List of active separatist movements in Asia
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This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Asia. Separatism includes autonomism and secessionism. What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:
- They are active movements with current, active members.
- They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy).
- They are the citizen/peoples of the conflict area and not comes from other country.
Under each region listed is one or more of the following:
- De facto state: for regions with a de facto polity
- Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding or anticipated sovereign state
- Proposed autonomous area: for movements toward greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession
- De facto autonomous government: for governments with de facto autonomous control over a region
- Government-in-exile: for a government based outside of the region in question, with or without control
- Political party (or parties): for political parties involved in a political system to push for autonomy or secession
- Militant organisation(s): for armed organisations or insurgencies
- Advocacy group(s): for nonviolent, non-electoral, participatory entities
- Ethnic/ethno-religious/racial/regional/religious group(s)
- Ethnic group: Armenians
- Ethnic group: Jumma people
- Ethnic group: Bengali Hindus
- Ethnic group: Rakhine
- Ethnic group: Chin
- Proposed state: Republic of Zo Asia
- Ethnic group: Karen
- Ethnic group: Karenni
- Ethnic group: Kokang people (ethnic Han Chinese)
- Ethnic group: Rohingya
- Proposed state: Northern Arakan State of Arakan Federation
- Advocacy group: Arakan Rohingya National Organization (autonomist)
- Ethnic group: Shan (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Ethnic group: Wa
- Ethnic group: Kuki
- Ethnic group: Zomi
- Ethnic group: Turkish Cypriot
- De facto state with partial de jure recognition: TRNC Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
The People's Republic of China (China, PRC) insists itself being the sole legitimate state representing China. The PRC's territory consists of Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau. The PRC also claims the ROC-controlled area to be its territory. The PRC established the Special Administrative Region in Hong Kong and Macau under one country, two systems policy.
The Republic of China (Taiwan, ROC) insists itself being the sole legitimate state representing China. The ROC's territory consists of the island of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and nearby islands. The ROC also constitutionally claims the PRC-controlled area to be its territory.
- Ethnic group: Mongolian
- Ethnic group: Tibetan
- Proposed state: Tibet
- Government-in-exile: Lobsang Sangay, head of the Central Tibetan Administration (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Political parties: International Tibet Independence Movement, National Democratic Party of Tibet
- Advocacy group: Students for a Free Tibet, Tibetan Youth Congress, International Campaign for Tibet
- Proposed state: Tibet
- Ethnic group: Uyghur
- Proposed state: East Turkestan
- Government-in-exile: East Turkistan Government in Exile
- Political parties: East Turkestan independence movement
- Militant organisations: Turkistan Islamic Party, East Turkestan Liberation Organization (considered to be associated with Al Qaeda and Islamic State)
- Advocacy groups: World Uyghur Congress (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Proposed state: East Turkestan
- People: Hong Kongers
- Proposed state: Republic of Hong Kong, British Overseas Territory of Hong Kong, or Commonwealth realm of Hong Kong
- Political parties and advocacy groups: Independence-leaning localist groups including Hong Kong National Party, Hong Kong Indigenous, Hong Kong Independence Party, Hong Konger Front, Youngspiration
- Ethnic group: Abkhaz
- Ethnic group: Ossetians
Proposed autonomous movements:
- Ethnic group: Armenians
- Proposed state: Kashmir
- Proposed state: People's Republic of Nagaland
- Proposed state: Manipur
- Proposed state: Kamtapur
- Proposed state: Republic of Aceh
- Militant organisation: Free Aceh Movement (negotiated peace with the Indonesian government in 2005, and now it is a civil movement, but the separatism still has supporters)
- Proposed state: South Moluccas
- Proposed state: Gerakan Kemerdekaan Minahasa
- Ethnic group: Azerbaijani
- Ethnic group Turkmen
- Ethnic group: Arabs
- Ethnic groups: Kurdish
- Ethnic group: Baloch
See: Minorities in Iraq
- Ethnic groups: Kurdish
- Ethnoreligious group: Assyrian
- Ethnic group: Turkmen
- Ethnoreligious group: Yazidi
- Ethnic group: Ainu
- Ethnic group: Ryukyuan
- Proposed state: Republic of Ryukyu
- Political parties: Kariyushi Club (Formerly, Ryukyu Independence Party, 琉球独立党, Ryūkyū Dokuritsutō)
- Political groups: Ryukyu independence movement
- Note: The supporters of the movement want the Amami Islands in Kagoshima Prefecture, former part of the defunct Ryukyu Kingdom until 1609, to be part of independent Ryukyu. See also Invasion of Ryukyu.
Member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- Proposed state: Sarawak
- Advocacy group: Borneo Heritage Foundation (BHF), Sarawak Association of People’s Aspirations (SAPA), Sarawak Sovereignty Movement, Sabah Sarawak Keluar Malaysia (SSKM), Sarawak Liberation Movement
- Proposed state: Sabah
- Advocacy group: Borneo Heritage Foundation (BHF), Sabah Sarawak Keluar Malaysia (SSKM)
- Ethnic Group: Madhesi peoples (including Maithils, Bhojpuris and Tharus).
- Proposed state: Madhesh
- Advocacy group: Alliance for Independent Madhesh
- Militant Group: Janatantrik Terai Mukti Morcha, Madhesh Mukti Tigers (MMT), Tharuwan National Liberation Front (TNLF).
- Ethnic group: Baloch
- Ethnic group: Sindhi
- Ethnic group: Balti people
- Ethnic group: Moro
- Proposed autonomous area: Bangsamoro Autonomous Region
- Proposed state: Bangsamoro Republik
- Militant organization: Moro National Liberation Front
- Advocacy group: Mindanao Independence Movement
- Proposed state: ISIL
- Ethnic group: Igorot
- Ethnic Group: Siberians (“Sibiryak”)
- Ethnic group: Tuvans
- Proposed state: Tuva
- Political parties: People's Party of Sovereign Tuva, People's Front "Free Tuva"
- Ethnic group: Tamil
- Proposed state: Tamil Eelam
- Political party: Tamil National Alliance (autonomy within Sri Lanka)
- Militant organisation: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE was defeated by the Sri Lankan military in 2009)
- Advocacy groups: Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam, Global Tamil Forum
- Government in exile: Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam
- Ethnic and ethno-religious group: Kurdish, Yazidis
- Ethno-religious group: Druze
- Ethno-religious group: Arameans
- Ethnic group: Assyrian
- Ethnic group: Syrian Turkmen
- Ethnic group: Pamiri
- Ethnic group: Malays
- Ethnic group: Kurdish
- Proposed state: Kurdistan
- Political parties: Peace and Democracy Party (BDP), Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP)
- Militant organisations: Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), Group of Communities in Kurdistan (KCK), Kurdistan Freedom Hawks (TAK), Democrat Party of Kurdistan/North (PDK/Bakur), Revolutionary Party of Kurdistan (PŞK), Communist Party of Kurdistan (KKP)
- Ethnic group: Karakalpaks
- Ethnic group: Adeni Arabs,
- Ethnic group: Hadhrami Arabs
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