened, and on 24 July Line 9 from Gaehwa Station to Sinnonhyeon Station opened.

The Byeongjeom-Seodongtan extension of Line 1 opened on 26 February 2010, and the Gyeongchun Line opened on 21 December. On 28 October 2011, the Shinbundang Line from Gangnam Station to Jeongja Station opened. The Suin Line, from Oido Station to Songdo Station, opened on 30 June 2012. The U Line opened on 1 July, the Onsu-Bupyeong-gu Office extension of Line 7 on 27 October and the Gongdeok-Gajwa extension of the Gyeongui Line on 15 December. On 26 April 2013 EverLine opened, and the Gyeongui·Jungang Line opened on 27 December 2014. The Sinnonhyeon-Sports Complex extension of Line 9 opened on 28 March 2015. On 30 January 2016 the Jeongja-Gwanggyo extension of the Shinbundang Line opened, followed by the Songdo-Incheon extension of the Suin Line on 27 February. Incheon Subway Line 2 opened on 30 July, and the Gyeonggang Line on 24 September. The Gyeongui-Jungang Line is extended one station east to Jipyeong Station on January 21, 2017, with 4 round trips to Jipyeong Station.

Rolling stock[edit]

Fares and ticketing[edit]

T-money smart card

The Seoul Metropolitan Subway system operates on a unified transportation fare system, meaning that subways and buses in Seoul, Incheon and Gyeonggi-do are treated as one system when it comes to fares. For example, a subway rider can transfer to any other line for free (with the exception of Shinbundang Line, EverLine and U Line, which add flat extra charges, amounting to 900, 200 and 300 won respectively). One can also transfer to any city buses for free, regardless of whether it is from Seoul, Incheon or Gyeonggi-do. In the case of Shinbundang Line, if one crosses Jeongja Station, 300 won is charged on top of the 900 won extra charge, although a cashback is offered to frequent riders between Pangyo Station and Dongcheon/Suji-gu Office Station.[26]

Fare payments in Seoul are handled by T-money, which can also be used on buses, convenience stores and many other popular retail places. Riders must touch in a phone, card or other T-money enabled device at the entry gates. Popular methods of payments are using NFC-enabled Android smartphones (topped up or billed to the owner's credit/debit card via the T-money app) or credit or check (debit) cards with built-in RFID technology issued by the bank or card company.

The current single-use ticket is a credit card-sized plastic card with RFID technology, which can be obtained from automated machines in every subway station. A 500 won deposit fee is included in the price, and is refunded when the ticket is returned at any station. Multiple use cards are sold in convenience stores and the functionality is included in many credit/debit cards.

Fares (except for single-use tickets) are currently 1,250 won for a trip up to 10 km, with 100 won added for each subsequent 5 km.[30] Once 50 km has been passed, 100 won will be added every 8 km. Single-use ticket users must pay RFID deposit 500 won plus 100 won surcharge to fare.

Half-priced children's tickets are available. The city government also uses Seoul Citypass as a transportation card. Senior citizens and disabled people qualify for free transit and can get a free ticket or enter and exit using side gates rather than turnstiles.

Current Construction[edit]

Opening 2017[edit]

Opening 2018[edit]

Opening 2019[edit]

  • Line 1 will be extended north from Dongducheon Station with five stations to Yeoncheon Station. The existing line is being double-tracked with the introduction of metro trains and services. Construction will complete in 2019.[40]
  • Suin Line's Hagik Station between Songdo Station and Inha University Station will open after 2019 once the redevelopment of the area surrounding it is completed, which will feature new cultural, commercial and medical facilities along with new residential areas.[41]

Opening 2020[edit]

  • Line 4 will be extended east from Danggogae Station with three stations to serve the Jinjeop development area, Namyangju. Construction will complete in 2020.[42]
  • Line 5 will be extended east by March 2020 from Pungsan to Hanam city hall and Geomdan Mountain.

Opening 2021[edit]

Opening 2022[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ With the exception of AREX on Yeongjong Island (extra charge applied depending on distance) and Shinbundang Line (extra flat charge of 700KRW). EverLine and U Line will allow free transfers from 2014.


  1. ^ "Subway Passenger Transportation". City of Seoul. Retrieved 14 July 2014.  (You can select English from the language dropdown that reads "한국어")
  2. ^ Korail
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j 지하철건설현황 [Status of Subway Construction] (in Korean). Seoul City Government. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  4. ^ Beijing's Incredible Subway Expansion In One GIF. The World Post. 29 December 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  5. ^ 2012 Korail Statistics See p.400 for Seoul Metropolitan Subway (수도권 전철). Archived 27 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs of South Korea: Definition of Urban Rail and Wide-area Rail
  7. ^ "Seoul Metropolitan Subway". Retrieved 2014-02-26. 
  8. ^ "서울 지하철 1호선" (in Korean). Seoul Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 2015-08-25. 
  9. ^ "Seoul's first subway line opened in 1974". Korea Times. 2011-02-13. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  10. ^ "Introducing Korail". Korail. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  11. ^ "The world's longest metro and subway systems". Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  12. ^ a b "What are the world's best metro systems?". CNN. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2014. 
  13. ^ Raphael Orlove. "The Best Subway Systems In The World". Jalopnik. 
  14. ^ "Underground world: Seoul's 'super highway' v London's 'rude tube'". BBC News. 3 April 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2013. 
  15. ^ Screen doors installed in the Seoul Metropolitan Subway. (5 May 2009). Retrieved on 12 July 2013.
  16. ^
  17. ^ "10 Reasons Why the Seoul Subway System is the Best". Seoulistic. Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  18. ^ a b "낙후한 지하철 1~4호선, 첨단 디스플레이 기술로 새단장 나선다" [1-4 outdated subway line, state-of-the-art display technology sets out renovation]. etnews (in Korean). 15 March 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  19. ^ Malang Studio Co. Ltd,. "Subway Korea - Android Apps on Google Play". 
  20. ^ 문화일보 [Munhwailbo] (16 May 2006). "<오후여담>좌측통행" [<Afternoon digression> left side of the road]. Naver (in Korean). Naver Corp. Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  21. ^ a b c d e "Metro Lines & Trains in Operation". Korail. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  22. ^ "Introduction". Korail Airport Railroad. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  23. ^ "Southern portion of inter-Korean railway to reopen". Hankyoreh. 2014-12-25. Retrieved 2015-08-25. 
  24. ^ "Final Bundang Line Extension Opens". Kojects. 2013-11-30. Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
  25. ^ "무인운전 시스템의 장점" (in Korean). Shinbundang Line & NeoTrans. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  26. ^ a b
  27. ^ "General information". Incheon Transit Corporation. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  28. ^ "노선안내" (in Korean). Yongin Rapid Transit Corporation. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  29. ^ "사업개요" (in Korean). Uijeongbu LRT Corporation. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  30. ^ "9호선/수도권 전철 읍데이트들 - Misc Subway Updates" (Blog). Rick&Nyo. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  31. ^
  32. ^ "::우이신설 경전철(주)::". 
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^ 김포도시철도사업 (in Korean). Gimpo City. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^ "固贰枚档DB". 
  41. ^
  42. ^ "기공식 앞둔 진접선 101억 분담... 별내선은 9억". 남양주뉴스. 
  43. ^
  44. ^ "지하철 7호선 인천 연장 2년 지연...2020년 개통". KBS 뉴스. 
  45. ^

External links[edit]