September 1900

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September 8, 1900: Thousands killed by hurricane in Galveston, Texas

The following events occurred in September 1900:

September 1, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Following its conquest by the armies of Lord Roberts, the South African Republic, also called the Transvaal, was annexed by Great Britain.[1]
  • The German-American Telegraph Company opened the first direct line between Germany and the United States. At 7,917 kilometers or 4,919 miles, the line was the longest transatlantic cable to that time, running from Emden to New York City, via the Azores Islands.[2]

September 2, 1900 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Santiago, Chile inaugurated its first electric streetcar service.[3]
  • Thirteen people were killed and more than 30 seriously injured at Hatfield, Pennsylvania, when a freight train plowed through two cars of a passenger train.[4]

September 3, 1900 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Hague Convention of 1899 came into effect, with many of the world's major powers (but not the United States) agreeing to attempt peaceful resolution of international conflicts.[5]
  • On Labor Day in Charleston, South Carolina, the "Capital City Guards", an African-American regiment of the South Carolina state guard, were giving an exhibition drill at Capital Square, when a group of white men on horseback drove into the black crowd, knocking down a woman and a child. Eight members of the guard chased after the attackers, then attached bayonets to their rifles and charged into the crowd. Though nobody was seriously injured, Governor McSweeney ordered the disbanding of the 14-year-old unit the next day, after finding that the guards had accumulated a large stock of ammunition in their armory.[6]

September 4, 1900 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, reported that response to the Indian Famine was fully underway, and that "4,891,000 persons" had received relief.[7]

September 5, 1900 (Wednesday)[edit]

September 6, 1900 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo set up his headquarters at Palanan, Isabela, on the eastern side of the island of Luzon. There, he would guide the fight against the American armies until his capture in 1901.[9]

September 7, 1900 (Friday)[edit]

  • As an alternative to suspending constitutional rights, Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, ordered the dissolution of the Abgeordnetenhaus, the elected body of the Reichsrat, Austria's parliament. The legislators were divided along ethnic lines between German and Slavic parties. Following elections in December, the Reichsrath was reconstituted under premier Ernst von Koerber. The Diet of Hungary, was not affected by the order.[10]

September 8, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]

  • A powerful hurricane hit Galveston, Texas, killing at least 6,000 of the island's 38,000 residents. The storm reached Galveston Island off the Gulf Coast of Texas, at 2:00 in the morning. By noon, the waters were over the bridges to the mainland and flood waters rolled in after 3:00 pm.[11] The anemometer measured the windspeed at 84 miles per hour before blowing away at 6:15 p.m. At 7:32, the water level suddenly rose four feet as waves rolled in, and within 30 minutes, the water was 8 feet deep.[12]

September 9, 1900 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The Galveston hurricane ended after the entire island had been under 8 feet of water. "Without apparent reason", reporter Richard Spillane would write later, "the waters suddenly began to subside at 1:45 a.m. Within twenty minutes they had gone down two feet, and before daylight the streets were practically freed of the flood waters." [13] When the survivors ventured out, the full extent of the storm was realized, with thousands of corpses across the island. By month's end, at least 2,311 bodies had been recovered.[14]

September 10, 1900 (Monday)[edit]

  • A local militia company, the "Galveston Sharpshooters" began patrolling the Texas city the day after the hurricane had passed on, and began dealing with looters. "On Monday, some men caught looting deserted houses and robbing dead bodies were promptly shot on the spot", it was noted fifty years later, "how many were never learned exactly."[15] One estimate was that there were as many as 250 looters killed, some found "with pockets full of fingers ... sliced off in their haste to procure the rings on them." [16]

September 11, 1900 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • President Loubet of France, selected as an arbitrator of the boundary between Colombia and Costa Rica, rendered his decision, declaring that a mountain range at roughly 9 degrees north would be the border; that islands east of Burica Point would belong to Colombia, and that the Burica Islands and all to the west would be Costa Rican.[17] After Panama seceded from Colombia, the 1900 boundary became the frontier between Panama and Costa Rica, as outlined in Title I, Article 3 of the Panamanian Constitution of 1904.[18]
  • Nixey Callahan, pitcher for the Chicago Cubs (at that time, the Chicago Orphans), set a record by giving up 48 hits in back-to-back games, allowing 23 hits in a 14-3 loss to the New York Giants. In his previous start, he had given up 25.[19]

September 12, 1900 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • With the authority to act as a legislature for the Philippines, the five member Taft Commission enacted its first laws. The first four Acts, passed on the same day, appropriated money for road construction, surveys, and the salaries for two new government employees.[20] The work of the five commissioners—William H. Taft, Henry Idle, Luke Wright, Dean Worcester, and Bernard Moses – is now the responsibility of the 24 Senators and 250 Representatives of the Congress of the Philippines.
  • Admiral Fredrik von Otter became Prime Minister of Sweden, succeeding Erik Gustaf Boström, who resigned "for reasons of health".[21] Boström took back over from von Otter in 1902.

September 13, 1900 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Filipino resistance fighters under the command of Colonel Maxio Abad defeated a large American column in the Battle of Pulang Lupa, and captured Captain James Shields.[22]
  • Dr. Jesse Lazear allowed himself to be bitten by a mosquito at the Las Animas Hospital in Cuba, as he searched for a cure for yellow fever. Five days later, he began to feel ill, and he died on September 25. Dr. Lazear's tragic experiment proved that the disease was spread by mosquitoes, and that the prevention of yellow fever required the eradication of the insects.[23]
  • Wilbur Wright visited Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, for the first time, on the shantyboat Curlicue.[24]

September 14, 1900 (Friday)[edit]

  • A proclamation by the recently annexed Transvaal proclaimed Schalk Burger to be Acting President of the South African Republic. President Paul Kruger, who had fled the country, was given a six-month "leave of absence to visit Europe".[25]
  • Leading a force of 22 men, Sergeant Henry F. Schroeder of the 16th U.S. Infantry defeated a force of 400 Filipino insurgents at Carig, now part of Santiago City. Sgt. Schroeder killed 36 and wounded 90, and was awarded the Medal of Honor for distinguished gallantry.[26]

September 15, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Rikken Seiyūkai, or "Friends of Constitutional Government", was founded as Japan's newest political party, with former Prime Minister Itō Hirobumi as its leader. The Seiyukai party won a majority in the elections in October, bringing Ito back into power.[27]

September 16, 1900 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Prince Albert of Saxony, son of the George, Crown Prince of Saxony, was killed in an accident after a collision with a carriage driven by Prince Miguel of Braganza.
  • Battle of Similoan in Philippines, with 90 Americans confronting 1,000 Filipinos; 24 Americans killed, 5 missing, 9 wounded; Mormons driven out of Mansfield, Ohio[28]

September 17, 1900 (Monday)[edit]

Queen Victoria
  • Queen Victoria issued the Proclamation of the Commonwealth of Australia, stating "We do hereby declare that on and after the first day of January One thousand nine hundred and one the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, Tasmania and Western Australia shall be united in a Federal Commonwealth under the name of The Commonwealth of Australia." [29]
  • Queen Victoria declared Parliament dissolved, with new elections to take place during October.
  • The largest walkout in American history, up to that time, began as 112,000 anthracite coal miners left their workplaces in the mines of Pennsylvania.[30] The strike ended on October 17.
  • Filipinos under the command of General Juan Cailles defeated Americans from the 15th and 37th Infantry, under the command of Captain David Mitchell, at the Battle of Mabitac.[31]
  • The Chicago Public Schools began teaching blind children for the first time, using special teachers trained for the task.[32]
  • During Cincinnati's baseball game at Philadelphia, Reds' third base coach Tommy Corcoran uncovered a telegraph wire that the Phillies had been using in order to steal signals from visiting teams.[33]

September 18, 1900 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The first primary election in the United States took place, as an 1899 Minnesota law was given its first trial.[34] There were 254 candidates seeking their political party's nomination for various positions in the city of Minneapolis [35] In the race to be the nominee is the November general election for Mayors of Minneapolis, Mayor James Gray was the Democrat's pick, while former Mayor A. A. Ames was the Republican choice.[36]
  • The American League completed its last season as a minor baseball circuit, with the Chicago White Stockings (led by Charlie Comiskey) finishing in first place with a record 82 wins and 52 losses, ahead of Connie Mack's 78-59 Milwaukee Brewers (who would later become the St. Louis Browns, and are today the Baltimore Orioles).[37] Teams that would continue into the modern day American League would be Chicago, Milwaukee, the Detroit Tigers, the Cleveland Lake Shores (later the Indians), the Kansas City Blues (later the Washington Senators, now the Minnesota Twins). Three other AL teams would be dropped (the Indianapolis Hoosiers, the Buffalo Bisons and the Minneapolis Millers) and replaced by the Philadelphia Athletics (now Oakland A's), the Boston Americans (now Red Sox) and the Baltimore Orioles (later the New York Yankees)
  • Li Hongzhang was accepted by the Allied powers as the representative of China for peace negotiations following the Boxer Rebellion, and arrived at Tianjin to begin work.[38]

September 19, 1900 (Wednesday)[edit]

September 20, 1900 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The "honeycomb radiator", so named because the radiator tubes had hexagonal ends and stacked together, was patented for cooling of the engines of the Mercedes automobiles.[40]

September 21, 1900 (Friday)[edit]

  • The coal miners' strike had its first casualties, as the sheriff of Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania and his posse fired into a mob of strikers at Shenandoah. A man and a little girl were killed and six people were wounded, and units of the Pennsylvania National Guard were sent out to stop the violence.[41]
  • Died: Lewis Sayre, 80, pioneering orthopedic surgeon who invented the process of using plaster casts to treat spinal injuries.

September 22, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]

French President Émile Loubet

September 23, 1900 (Sunday)[edit]

  • William Marsh Rice, multimillionaire and benefactor of Rice University, was found dead at his New York City apartment. Although it appeared at the time that he had died in his sleep at the age of 84, Mr. Rice's lawyer, Albert T. Patrick, tried to cash $250,000 worth of checks the next day. Eventually, it was established that Rice's valet had administered chloroform to Rice at Patrick's direction. Patrick was convicted of the murder in 1901. As he sat on death row at New York's Sing Sing Prison, Patrick's sentence was commuted to life in 1906, and he was pardoned in 1912.[43]
  • One of Spain's greatest generals, Arsenio Martínez Campos, died at Zarauz. The New York Times eulogized, "Many have said that if the Spanish Government had retained Gen. Campos as Captain General of Cuba ... the Maine would not have been blown up and Spain would not stand to-day stripped of her ancient colonies." [44]

September 24, 1900 (Monday)[edit]

  • A tornado swept through Morristown, Minnesota, dropping a barn upon Gatseke's Saloon, where 16 people had taken refuge. Eight were crushed in the collapse of the saloon, including a candidate for the state legislature.[45]

September 25, 1900 (Tuesday)[edit]

September 26, 1900 (Wednesday)[edit]

September 27, 1900 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The Republic Theatre opened at 209 West 42nd Street in New York, with the production of Sag Harbor, starring Lionel Barrymore. Later renamed the Victory Theater, the playhouse is now the New Victory Theater.[50]

September 28, 1900 (Friday)[edit]

  • The United States War Department received a cable from General Arthur MacArthur with the worst news to that time from the war in the Philippines. Fifty-one men from Company F of the 29th Volunteer Infantry, under the command of Captain Devereaux Shields, had apparently been taken prisoner by the Filipino resistance, along with the gunboat Villalobos. "There is scarcely a doubt that the entire party has been captured with many killed and wounded", MacArthur cabled, "Shields among the latter."[51] The prisoners were later released on October 15, with Captain Shields and 48 men having survived.[52]

September 29, 1900 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Mexico's first penetentiary and correctional facility was opened at San Lazaro, northeast of Mexico City, as the most modern detention facility in the nation up to that time, and with a goal of rehabilitation of the inmates.[53]
  • In London, Parliament approved the annexation to New Zealand of Rarotanga, Mangaia, Aitutaki, Mitiero, Atiu in the Cook Islands group, Rakakanga and Manahiki in the Penrhyn Island group, and Savage, Palmerston and Pukapuka islands.[54]
  • Rudolf Steiner began work on his book about anthroposophy, Mysticism at the Dawn of the Modern Age, selecting "the first Michaelmas Day of the new age of light", following the end of the 5,000-year-long dark age of Kali Yuga.

September 30, 1900 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The new Associated Press, incorporated in New York, began filing its first reports, as the old Associated Press Company of Illinois ceased its existence.[55]
  • At Obassa, the last great battle of the Ashanti War took place, with a spear-wielding force of hundreds of Ashanti tribesmen fought against the bayonets and machine guns of Britain's Colonel James Willocks. At the end of the day, hundreds of Ashanti warriors had been killed.[56]

Births[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Diary for September", The Review of Reviews (October 15, 1900), p326
  2. ^ Anton A. Huurdeman, The Worldwide History of Telecommunications (Wiley-IEEE, 2003), pp. 308–309
  3. ^ Clara Irazábal, Ordinary Places, Extraordinary Events: Citizenship, Democracy and Public Space in Latin America (Routledge, 2008), p89
  4. ^ "Thirteen Killed in a Railroad Wreck", New York Times, September 3, 1900, p1
  5. ^ Jay Winter, Dreams of Peace and Freedom: Utopian Moments in the Twentieth Century (Yale University Press, 2008), pp14–15
  6. ^ "Negro Company Disbanded", New York Times, September 6, 1900
  7. ^ "India's Great Famine", New York Times, September 5, 1900,
  8. ^ B. Lanne, Histoire politique du Tchad de 1945 à 1958, (Karthala, 1998), pp. 11–12
  9. ^ Cecilio D. Duka, Struggle For Freedom: A Textbook on Philippine History (Rex Bookstore, 2008), p191
  10. ^ "Austria-Hungary", The International Year Book (1901) (Dodd, Mead & Company, 1901), pp83–86
  11. ^ "The Wrecking of Galveston", New York Times, September 11, 1900, p1
  12. ^ Casey Edward Greene and Shelly Henley Kelly, Through a Night of Horrors: Voices from the 1900 Galveston Storm (Texas A&M University Press, 2002), pp12–13
  13. ^ "The Wrecking of Galveston", New York Times, September 11, 1900, p1
  14. ^ Salt Lake Tribune, September 29, 1900, p2
  15. ^ "50 Years Ago Galveston Suffered Hardest Blow", The Galveston News, September 8, 1950, p5
  16. ^ B. Clay Shannon, Still Casting Shadows: A Shared Mosaic of U.S. History (iUniverse, 2006), p516
  17. ^ Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States 1910 (GPO 1915) pp786–787
  18. ^ Karl Samwer, et al., Nouveau recueil général de traités et autres actes relatifs aux rapports de droit international (Librarie Dieterich, 1905) pp641–642
  19. ^ Baseball Digest] (February 1998), p34
  20. ^ Reports of the Taft Philippine Commission (G.P.O. 1901), pp245–246
  21. ^ "New Swedish Premier Appointed", New York Times, September 13, 1900, p14
  22. ^ Cecilio D. Duka, Struggle For Freedom: A Textbook on Philippine History (Rex Bookstore, 2008), p192
  23. ^ Report of the Surgeon-General of the Army to the Secretary of War for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1900 (G.P.O. 1901), p187
  24. ^ Thomas C. Parramore, First to Fly: North Carolina and the Beginnings of Aviation (UNC Press, 2003), p66
  25. ^ "Diary for September", The Review of Reviews (October 15, 1900), p326
  26. ^ United States Naval Institute Proceedings (April 1919), p507
  27. ^ David S. Spencer, "Some Thoughts on the Political Development of the Japanese People", The Journal of International Relations (January 1920) p325
  28. ^ The Statistician and Economist (1901–1902) (L.P. McCarty, 1902), p380
  29. ^ William Harrison Moore, The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia (G. Partridge & Co., 1902), pp367; Ernest Scott, A Short History of Australia (Kessinger Publishing, 2004), p251
  30. ^ The Statistician and Economist (1901–1902) (L.P. McCarty, 1902), p380
  31. ^ William Thaddeus Sexton, Soldiers in the Sun: An Adventure in Imperialism (READ BOOKS, 2007), pp249–251
  32. ^ John B. Curtis, "Illinois", Outlook for the Blind (July 1907)
  33. ^ Floyd Conner, Baseball's Most Wanted: The Top 10 Book of the National Pastime's Outrageous Offenders, Lucky Bounces, and Other Oddities (Sterling Publishing Company, 2006), p336
  34. ^ Gorton Carruth, et al., eds., The Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates (Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1962) p388
  35. ^ "Busy Counting Votes— A Tremendous Ballot in the Minneapolis Primary Elections", Saint Paul (MN) Globe, September 19, 1900, p3
  36. ^ "The Minneapolis Primaries", Saint Paul (MN) Globe, September 20, 1900, p4
  37. ^ "Ball Season Is at an End", Milwaukee Journal, September 19, 1900, p8
  38. ^ Bruce A. Elleman, Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795–1989 (Routledge, 2001), p135
  39. ^ Elizabeth Gibson, It Happened in Nevada (Globe Pequot, 2001), pp49–50
  40. ^ Robert Dick, Mercedes and Auto Racing in the Belle Epoque, 1895–1915 (McFarland, 2005), pp44–45
  41. ^ "Blood Flows in Shenandoah", Salt Lake Tribune, September 22, 1900, p1
  42. ^ Stefan Gates, Gastronaut: Adventures in Food for the Romantic, the Foolhardy, and the Brave (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2006), p30
  43. ^ Edmund Pearson, "The Firm of Patrick and Jones" pp146–185, in The Mammoth Book of Murder and Science (Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2000); Martin Friedland, The Death of Old Man Rice: A True Story of Criminal Justice in America (NYU Press, 1996)
  44. ^ "Marshal Campos Dead", New York Times, September 24, 1900, p1
  45. ^ "Killed in a Tornado", Salt Lake Tribune, September 25, 1900, p1
  46. ^ Neal Bascomb, Red Mutiny: Eleven Fateful Days on the Battleship Potemkin (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2007), p40
  47. ^ George Etsujiro Uyehara, The Political Development of Japan 1867–1909 (READ BOOKS, 2006), p244
  48. ^ Joscelyn Godwin, "The Creation of a Universal System", in Alexandria I: The Journal of Western Cosmological Traditions (Red Wheel/Weiser, 1991), p247
  49. ^ The Statistician and Economist (1901–1902) (L.P. McCarty, 1902), p380
  50. ^ "Sag Harbor", The Cambridge Guide to American Theatre (Cambridge University Press, 2007), p570
  51. ^ "Filipinos Capture American Troops", New York Times September 29, 1900, p10
  52. ^ Annual Reports of the Secretary of War 1900, p23
  53. ^ Robert Buffington, Criminal and Citizen in Modern Mexico (University of Nebraska Press, 2000), pp96–97
  54. ^ The International Year Book: A Compendium of the World's Progress During the Year 1900 (Dodd, Mead & Company), pp660–661
  55. ^ Gregory Mason, "The Associated Press", The Outlook, May 30, 1914, p. 239; Alfred McClung Lee, The Daily Newspaper in America (Routledge, 2002), p. 523
  56. ^ Harold E. Raugh, The Victorians at War, 1815–1914: An Encyclopedia of British Military History (ABC-CLIO, 2004), p. 33