By a margin of 1,136,289 in favor and 524,771 against, voters in Greece approved the keeping of the monarchy. King George II returned from exile on September 27.
Cambodia held its first elections in history. The Democrat party won a majority of seats in the legislature.
Hawaiian sugar workers went on strike, with 21,000 workers walking off of the job on 33 plantations. The strike, which was aided by an unseasonable lack of rain, ended after 79 days, and put an end to the perquisite system that had paid the laborers with company vouchers rather than cash.
Julia McWilliams married Paul Child, and later became famous as Julia Child.
U.S. President Harry S. Truman approved the go-ahead for "Project Paperclip", ostensibly a campaign to bring German scientists to the U.S., and to keep them from being taken to the U.S.S.R. Many of the scientists had been former Nazis, and assisted in experimentation on human subjects with radiation, oxygen deprivation and flash blindness.
An Air France plane bound for London crashed moments after takeoff, when it failed to clear the roof of a factory at Le Bourget, killing 20 persons. The evening before, another Air France plane crashed as it approached Copenhagen from Paris, killing all 22 persons on board.
Died:Nobu Shirase, 85, leader of the Japanese Antarctic Expedition of 1911-1912
Trans-Luxury Airlines Flight 850, on its way (with several stops) from New York to San Francisco, crashed into a hillside as it attempted to land in Elko, Nevada, killing 21 of the 22 people on board. A 2-year old boy survived the accident with only minor injuries.
U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes delivered the speech Restatement of Policy on Germany" in Stuttgart. The address, described as "an important reversal of the American position on Germany", signaled a plan to build the conquered German nation into a "self-sustaining" state that would be able to resist the spread of Communism.
In what is now celebrated among the Missionaries of Charity as "Inspiration Day", 36 year old Sister Agnes Teresa Bojaxhiu of the Loreto Sisters' Convent experienced what she would describe as the "call within a call". She was traveling on a train from Siliguri to Darjeeling when she heard the call of God: "I was to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them.". As one author later noted, "Though no one knew it at the time, Sister Teresa had just become Mother Teresa".
Fred Morrison, an American fighter pilot during World War II, first sketched his idea for a toy plastic disc could fly through the air after it was thrown. He called his invention the "Whirlo-Way". By 1955, he sold a lighter version, the "Pluto Platter", to the Wham-O toy company, which manufactured millions of the discs under the brand name Frisbee.
With workers at Pittsburgh's electric utility threatening a walkout, and management standing firm against their demands, citizens of the 10th largest city in the U.S. braced for a 12:01 a.m. shutdown of all electric power. To their surprise, the blackout never came, as a judge issued an injunction at midnight.
The Brooklyn Dodgers and the visiting Cincinnati Reds played the longest scoreless tie in Major League Baseball history, going for 19 innings and 4 hours, 40 minutes, before the game was called because of darkness.
The United States turned over $1,121,400,000 worth of surplus U.S. Army property to the Philippines, including vehicles, construction equipment, prefab structures, clothing, medicine, food and other items. The material had been stockpiled in the Philippines after its recapture by the Allies, for the planned invasion of Japan.
U.S. Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace delivered a speech at a rally at Madison Square Garden, contradicting the statement of foreign policy that had been made six days earlier by Secretary of State Byrnes, embarrassing President Harry S. Truman, and bringing an end to Wallace's career in government. Truman, who had glanced at the speech two days earlier, was asked at a press conference about the speech and whether it "represented the policy of his administration", and replied that it was. That evening, Wallace declared that "We have no more business in the political affairs of Eastern Europe than Russia has in the political affairs of Latin America, Western Europe and the United States... and just two days ago, when President Truman read these words, he said they represented the policy of his Administration.". Truman compounded the error by making the excuse that "It was my intention to express the thought that I approved the right of the Secretary of Commerce to deliver that speech. I did not intend to indicate that I approved the speech" which TIME magazine described as a "clumsy lie".
Captain Amon Göth, 37, Nazi SS officer who had carried out the mass executions of more than 13,000 Jews in Kraków and Tarnow, and the Szebnia concentration camp, was hanged, along with Dr. Leon Gross, a Jew who had collaborated with him at the Plaszow concentration camp. Captain Göth was portrayed by Ralph Fiennes in the film Schindler's List.
Ten days after the United States launched Project Paperclip, the Soviet Union issued decree No. 2163-880s, launching Operation Osoaviakhim, to transfer German rocket production potential to the USSR.
Dr. Willis J. Potts performed the first aorta-to-pulmonary artery anastomosis to correct a congenital heart defect, a surgery later called the Potts shunt. The first patient was a 21-month-old girl at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago. The surgery was performed on 658 more patients until being discontinued in 1967 because of complications that often arose.
Died:George Washington Hill, 61, President of American Tobacco Company, who increased cigarette sales worldwide over a 21 year period.
The U.S. Census Bureau forecast that the United States population in 1990 would peak at 165,000,000 and that it would decline to 168,177,000 by 2000. The actual figures for the two censuses were 248,709,873 in 1990 and 281,421,906 in 2000.
After drought and a poor harvest added to a famine in the Soviet Union, a governmental decree went into effect, doubling the price for rations of meat and dairy products, and tripling the price of bread. On September 27, another decree reduced the number of people entitled to bread rations. The famine lasted into 1947, costing more than a million lives.
Mass production of television sets began, with RCA producing the first new TV since World War II, a 10-inch set made at its plant in Camden, New Jersey. Only 5,000 sets had been produced in the years before the U.S. entered the war. By the end of 1947, 150,000 had been sold, rising to 4 million in 1949 and 10 million in 1950.
Hidden in the Warsaw Ghetto by the Oneg Shabbat group during the Second World War, the archive of materials that had been written during the siege was unearthed. Dr. Emmanuel Ringelblum supervised the writing, collection, storage (in watertight milk cans) and burial for future generations to read.
Mound Metalcraft, Inc., was founded in Mound, Minnesota, by Lynn E. Baker, Avery F. Crounse and Alvin F. Tesch. In 1947, the company introduced the first Tonka toys, a line of durable metal toy trucks and other equipment.
In a speech at Zurich, former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill proposed what would eventually become the European Community. Churchill suggested "a remedy, which, if generously and spontaneously adopted by a great majority of the people of many lands, would, as if by a miracle, transform the whole scene and make Europe as free and happy as Switzerland is today... We must build a kind of United States of Europe."
Walter F. White, Executive Director of the NAACP, and five other civil rights activists met at the White House with President Truman to ask for the help of the U.S. government in ending violence against African-Americans. Although White had met in the past with Presidents Coolidge, Hoover and Roosevelt without success, Truman was horrified by the description of the blinding of Isaac Woodard, and ordered Attorney General Tom Clark to begin working on "the inauguration of some sort of policy to prevent such happenings".
President Truman fired Secretary of Commerce Henry Wallace, eight days after Wallace's controversial speech in New York. Noting that "the Government of the United States must stand as a unit in its relations with the rest of the world," President Truman announced, "I have today asked Mr. Wallace to resign from the Cabinet.;
The landscape of the American and Canadian Niagara Falls was permanently altered when a 120 foot wide section of rock collapsed at 10:19 in the morning.;
Died: Vincent Benevento, 46, self-styled "Cheese King" of Chicago, was killed while vacationing in Lake Zurich, Illinois. After surviving being shot 10 times in a 1945 attack, Benevento died after being shot 7 more times in the new incident.
The Iagting, legislature for the Faroe Islands, voted 12-11 in favor of creating a nation independent of Denmark, which had ruled since the year 1386, in accordance with the September 15 plebiscite. King Christian X dissolved the Iagting the next day and denied the resolution. On September 9, 1947, a new Faroen parliament accepted a Danish proposal for autonomy in a continued union with Denmark.
In what would later become the South Vietnam, the Commissioner of the French controlled Autonomous Republic of Cochin-China issued an order authorizing the arrest of any Asian resident whose identity papers were not in order. Police and the French Army arrested more than 50,000 Vietnamese and conscripted them to work at the area's rubber plantations.
White House counsel Clark Clifford presented President Truman with a top secret report, authored by George Elsey, and entitled "American Relations with the Soviet Union". "The U.S. must be prepared to wage atomic and biological warfare," the report stated in part, adding that "a war with the USSR would be 'total' in a more horrible sense than any previous war and there must be constant research for both offensive and defensive weapons." In her biography of her father, Margaret Truman wrote that when Clifford said that only ten copies existed, Truman told him, "I want the other nine." The Clifford-Elsey Report remained secret for was not revealed until 20 years later when a copy was given to Arthur Krock of the New York Times.
African-American actor Canada Lee surprised and impressed audiences at Boston's Shubert Theatre, portraying Daniel de Bosola in a production of The Duchess of Malfi. In a reversal of the longtime practice, seen in minstrel shows, of white men donning blackface, Lee "opened a new field for Negro actors today by donning white makeup and portraying a white character for the first time in the history of the American stage", according to a UPI report.
Aung San, who had led the fight against British colonial rule of Burma as leader of the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League, agreed to become part of the interim government that would form an independent nation. Sir Hubert Rance, the British Governor and Chairman of the Executive Council, had been given permission to negotiate with the AFPFL, and Aung San became the Deputy Chairman.
Defending world middleweight boxing champion Tony Zale retained his title against heavily favored challenger Rocky Graziano, in a bout at Yankee Stadium. A crowd of 39,827 watched Zale, fighting after four years of World War II service, knocked Graziano out midway through the sixth round.
Nikolai V. Novikov, the Soviet ambassador to the United States sent a long telegram to his boss, Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, describing U.S. foreign policy as reflecting "imperialistic tendencies of monopolistic American capital" and "a striving for world supremacy". Analogous to George F. Kennan's February 22 "long telegram", the Novikov cable helped shape strategy for one nation against its greatest adversary during the Cold War. Classified for years, the cable was not released until 1990 as part of the "Conduct of the Cold War" conferences.
Died:Geoffrey de Havilland Jr., British test pilot, was killed when his DH-108 jet, the Swallow broke apart as he reached Mach 0.875 as he was attempting supersonic flight.
King George II of Greece returned to the throne, four years after fleeing to the United Kingdom, stepping ashore at Piraeus at 10:00 am. Hours after greeting the monarch on his return, Prime Minister Constantine Tsaldaris and his entire cabinet resigned.
The Popular NBC radio program, National Barn Dance, was broadcast for the last time. Chad Berry, The Hayloft Gang: The Story of the National Barn Dance (University of Illinois Press, 2008) p89
U.S. Army General and future United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower said at a press conference in Frankfurt that nuclear weapons should be made illegal, stating "I believe the outlawing of the atom bomb is the outlawing of wars... I think the time has come when humanity is intelligent enough to do away with war." "
The Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal announced its verdicts on 21 members of the Nazi German regime. Three (Fritz von Papen, Hjalmar Schacht and Hans Fritzsche) were acquitted, and the other 18 were convicted of crimes against humanity, receiving sentences the next day ranging from 10 years to death by hanging
^John S. Koliopoulos and Thanos M. Veremis, Modern Greece: a history since 1821 (John Wiley and Sons, 2009) p120; "Greek Monarchy Wins In Plebiscite; 8 Die In Voting Disturbances", Pittsburgh Press, September 2, 1946, p1
^Justin Corfield, The History of Cambodia (ABC-CLIO, 2009) p43
^Gavan Daws, Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands (University of Hawaii Press, 1974) p363
^David Kamp, The United States of Arugula: How We Became a Gourmet Nation (Random House, Inc., 2007) p51
^"Era of National Govt. Dawns", The Indian Express (Madras), September 3, 1946, p1
^Jagdish Chandra Sharma, Indian Prime Ministership: A Comprehensive Study (Concept Publishing Company, 2002) p19-20
^Nick Redfern, Body Snatchers in the Desert: The Horrible Truth at the Heart of the Roswell Story (Simon and Schuster, 2005) pp63-64
^"Plane Crash In France Kills Score", Miami Daily News, September 4, 1946, p1
^"18 Die, 2 Missing In Airliner Crash", Pittsburgh Press, September 5, 1946, p1
^Cynthia Jacobs Carter, Freedom in My Heart: Voices from the United States National Slavery Museum National Geographic Books, 2009) p191
^John Lewis Gaddis, The United States and the origins of the Cold War, 1941-1947 (Columbia University Press, 2000) p331; "Byrnes Urges Government For Germany", Pittsburgh Press, September 6, 1946, p1
^Bob Carroll, Total Football: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Football League (HarperCollins, 1999) p528
^Al Blackburn, Aces Wild: The Race for Mach 1 (Rowman & Littlefield, 1999) p11
^"23 Killed in Crash Of Plane in Africa", Pittsburgh Press, September 7, 1946, p1
^"Bulgar Boy King Loses His Thorne", Miami Daily News, September 9, 1946, p2-A
^"Bulgaria's former king OK'd as premier", Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, July 25, 2001, p7A
^Robert McHenry, Famous American Women: A Biographical Dictionary from Colonial Times to the Present (Courier Dover Publications, 1983) p121
^Paul Hemphill, Lovesick Blues: The Life of Hank Williams (Penguin Books, 2006) p60
^Paul R. Gregory, Lenin's Brain and Other Tales from the Secret Soviet Archives (Hoover Press, 2008) pp64-66
^Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (Random House, Inc., 2009)
^"Faroes Favor Freedom: Islands' Plebiscite Shows Small Margin So Far for Secession", New York Times, September 16, 1946, p1
^"Bulgaria a Republic", Daytona Beach Morning Journal, September 16, 1946, p2 Peter John Georgeoff, The Social Education of Bulgarian Youth (University of Minnesota Press, 1968) p7
^Donald Filtzer, The Hazards of Urban Life in Late Stalinist Russia: Health, Hygiene, and Living Standards, 1943-1953, (Cambridge University Press, 2010) p4
^John Lamm and Chuck Queener, Ferrari: Stories from Those Who Lived the Legend, (MBI Publishing Company, 2007 p13
^Andrew Zimbalist, In the Best Interests of Baseball?: The Revolutionary Reign of Bud Selig (John Wiley and Sons, 2007)
^James Von Schilling, The Magic Window: American Television, 1939-1953 (Psychology Press, 2003) p75
^"State of the Art", by Edward Rosen, SPIN Magazine (July 1985) p55
^David Patterson, Encyclopedia of Holocaust Literature (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002) p207; Elie Wiesel and Dorothy Rabinowicz, Dimensions of the Holocaust: Lectures at Northwestern University (Northwestern University Press, 1990) p69
^Dennis David and Lloyd Laumann, Tonka (MBI Publishing Company, 2004) p14
^"Churchill's Plea: United States of Europe", Sydney Morning Herald, September 20, 1946, p1; Manoranjan Dutta, European Union and the Euro revolution (Emerald Group Publishing, 2007)
^Cannes Film Festival History; Remi Fournier Lanzoni, French Cinema: From Its Beginnings to the Present (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004)
^Steve Neal, Harry and Ike: The Partnership That Remade the Postwar World (Simon and Schuster, 2002) p92-93
^"TRUMAN FIRES WALLACE: GAGS AIDES ON POLICY", Pittsburgh Press", September 20, 1946, p1; Robert H. Ferrell, Harry S. Truman: A Life (University of Missouri Press, 1996)
^"Niagara Falls Section Collapses", Pittsburgh Press September 30, 1946, p1
^"Wife Sees Gunmen Slay Cheese King", Miami Daily News, September 22, 1946, p1
^Yogi Berra and Dave Kaplan, Ten Rings: My Championship Seasons (HarperCollins, 2003)
^"Negro Actor Plays White Man on Stage- Successful Performance May Open New Field in American Theater", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, September 26, 1946, p3
^Richard Butwell, U Nu of Burma (Stanford University Press, 1969) p49
^"Zale Staggers Back to Flatten Graziano", Milwaukee Journal, September 28, 1946, p6
^John Lewis Gaddis, The Cold War: A New History (Penguin, 2006) p30
^"Plane Hit 'Supersonic Wall' on Fatal Test Flight, Is Belief", Milwaukee Journal, September 29, 1946, p6; James P. Harrison, Mastering the Sky: A History of Aviation from Ancient Times to the Present (Da Capo Press, 2000) p217