A sequela (UK //, US //; usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma. Typically, a sequela is, in medical language, a chronic condition that is a complication of an acute condition that begins during that acute condition. In ordinary language it may be described as a further condition that is different from, but a consequence of, the first condition. In timing a sequela contrasts with a late effect, where there is a period, sometimes as long as several decades, between the resolution of the initial condition and the appearance of the late effect.
Examples and uses
Chronic kidney disease, for example, is sometimes a sequela of diabetes, "chronic constipation" or more accurately "obstipation" (that is, difficulty in passing stool) is a sequela to an intestinal obstruction, and neck pain is a common sequela of whiplash or other trauma to the cervical vertebrae. Post-traumatic stress disorder may be a psychological sequela of rape. Sequelae of traumatic brain injury include headache and dizziness, anxiety, apathy, depression, aggression, cognitive impairments, personality changes, mania, psychosis.
Other examples of sequelae include those following neurological injury; including aphasia, ataxia, hemi- and quadriplegia, and any number of other changes that may be caused by neurological trauma. Note that these pathologies can be related to both physical and chemical traumas, as both can cause lingering neuron damage.
The phrase status post, abbreviated in writing as s/p, is used to discuss sequelae with reference to their cause. Clinicians typically use the phrase to refer to acute traumatic conditions. For example: "the patient had neck pain status post a motor vehicle accident".
- "sequela: definition of sequela in Oxford dictionary (British & World English) (US)". www.oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 2014-10-30.
- "sequela: definition of sequela in Oxford dictionary (American English) (US)". www.oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 2014-10-30.
- from Latin sequela, from sequi ("follow")
- Todar, Kenneth. "Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcal Disease". Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- "Rheumatic fever". A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. PubMed Health. 2012-05-30. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
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- Traumatic causes of Tempormandibular Joints Disorder (dysfunction)
- James A Lindsey, Chronic Sequelae of Foodborne Disease, Emerging Infectious Disease, Vol 3, No 4, 1997.