September 1960

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September 26, 1960: Candidates Kennedy and Nixon meet in first "Presidential Debate"
September 29, 1960: My Three Sons begins 11 season run
September 24, 1960: Atomic-powered USS Enterprise launched
September 24, 1960: Howdy Doody broadcasts final show
September 4, 1960: OPEC Founded

The following events occurred in September 1960:

September 1, 1960 (Thursday)[edit]

September 2, 1960 (Friday)[edit]

  • In the Summer Olympics, Wilma Rudolph, who had overcome childhood polio, won the women's 100 meter dash with a time of 11.0 seconds. Although faster than the world record of 11.3, Rudolph's mark was not official because the wind had been blowing faster than 2.0 m/s. Rudolph earned three golds, including the 200 m dash and the 4 × 100 m relay. In the long jump competition, Ralph Boston of the United States broke the Olympic record that had been set in 1936 by Jesse Owens. Boston was 4 inches short of the world record of 26 feet ​11 34 inches (8.21 m) that he had set on August 12.[4][4]
  • Near Grafenwöhr, West Germany, 16 American soldiers were killed and 26 injured when an 8-inch howitzer shell crashed into them during a morning roll call. The shell had been overloaded with charge and went ​4 12 miles beyond its target.[5]
  • Born:

September 3, 1960 (Saturday)[edit]

  • In the bloodiest day of fighting since the Congo became independent of Belgium, more than 300 people were killed and 700 wounded as Congolese troops invaded the "Mining State" that had been declared by Albert Kalonji in the Kasai Province. The cities of Mwene Ditu and Laputa had been retaken by government troops loyal to Patrice Lumumba, while Kasai rebels were marching to defend the major city of Bakwanga (now Mbuji-Mayi).[6]

September 4, 1960 (Sunday)[edit]

September 5, 1960 (Monday)[edit]

  • In the Congo, President Joseph Kasavubu announced on Radio Leopoldville that he had fired Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba. An hour later, Lumumba announced on the same station that he intended to stay, and then fired Kasavubu. Congo's Army Chief of Staff Joseph Mobutu sent troops to place Lumumba under house arrest while contemplating the future of Kasavubu's regime.[8]
  • Cassius Clay of the United States (later Muhammad Ali), defeated Zbigniew Pietrzykowski of Poland to win the gold medal in the Olympic light heavyweight boxing competition. Franco De Piccoli of Italy was the Olympic heavyweight boxing medalist.[4]
  • Died: Earl K. Long, 65, former Governor of Louisiana, died nine days after being elected to Congress. Long had gone to the hospital after polls closed on August 27.[9]

September 6, 1960 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • William H. Martin and Bernon F. Mitchell, two National Security Agency cryptologists who had been missing since June 24, were introduced as defectors to the Soviet Union at a press conference in Moscow's House of Journalists.[10]
  • 1960 Summer Olympics: At the men's 400 metre dash, the Olympic record of 45.9 seconds was broken by the first four finishers. Otis Davis of the US and Carl Kaufmann of Germany were both credited with a new world record of 44.9 (with Davis winning gold by 0.02 seconds), Malcolm Spence of South Africa at 45.5, and Milkha Singh of India at 45.6.[4]
  • Died: György Piller, 61, Hungarian world champion fencer

September 7, 1960 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Aerolíneas Argentinas Flight 205 broke up over Uruguay during a heavy thunderstorm and crashed on a ranch near the town of Dieciocho de Julio, killing all 31 persons on board. [11] The DC-6 had departed from Asunción in Paraguay and was on its way to Buenos Aires when the propeller on its No. 3 engine came loose and struck the No. 4 engine. [12] [13]
  • U.S. President Eisenhower sought to improve relations with Panama and ordered that the flag of Panama would be flown next to the flag of the United States in the American-owned Canal Zone. The first Panamanian flag in the Zone would be raised on September 21, and was protested by members of Congress who felt that the flag raising was the first step in returning the territory to the Panamanians, and flags would not be raised elsewhere until January 10, 1963. [14]
  • Crown Prince Constantine II of Greece and his two teammates won a gold medal in sailing at the Summer Olympics, competing at Naples in their yacht, the Nirefs. The future Greek King's elder sister, the future Queen Sofía of Spain, was on the sailing team as a reserve. [15]
  • Died: Wilhelm Pieck, 84, President of East Germany since the nation's creation in 1949. The office was abolished following his death.

September 8, 1960 (Thursday)[edit]

September 9, 1960 (Friday)[edit]

September 10, 1960 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the Olympic marathon, setting a world record (2 hours, 15 minutes, 16.2 seconds) and running the entire 26 miles and 385 yards (42.195 km) while barefoot,[4] becoming the first person from Sub-Saharan Africa to win an Olympic gold medal.
  • In a game against the Detroit Tigers, Mickey Mantle of the New York Yankees hit a home run over the roof and out of Tiger Stadium. The distance was not measured until June 22, 1985, when it was determined to have been a record at 643 feet, surpassing Mantle's 1953 hit of 565 feet at Washington.[19] Some observers doubt the measure, concluding that "it is impossible to hit a baseball that distance".[20]
  • Yugoslavia defeated Denmark to win the gold medal at the Olympic football finals, 3–1.[4]
  • ITV inaugurated regular television broadcasts of English professional soccer football matches, starting with the telecast of a Football League First Division match between Blackpool and visiting Bolton Wanderers. [21] The Wanderers won the match, 1-0.
  • Color television broadcasting began in Japan.[22]
  • Died:

September 11, 1960 (Sunday)[edit]

  • For the ninth day in succession, Hurricane Donna had maximum sustained winds of at least 115 mph (185 km/h).
  • U.S. senators James Eastland and Thomas Dodd accused the State Department of complicity in Fidel Castro's invasion of Cuba.[23]
  • The 1960 Summer Olympics closed in Rome.
  • The government of Laos declared a national emergency.
  • The Act of Bogotá was adopted by an 18–1 vote at the Inter-American Conference on Economic Aid.[13]

September 12, 1960 (Monday)[edit]

  • Against the advice of his campaign staff, presidential candidate John F. Kennedy had accepted an invitation to speak to Protestant ministers in Houston on the question of whether a Roman Catholic President could operate independently of the Vatican. In a famous address, Kennedy won over his audience, commenting, "I am not the Catholic candidate for President. I am the Democratic Party's candidate for president who happens also to be a Catholic." The next day, the Houston ministers described the address as "the most complete, unequivocal and reassuring statement which could be expected of any person in his position,".[24] Kennedy's opponent, Richard M. Nixon, a Quaker, commented that he could conceive of no circumstances which might ever require either himself or Kennedy to have a conflict between religion and the presidency.[25]

September 13, 1960 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Lee Harvey Oswald's honorable discharge from the United States Marines, granted on September 11, 1959, was revised to an "undesirable discharge" (rather than a bad conduct discharge or a dishonorable discharge, which require a court martial), based on bringing "discredit to the Marine Corps through adverse newspaper publicity" since defecting to the Soviet Union.[26] Although William B. Franke was the United States Secretary of the Navy at the time the revision was ordered, Oswald would not learn of the action until 1961, when John Connally was appointed to the position by President John F. Kennedy, and would write to Connally several times to seek a reversal. Connally would later win the office of Governor of Texas, and on November 22, 1963, Oswald would shoot both Kennedy and Connally; at least one author, James Reston Jr., would theorize that Oswald was actually trying to assassinate Governor Connally rather than President Kennedy. [27]
  • A total eclipse of the Moon took place and was visible in much of the Pacific Ocean. Astronomer William M. Sinton used the opportunity to make infrared pyrometric scans of the temperature of the lunar surface. Sinton confirmed findings, made by Richard W. Shorthill during the eclipse of March 13, that the Tycho crater had a significantly higher temperature than the area around it. [28] [29]

September 14, 1960 (Wednesday)[edit]

September 15, 1960 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Cuba nationalized its signature industry, seizing 16 cigar factories, 14 cigarette factories and 20 tobacco warehouses. Those manufacturers who could depart got a new start in other nations, and the famed "fine Cuban cigars" were replaced by Dominican, Nicaraguan, Honduran and other cigars.[32]
  • Died: Héctor Castro, 55, disabled Uruguayan footballer who overcame the loss of an arm to help Uruguay win its first World Cup in 1930.

September 16, 1960 (Friday)[edit]

  • Joseph Kasavubu, President of the Republic of the Congo expelled two Communist ambassadors from the country.[33]
  • Two dogs, Pal'ma and Malek, were launched into space aboard an R-2 rocket by the USSR.[34]
  • Amos Alonzo Stagg retired from coaching football after a career that had started in 1890, commenting that "For the past 70 years I have been a coach. At the age of 98 years, it seems a good time to stop." After two years at Springfield College, Stagg became the first head coach of the University of Chicago football team and remained there for 41 seasons. Forced to leave at age 70, he then guided College of the Pacific for 13 years. At age 85, he became an assistant to his son, the head coach at Susquehanna College, and then volunteered as an assistant at Stockton College in California.[35]

September 17, 1960 (Saturday)[edit]

September 18, 1960 (Sunday)[edit]

September 19, 1960 (Monday)[edit]

  • Nikita Khrushchev and other Communist Bloc leaders arrived in the United States on the Soviet ocean liner Baltika, which docked at New York City at 9:20 a.m.[38] Accompanied by János Kádár of Hungary, Todor Zhivkov of Bulgaria, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej of Romania, Khrushchev stepped off the ship to a mixture of cheers and boos, and then was driven to the Soviet consulate. Khrushchev and other leaders had arrived for the opening session of the United Nations General Assembly, and could travel to New York at any time under the terms of the United Nations Treaty. Though the United States government could not bar Khrushchev, it asked television networks to minimize coverage of the Khrushchev's visit,[39] and restricted him from traveling outside of Manhattan and Long Island.
  • World Airways Flight 830 crashed three minutes after takeoff from Agana, Guam, killing 80 of the 94 persons on board. The DC-6B had been chartered by the United States Air Force to take military personnel and their dependents from Clark Air Force Base (in the Philippines) back to the United States, and had crashed into the side of Mt. Barrigada The crash was the first in the 12-year history of World Airways.[40]
  • Pakistan and India signed the Indus Waters Treaty, agreeing to share the waters of the Indus River and its tributaries.[41]

September 20, 1960 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The opening of the new term of the United Nations General Assembly brought an unprecedented number of the world's leaders to New York City. The first ever meeting between Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev and Cuba's Fidel Castro took place, not in Moscow or Havana, but at the Hotel Theresa in Harlem, where Castro and his entourage were staying during their visit.[42] Fifteen new members were admitted to the U.N., with the newly independent African nations of Dahomey, Upper Volta, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo (Leopoldville), Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville), Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Madagascar, Niger, Somalia, Togo, Mali and Senegal, bringing that body's membership to 98.
  • Died: Ida Rubinstein, 74, Russian ballerina, in Vence, France

September 21, 1960 (Wednesday)[edit]

September 22, 1960 (Thursday)[edit]

September 23, 1960 (Friday)[edit]

  • In an address at the United Nations, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev surprised the gathered world leaders by calling for the Secretary-General to be replaced by a "troika", a three-member panel drawn from the Western nations, the Communist nations, and the non-aligned (Third World) nations. The proposal was never seriously considered.[46]

September 24, 1960 (Saturday)[edit]

  • USS Enterprise, the first atomic-powered aircraft carrier in history, and the largest ship ever built up to that time, was launched at Newport News, Virginia, after being christened by Mrs. William B. Franke, wife of the U.S. Secretary of the Navy.[47]
  • The Howdy Doody Show presented its 2,343rd and final episode, after a run that started on NBC on December 17, 1947. After the marionette Howdy Doody, and host Buffalo Bob Smith, gave their farewells, Clarabell the Clown— who had used pantomime and honking horns to communicate, but had never spoken— surprised his audience by saying, "Goodbye, kids." [48]
  • The Dallas Cowboys played their first NFL game, losing 35–28 to the team they would face in three Super Bowls (1976, 1979 and 1996), the Pittsburgh Steelers.[49]
  • Died: Mátyás Seiber, 55, Hungarian composer, in an automobile accident in South Africa

September 25, 1960 (Sunday)[edit]

September 26, 1960 (Monday)[edit]

  • The two leading U.S. presidential candidates, Republican Richard M. Nixon and Democrat John F. Kennedy, participated in the first televised presidential debate, which took place in Chicago at the television studios of WBBM-TV. The one-hour-long event began at 8:30 pm local time.[52] The first debate demonstrated the power of a television image in influencing voter choices, with Kennedy appearing tan and charismatic, while Nixon, due in part to a poor makeup (and a recent hospitalzation), looked unkempt and tense. A special act of Congress was passed in order to allow the American television and radio networks to broadcast the debate without having to provide equal time to other presidential candidates.[53]

September 27, 1960 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Mexico nationalized its electric industry, with the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) buying out the three existing private companies.[54]
  • Born: Debi Derryberry, American voice actress best-known for voicing Jimmy Neutron; as Deborah Sue Greenberg, in Indio, California,
  • Died: Sylvia Pankhurst, 78, English suffragette leader

September 28, 1960 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox retired from major league baseball, playing in Boston against the Baltimore Orioles. In his very last at bat, Williams closed his career with his 521st home run and a 5–4 win.[55]
  • In Cuba, Fidel Castro created the "CDRs"—"Comites para la Defensa de la Revolucion" ("Committees for the Defense of the Revolution")—with volunteers reporting to the government about any counterrevolutionary behavior by their neighbors'. Officially, there were more than 100,000 CDRs and 88% of the adult Cuban population were members in 1996.[56]
  • Born: Jennifer Rush, singer (The Power of Love), (as Heidi Stern) in Queens, New York
  • Died: Elivera M. Doud, 92, mother of First Lady Mamie Eisenhower and mother-in-law of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower

September 29, 1960 (Thursday)[edit]

  • At the United Nations General Assembly, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev angrily interrupted British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan. Ever the gentleman, Macmillan calmly waited for Khrushchev to finish the harangue in Russian, smiled and commented, "I should like that to be translated", then finished his address.[57]
  • My Three Sons made its television debut, with Fred MacMurray as the widowed father of the Douglas family. The series from 1960 to 1965 on ABC and from 1965 to 1972 on CBS.[58]
  • Died: Mahmoud Harbi, 39, French Somalia (Djibouti) nationalist, in a plane crash

September 30, 1960 (Friday)[edit]

  • At 8:30 pm EST, American television viewers were invited to meet The Flintstones, "a modern Stone Age family", with the premiere of the cartoon as a prime time series on ABC.[59]
  • Born: Blanche Lincoln, U.S. Senator for Arkansas 1999 to 2011; in Helena, Arkansas.
  • Died: James Squillante, 42, a New York City mobster who controlled local garbage collection, was last seen alive by a witness. Squillante had vanished from public view on September 23, and was presumed to have been murdered by a rival.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Blackout on Broadway to Honor Hammerstein", The New York Times, p. 52, September 1, 1960
  2. ^ "London Honors Hammerstein", The New York Times, p. 14, August 26, 1960
  3. ^ This Day in the 1960s
  4. ^ a b c d e f g David Wallechinsky, The Complete Book of the Olympics (Penguin Books, 1984)
  5. ^ "Wild Shell Kills 15 in Army Camp", Oakland Tribune, September 2, 1960, p1
  6. ^ "Congo Fight Bloody", Sunday Express and News (San Antonio), September 4, 1960, p1
  7. ^ "Thousands Flee Hurricane Donna", Spokane Spokesman-Review, September 5, 1960, p1; "Two Windy Girls on the Warpath" LIFE Magazine, September 26, 1960, p29
  8. ^ Kevin C. Dunn, Imagining the Congo: The International Relations of Identity (Palgrave 2003), pp64–65; "CONGO: Dag's Problem Child", TIME Magazine, September 19, 1960
  9. ^ Michael L. Kurtz and Morgan D. Peoples, Earl K. Long: The Saga of Uncle Earl and Louisiana Politics (Louisiana State University Press, 1990) pp255–256
  10. ^ Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (Basic Books, 1999), p179
  11. ^ "ARGENTINE PLANE CRASH IN URUGUAY KILLS 31", UPI report in Anderson (IN) Herald, September 8, 1960, p1
  12. ^ Aviation-Safety.net
  13. ^ a b "Chronology September 1960", The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1961 (New York World-Telegram, 1960), pp182–185
  14. ^ René De La Pedraja, Wars of Latin America, 1948-1982: The Rise of the Guerrillas (McFarland, 2013) p136
  15. ^ "Royal Mom Dunks Medal Winning Son", AP report in Lubbock (TX) Avalanche-Journal, September 8, 1960, pD-3
  16. ^ Rock Brynner and Trent Stephens, Dark Remedy: The Impact of Thalidomide and Its Revival As a Vital Medicine (Basic Books, 2001) p41
  17. ^ Ed Gruver, The American Football League: A Year-by-Year History, 1960–1969; (McFarland & Co., 1997) p50
  18. ^ Robert Kammerer and Candace Pearce, Images of America: Greenville (Arcadia Publishing, 2001), p114
  19. ^ "Mantle's New Record Home Run Uncovered", Baseball Digest (November 1985) p9
  20. ^ David Dreier, Baseball: How It Works (Coughlan Publishing, 2010) p44
  21. ^ Richard Cox, et al., Encyclopedia of British Football (Taylor & Francis, 2002) p294
  22. ^ Anne Cooper-Chen, Mass Communication in Japan (Iowa State University Press 1997) p11
  23. ^ This Day in the 1960s
  24. ^ American Rhetoric: Top 100 Speeches; Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Packaging the Presidency: A History and Criticism of Presidential Campaign Advertising (Oxford University Press, 1996) pp129–131
  25. ^ "Jack Gives Church–State Vow; Nixon Accepts His Statement", Long Beach (CA) Press-Telegram, September 13, 1960, p1
  26. ^ The Warren Commission Report: The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy (1964, reprinted by Barnes & Noble Publishing, 2003) p689
  27. ^ James Reston Jr., The Accidental Victim: JFK, Lee Harvey Oswald, and the Real Target in Dallas (Zola Books, 2013)
  28. ^ F. Link, Eclipse Phenomena in Astronomy (Springer, 2012) p119
  29. ^ Zdenek Kopal, The Moon (D. Reidel Publishing, 1969) pp383-384
  30. ^ OPEC website; Daniel Yergin, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power (Simon & Schuster, 2008) p504
  31. ^ Robert B. Edgerton, The Troubled Heart of Africa: A History of the Congo (St. Martin's Press, 2002), p194
  32. ^ "The Exodus", by David Savona, CigarAficionado.com (Nov/Dec '02)
  33. ^ This Day in the 1960s
  34. ^ Chronology of Human Space Exploration
  35. ^ "Stagg Quits As Football Coach at 98", Chicago Tribune, September 17, 1960, p2-1
  36. ^ Pro Football Hall of Fame
  37. ^ "Erlander Victor in Swedish Poll", New York Times, September 19, 1960, p1
  38. ^ "Nikita Bounces Into New York", Winnipeg Free Press, September 19, 1960, p1
  39. ^ This Day in the 1960s
  40. ^ "77 Killed in Guam Crash", St. Petersburg (FL) Times, September 19, 1960, p1
  41. ^ *The Indus Waters Treaty: A History. Henry L. Stimson Center.
  42. ^ "K Rushes to Talk at Castro's—First Meeting of Red Chiefs"; "Historic U.N. Session Opens", Pasadena Star-News, September 20, 1960, p1
  43. ^ "The Development of Prosthetic Heart Valves—Lessons in Form and Function" by Elliot L. Chaikof, M.D., Ph.D., New England Journal of Medicine, October 4, 2007, p1368; Edwards Lifesciences
  44. ^ Embassy of Mali in the United States
  45. ^ David Wallechinsky and Irving Wallace, The People's Almanac (Doubleday, 1975) p610
  46. ^ Thomas M. Franck, Nation Against Nation: What Happened to the U.N. Dream and What the U.S. Can Do About It (Oxford University Press, 1985) p97
  47. ^ "Nuclear Powered Aircraft Carrier Launched", Reading (PA) Eagle, September 25, 1960, p1
  48. ^ Horace Newcomb, ed., Encyclopedia of Television (Vol. 1), (CRC Press, 2004) pp1141–42
  49. ^ "Pro Football Roundup", Tri-City Herald (Kennewick WA), September 26, 1960, p7
  50. ^ "Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project:GEO-98-001", California Energy Commission (October 2002), p37
  51. ^ "Yanks, Pirates Clinch Pennants", Tri-City Herald (Kennewick WA), September 26, 1960, p7
  52. ^ "Great Debate Scheduled For Tonight", Oakland Tribune, September 26, 1960, p1; ; "Nixon, Kennedy Meet Face to Face on TV", Los Angeles Times, September 27, 1960, p1
  53. ^ transcript, "The History of Televised Presidential Debates", Museum of Broadcast Communications; Kurt Lang and Gladys Engel Lang, Television and Politics (U.S.A. Transaction Publishers, 2002) pp108–111
  54. ^ Lee Stacy, Mexico and the United States (Marshall Cavendish, 2003) p216; "49th Anniversary of the Nationalization of the electricity industry in Mexico" Demotix.com
  55. ^ "Opposing Pitcher Recalls Ted Williams' Final Homer" by Dan Shaughnessy, Baseball Digest (March 1993), p82
  56. ^ "Watching Neighbors: The Cuban Model of Social Control", by Josep M. Colomer, Cuban Studies (Vol. 31), (University of Pittsburgh Press), pp118, 135
  57. ^ "Nikita Beats On Desk, Screams As Macmillan Speaks In U.N.", Oakland Tribune, September 29, 1960, p1
  58. ^ James S. Olson, Historical Dictionary of the 1970s (Greenwood Press, 1999) p258; My Three Sons tribute page
  59. ^ Museum of Broadcast Communications