||This article may contain excessive, poor, or irrelevant examples. (July 2011)|
Septuple meter (British: metre) or (chiefly British) septuple time is a meter with each bar (American: measure) divided into 7 notes of equal duration, usually 7/4 or 7/8 (or in compound meter, 21/8 time). The stress pattern can be 2+2+3, 3+2+2, or occasionally 2+3+2. A time signature of 21/8, however, does not necessarily mean that the bar is a compound septuple meter with seven beats, each divided into three. This signature may, for example, be used to indicate a bar of triple meter in which each beat is subdivided into seven parts. In this case, the meter is sometimes characterized as "triple septuple time". It is also possible for a 21/8 time signature to be used for an irregular, or "additive" metrical pattern, such as groupings of 3 + 3 + 3 + 2 + 3 + 2 + 3 + 2 eighth notes. Septuple meter can also be notated by using regularly alternating bars of triple and duple or quadruple meters, for example 4/4 + 3/4, or 6/8 + 6/8 + 9/8, or through the use of "compound meters", in which two or three numerals take the place of the expected numerator 7, for example, (2 + 2 + 3)/8, or (5 + 2)/8.
Before the 20th century, septuple time was rare in European concert music, but is more commonly found in European folk music and in other world cultures.
Asia and the Middle East
In the Thai dance-drama genre lakhon nok and the masked dance-drama khon there is a unique group of songs based on a rhythmic cycle of seven beats, quite unlike the usual rhythmic structures of Thai traditional music. Portions of this repertoire of songs in additive meter date back to the Ayudhia period (1350–1767).
In the Carnatic music of south India, there are thirty-five tāla in five temporal species, multiplied by seven classes of measurement—one of the five species is septuple. The classes of measurement in this "formal" system consist of seven basic tālas (called sūḷādi talas). Each of these is built from three types of component durations: the one-beat anudruta, the two-beat druta, and the variable laghu, which may have three (tisra), four (caturaśra), five (khaṇḍa), seven (miśra), or nine (saṅkīrṇa) beats, and accounts for the five temporal species of each tāla. Two of the resulting thirty-five forms have seven beats in all: the khaṇda form of Rūpaka tāla, with one druta and a five-beat (khaṇda) laghu: 2 + 5, and the tisra form of Tripuṭa, with a three-beat laghu and two druta: 3 + 2 + 2. Tisra Tripuṭa is one of the principal talas of the system, and so is often called simply by its basic name, Tripuṭa. Khaṇda Rūpaka, on the other hand, is a comparative rarity. The more common form, caturaśra Rūpaka, has a laghu of four beats and so a total beat pattern of 2 + 4.
Carnatic music also has an "informal" system of tālas, which uses a selection of the formal tālas. These include the septuple Tripuṭa, to which is added a Cāpu (fast) version of it, called miśra Cāpu (3 + 2 + 2, or 3 + 4). Miśra Cāpu is one of the most characteristic rhythms in the music of southern India, accounting for well over half of the padam compositions by the 17th-century composer Kshetrayya, and occurs in some of the best-known kīrtanam works by Tyagaraja (1767–1847). The Hindustani tālas used in the north also include septuple patterns. The tala Rupak, for example, has seven beats. Tīvra (also known at Gīt-tāl) is also a septuple tāla. Two tālas, Dīpcandī and Jhūmrā, have fourteen beats in all, but are divided symmetrically into two halves of 3 + 4 beats each. The tālas Ādā-cautāl and Dhamār are also fourteen beats long, but the former is divided asymmetrically, and the latter is only partially symmetrical: It has several different patterns, the most common of which falls into two seven-beat halves, but with different internal divisions: 5 + 2 and (3) + 4, where the khālī (empty) beat marks the division of the cycle into two halves.
Folk music in Turkey employs metres consisting of five, seven, or eleven pulses, as well as metres with irregular subdivisions. In Turkish art music, the system of rhythmic modes called usul consist of rhythmic cycles of two to ten counting units. The pattern of seven beats is called devr-i hindi (3+2+2) or devr-i turan (2+2+3).
Balkan folk music
Septuple rhythms are characteristic of some European folk idioms, particularly in the Balkan countries. An example from Macedonia is the traditional tune "Jovano Jovanke", which can be transcribed in 7/8. Bulgarian dances are particularly noted for the use of a variety of irregular, or heterometric rhythms. The most popular of these is the rachenitsa, a type of khoro in a rapid septuple meter divided 2 + 2 + 3. In the Pirin area the khoro has a rhythm subdivided 3 + 2 + 2, and two varieties of it are the pravo makedonsko ("straight Macedonian") and the mazhka rachenitsa ("men’s rachenitsa"). Septuple rhythms are also found in Bulgarian vocal music, such as the koleda ritual songs sung by young men on Christmas Eve and Christmas to bless livestock, households, or specific family members. The pattern 2+2+1+2 occurs in Bulgarian tunes like Eleno Mome (Елено Моме) and Petrunino horo (Петрунино хоро) cf. Bulgarian dances.
Such irregular meters are also found throughout Greece, where they are sometimes identified as originating in neighboring countries. For example, in Epirus, a district bordering Albania, there is a style of singing in imitation of the sound of Byzantine bells, that employs microtonal intervals and is described by the singers themselves as "Albanian" or "pastoral Vlach". The rhythms vary, but sometimes is in bars of seven beats, particularly in the area around Mount Parnassus. The 7/8 rhythm of the kalamatianos from the same region, however, is regarded as purely Greek.
European art music
The last movement of Joseph Haydn's Piano Sonata XVI:12, written as early as the 1750s, has been claimed to use exclusively seven-measure units in its background, if not in its foreground. Performers typically choose a tempo such that the notated 3/8 measure sounds like a single beat, projecting a perception of septuple meter.
Though rare in the 19th century, septuple metre is occasionally found. Two examples from the piano repertoire entirely in septuple meter are Fugue No. 24, from 36 Fugues for Piano by Anton Reicha (notated in regularly alternating and 3/4 bars), and the Impromptu, op. 32, no. 8, by Charles-Valentin Alkan, notated in 7/4 time. The theme and first eight (of thirteen) Variations on a Hungarian Song Op. 21, No. 2 by Johannes Brahms is in septuple time, notated as regular alternations of 3/4 and , though various accenting factors often obscure the perceived metre. In the last two of the five versions of "Promenade" from Pictures at an Exhibition by Modest Mussorgsky 7/4 is mixed irregularly with other metres: (4th Promenade) 5/4, 6/4, and 7/4, with a single 3/4 bar at the end; (5th Promenade) four pairs of regularly alternating 5/4 and 6/4, then an irregular mixture of 5/4, 6/4, and 7/4 to the end.
Symphonic and choral works containing occasional septuple bars include the conjuration of soothsayers in L'enfance du Christ, op. 25 (1854) by Hector Berlioz, which "has a relatively extended passage of septuple metre (ten bars of 7/4, then three of 4/4 and three of 3/4; the pattern repeats with four each of 4/4 and 3/4)", and the Dante Symphony by Franz Liszt, which has several bars in 7/4.
An example of chamber music from the later 19th century is found in the Trio No. 3 for piano, violin and cello, op. 101, by Brahms. In the third movement (Andante grazioso), the main (outer) sections are in 7/4 (notated as a recurring 3/4 + 2/4 + 2/4), while the central section is in compound-quintuple time: 15/8 (notated as 9/8 + 6/8) with 9/8 turnarounds, and an eight-bar coda in 9/8.
Igor Stravinsky's name is often associated with rhythmic innovation in the 20th century, and septuple meter is sometimes found in his music—for example, the closing "General Rejoicing" section (Allegro non troppo), from rehearsal 203 to rehearsal 209, in his ballet The Firebird (1910) is written uniformly in 7/4 time. Much more characteristically, septuple bars in Stravinsky's scores are found in a context of constantly changing meters, as for example in his ballet The Rite of Spring (1911–13), where the object appears to be the combination of two- and three-note subdivisions in irregular groupings. For example in Part II, third tableau, "Glorification of the Chosen Maiden", bars of 7/8 and 7/4 are interspersed with bars of 2/4, 3/8, 3/4, 4/8, 4/4, 5/8, 5/4, 6/8, 6/4, and 9/8 time. This treatment of rhythm subsequently became so habitual for Stravinsky that, when he composed his Symphony in C in 1938–40, he found it worth observing that the first movement had no changes of meter at all (though the metrical irregularities in the third movement of the same work were amongst the most extreme in his entire output).
So many other composers followed Stravinsky's example in the use of irregular meters that the occasional occurrence of septuple-time bars becomes unremarkable from the 1920s onward. This is as true for composers regarded as conservative as for those labeled "progressive" or "avant garde". In the former category, this rhythmic usage was characteristic of compositions from the 1920s and 1930s by Gustav Holst. Septuple bars are found, for example, in passages in his opera The Perfect Fool (1918–22)—notably the two "earth" themes in the ballet of the elements, and the arrival of the Princess, which is "a genuine example of the septuple measure as distinct from those arising merely from prosody"—and in A Choral Fantasia, op. 51 (bars 70–98, 179–85, and 201–209 are in 7/4). An example from the next decade is Benjamin Britten's String Quartet No. 2, op. 35 (1945), where bars 2 and 13 after rehearsal K in the first movement, "Allegro calmo senza rigore", are in 7/4, and from the 1950s, the second subject of the third movement, Allegro, of Dmitri Shostakovich's Piano Concerto No. 2, op. 102 (1957), which is in a fast 7/8. Examples from more "progressive" composers include the first and third movements of the First Cantata, op. 29 (1938–39), by Anton Webern, and the fourth movement (Intermezzo interrotto) of Béla Bartók's Concerto for Orchestra (1943).
Septuple meter is sometimes employed to characterize particular sections of compositions, such as single variations of pieces in variation form. One example is the third movement (Variations on a Ground), of Holst's Double Concerto for two violins and orchestra, op. 49, where the 13th and 17th variations are in 7/4 time. An example from after the Second World War is found in Part I of Leonard Bernstein's The Age of Anxiety: Symphony No. 2, a theme-and-variations movement in which "Variation X: Più mosso" is notated in regularly alternating and 3/4 bars, each pair amounting to one 7/4 bar.
Compositions entirely or predominantly in septuple meter are less common. The last movement, "Precipitato", of the Piano Sonata No. 7 by the Russian composer Sergei Prokofiev, which is in 7/8, and Sensemayá, for orchestra, by the Mexican Silvestre Revueltas (predominantly in 7/8, with occasional interruptions in 7/16 time and a brief 7-bar interlude at rehearsal 23 of 9/8 (3/4+3/8)) are particularly well-known instances. Béla Bartók sometimes adopted septuple dance rhythms from the folk music of Eastern Europe, as in "Bulgarian Rhythm (1)" and the second of the "Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm", nos. 113 and 149 from Mikrokosmos, both of which are in 7/4. Other examples from the middle of the century include the 7/4 third movement, "Très Animé", of the Fantasia, for saxophone, 3 horns, and string orchestra (1948), by Heitor Villa-Lobos, "In the First Pentatonic Minor Mode (En el 1er modo pentáfono menor)", no. 5 from 12 American Preludes for piano by Alberto Ginastera, in 7/8, and "Old Joe Has Gone Fishing" by Benjamin Britten (from the 1945 opera Peter Grimes), which is written in 7/4, with the beats grouped as both 3+2+2 and 2+2+2+1 in a round, so that they interact to portray the rhythm of the ocean waves.
List of compositions in septuple meter
- "And the Money Kept Rolling In (and Out)" from "Evita" by Andrew Lloyd Webber (7/8, except for a three-bar introduction in 4/4).
- "Another World of Beasts" from Final Fantasy VI by Nobuo Uematsu (7/8).
- "Beat Me, Daddy, Seven to the Bar" by Don Ellis (7/8).
- "Cruisin' P. C. H." for jazz band, by Wayne L. Perkins.
- "Demons" by The National (band) (7/4).
- "Die To Live" for guitar, by Steve Vai on the album Alien Love Secrets (1995).
- "Dreaming in Metaphors" by Seal.
- "(En) El Séptimo Día", by Soda Stereo (7/8).
- "Estimated Prophet" by the Grateful Dead (7/4).
- "The Fish (Schindleria Praematurus)" by Chris Squire (7/4).
- "I Am the Doctor," by Murray Gold, from the soundtrack to the fifth series of Doctor Who
- "Lazy Lightning" by the Grateful Dead.
- "Lucky Seven" by Chris Squire (7/4).
- "Marching Season" by Yanni (7/8).
- "Murmuration" by Nomad Soul (7/8).
- "160 BPM" by Hans Zimmer from "Angels and Demons" (7/8).
- "Pussy Wiggle Stomp" by Don Ellis (7/4).
- "The River" by Anathallo on their album Canopy Glow.
- "Rubylove" by Cat Stevens (7/8).
- "St. Augustine In Hell" by Sting (7/8).
- "7/4 (Shoreline)" by Broken Social Scene (7/4).
- "Solsbury Hill" by Peter Gabriel (7/4).
- "State of Mine" by IQ, the closing instrumental from the first part of Subterranea is an arrangement in 7/8 of a piano piece.
- "Supplication" by the Grateful Dead.
- "Szamár Madár" by Venetian Snares (arrangement of a passage from Edward Elgar's Cello Concerto, in 7/4)
- "Theme from Tron" (The main theme of Tron (1982 film)) by Wendy Carlos is in slow 7/8 (4+3/8).
- "Ticks and Leeches" by Tool (7/4)
- "The Tihai" by Don Ellis (7/4)
- "Tombo in 7/4" by José Neto, Flora Purim, and Diana Moreira (7/4)
- "Unsquare Dance" by Dave Brubeck (7/8).
- "Waltz in 7/8" by Yanni (7/8).
- "What Would I Want? Sky" by Animal Collective is in 7/8
- "Words, Words, Words" (Martin's Laughing Song), from act 2 of Candide, by Leonard Bernstein (7/8).
Partially in septuple meter
- "Adagio", second movement from String Quartet No. 2 (1955) by Benjamin Lees. "largely in 7/4 meter".
- "All You Need Is Love" by the Beatles. Verses in 7/4.
- "Anyone Who Had a Heart" by Burt Bacharach, sung by Dionne Warwick - 7/8 turnaround at the end of the bridge, as pointed out to Bacharach by Dionne Warwick. However the song features "5/4, 4/4, to 7/8 and resolving on 5/8 in only eight bars" according to Allmusic.
- "Baroque Bordello" by The Stranglers: on the verse, the guitar is in 7/8 while the other instruments play in 4/4.
- "The Battle of Epping Forest" from Selling England by the Pound by Genesis. The intro + verse are in 7/4, followed by several 4/4 sub-sections and then it is back to 7/4. The middle part alternates between 12/16 and 3/4.
- "Box Elder" by Motion City Soundtrack: verse in 7/8.
- "Breadcrumb Trail" by Slint, in Dave Hooper's 1997 arrangement, has verses and other sections in 7/4.
- "Brighter than a Thousand Suns" from A Matter of Life and Death by Iron Maiden. Main riff and chorus in 7/4, bridge in 4/4.
- "Cherokee" by Stephen Stills. The verses and the intro and outro are in 7/4.
- "The Cinema Show", "Back in N.Y.C.", "Mad Man Moon" and "Dance on a Volcano" by Genesis (7/8).[not in citation given]
- "Concerto Fantasy for Two Timpanists and Orchestra" by Philip Glass develops a theme in the third movement that shifts between 4/4 and 7/8.
- "Diary of a Madman" by Ozzy Osbourne. The verses are in 7/4.
- "Ethiopia" by Red Hot Chili Peppers is 7/4 except for a 4/4 chorus.
- "Heart of Glass" by Blondie has a break after the chorus in 7/8.
- "Heaven on Their Minds", from Jesus Christ Superstar, by Andrew Lloyd Webber. Mainly in 4/4, but turnarounds in b. 44–51 and 69–76 are in 7/8.
- "I Tamper with the Evidence at the Murder Site of Odin" by Dethklok is in 7/8, except for two interludes in common time.
- "I Was Brought To My Senses" by Sting. Intro is in 4/4, but the rest is 7/4.
- "I Was Made For Loving You" by Tori Kelly and Ed Sheeran. Intro and chorus alternate 3/4 + 4/4
- "In the Dead of Night" by UK. Mainly in 7/4. After the chorus that is a riff in 4/4 + 4/4 + 5/8, ending in 4 bars 4/4.
- "In the House of Tom Bombadil" by Nickel Creek, alternates between 4/4 and 7/8.
- "Jive Talkin'" by Bee Gees has a recurring post-chorus synthesizer break notated as either 7/4 or alternating measures of 3/4 and 4/4
- "Jocko Homo" by Devo is primarily in 7/8, but changes to 4/4 partway through.
- "Laps in Seven", by Sam Bush (7/4). (except for the electric mandolin solo which is in 4/4 time)
- "Like a Beautiful Smile" by Sting. The main theme is three bars of 7/8 and one bar of 8/8. The chorus is in 8/8.
- "The Man Who Sailed Around His Soul" by XTC. Verses are in 7/8.
- "Meetings Along the Edge" by Philip Glass and Ravi Shankar develops two themes in 7 and one in 4 beats per measure.
- "Meheeco" by English group Sky. The second part features an alternation of 8/8 - 7/8. In the live versions, the drums would often continue playing 8/8 over the rest of the bands 7/8 bars, creating an isorhythm.
- "A Mix Tape", from Avenue Q, by Robert Lopez and Jeff Marx. Mostly in 4/4 time, with 7/8 portions scattered throughout (especially spoken and vamped portions).
- "Money" by Pink Floyd. Predominantly in 7/4.
- "Mysterious Traveler" by Weather Report (Wayne Shorter). First section primarily in 7/4 (notated 3/4 + 4/4) interspersed with occasional 5/4. Second section in 4/4.
- "No Time for Games" by Midnight Oil has an introduction and various other parts in 7/4 and verse and chorus in 4/4.[not in citation given][unreliable source?]
- "Nothing on My Back" by Sum 41, from the album All Killer No Filler, has an opening riff in 7/4.
- "Oh, Happy We" from act 1 of Candide by Leonard Bernstein. Verses are in 7/4, turnarounds in 3/4.
- "Outshined" by Soundgarden. Verses in 7/4.
- "Paranoid Android" and "2+2=5" by Radiohead. Both are partly in 7/8 time.[page needed][not in citation given]
- "Los peones de hacienda", from the ballet Estancia by Alberto Ginastera. Bars 27–28 (third and fourth bars following rehearsal 65) are in 7/8.
- "Pick Up Summer" by Fu Manchu is in quintuple meter created by regularly alternating 7/4 & 8/4.[unreliable source?]
- "Possum Kingdom" by the Toadies (verse and riff alternate between 7/4 and 8/4, the rest is in 4/4).[not in citation given]
- "Prequel to the Sequel" by Between the Buried and Me has some scattered bars in 7/8 and other time signatures.
- "Presto ruvido", no. 4 of Sechs Bagatellen for wind quintet (1953) by György Ligeti (all in 7/8 except b. 36, 39, and 51, in 3/8, 2/8, and 3/8, respectively).
- "Selkies: The Endless Obession" by Between the Buried and Me has a main riff that alternates between 7/8 and 6/8.
- "Seven" by Dave Matthews Band (verses in 7/4)
- "Speculation", composed by Shoji Meguro for the Persona 4 soundtrack. Largely in 7/4, with a bridge in 3/4.
- "The Spirit of Radio" by Rush. The first part of the instrumental bridge alternates between 7/4 and 4/4.[not in citation given]
- "Spoonman" by Soundgarden. The intro, verses, drum solo, and parts of the bridge are in 7/4 (sometimes transcribed as 14/8). Choruses, parts of the bridges, and guitar solo are in 4/4, and the spoons solo is in 6/8.
- "Suicide Mission" by Jack Wall for Mass Effect 2 "a large section or so of 7/4 throughout, particularly at the end".
- "Tattooed Love Boys" by The Pretenders. Verses alternate between 7/4 and 4/4.
- "Thunderchild" by Jeff Wayne from his concept album War of the Worlds is primarily in 7/8.
- "Time" by Anthrax from album "Persistence of Time". Intro and main riff in 7/4.[not in citation given]
- "Times Like These" by Foo Fighters. Primarily in 4/4 but the main riff of the song is played in 7/4.[not in citation given]
- "Tom Sawyer" by Rush instrumental section in 7/8 with some 13/16[unreliable source?]
- "La Villa Strangiato" by Rush has some sections in 7/8.
- "Wind It Up" by moe. has a long middle section in 7/4, while the rest of the song is in 4/4 and 6/8.
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- Read 1964, 161 and 164–65.
- Moore 1969, 309–10.
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- Villa-Lobos 1963, 25–36.
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The song's main riff is in 7/4 time
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