Serbia in the Yugoslav Wars
||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (July 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Serbia was involved in the Yugoslav Wars in the period between 1991 and 1999 - the war in Slovenia, the war in Croatia, the war in Bosnia and the war in Kosovo. During this period from 1991 to 1997, Slobodan Milošević was the President of Serbia, Serbia was part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) claims Milošević was in control of Serb forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia during the wars there from 1991 to 1995.
Accused of supporting Serb rebels in Croatia and Bosnia, the FRY was suspended from the majority of international organisations and institutions, and economic and political sanctions were imposed, which resulted in economic disaster and massive emigrations from the country. Various judicial proceedings at the ICTY have investigated different levels of responsibility of the Yugoslav People's Army and the leadership of FRY and Serbia for the war crimes committed by the ethnic Serbs in other republics of former Yugoslavia, while the Government of Serbia was tasked with apprehending numerous ethnic Serb fugitives from the Tribunal, with which it largely complied.
- 1 Background
- 2 Armed conflicts
- 3 War crimes
- 4 War crime trials
- 5 Post-war developments
- 6 Displaced Serbs after the wars
- 7 Military groups reported of committing war crimes
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Milošević used a rigid control of the media to organize a propaganda campaign in which the thesis that Serbs were the victims and the need for readjust Yugoslavia to redress the alleged bias against Serbia. This then was then followed by Milošević's anti-bureaucratic revolution in which the governments of Vojvodina, Kosovo and Montenegro were overthrown, which gave Milošević the dominating position of 4 votes out of 8 in Yugoslavia's collective presidency.
The Constitution of Yugoslavia (1974 Constitution), in its Basic Principles, in the very beginning, stated "The peoples of Yugoslavia, starting from the right of every nation to self-determination, including the right to secession,...". The opinion of the Serb leadership of that time was that the internal borders of Yugoslavia were provisional. The basis for this statement was derived from the Constitution of Yugoslavia. President Slobodan Milošević, also the leader of the Socialist Party of Serbia, had repeatedly stated that all Serbs should enjoy the right to be included in Serbia. Mihajlo Marković, the Vice President of the Main Committee of Serbia's Socialist Party, rejected any solution that would make Serbs outside Serbia a minority. He proposed establishing a federation consisting of Serbia, Montenegro, BiH, Macedonia and Serbs residing in the Serbian Autonomous Region of Krajina, Slavonia, Baranja, and Srem.
Slovenia and Croatia declared independence on 25 June 1991. Both were internationally recognized on 15 January 1992. Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence on 5 March 1992. It was internationally recognized on 22 May 1992 by the United Nations. With the collapse of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro proclaimed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as a sole successor state of SFR Yugoslavia, on 27 April 1992. It remained unrecognized during the conflict.
Serb media under Milošević
The Serbian media during Milošević's era was known to espouse Serb nationalism while promoting xenophobia toward the other ethnicities in Yugoslavia. Ethnic Albanians were commonly characterised in the media as anti-Yugoslav counter-revolutionaries, rapists, and a threat to the Serb nation. When war erupted in Croatia, Politika promoted Serb nationalism, hostility towards Croatia, and violence.
On 5 June 1991, Politika ekspres ran a piece titled "Serbs must get weapons". On 25 June 1991 and 3 July 1991, Politika began to openly promote partitioning Croatia, and prominently quoted Jovan Marjanović of the Serbian Renewal Movement, who said "The [Yugoslav] Army must come into Croatia and occupy the line Benkovac-Karlovac-Pakrac-Baranja". On 25 June 1991, Politika reminded Serbs about the atrocities perpetrated by the Croatian fascist Ustase against Serbs during World War II; "Jasenovac [an Ustase concentration camp in World War II] mustn't be forgotten".
Serbian state media during the wars featured controversial reportage that villainized the other ethnic factions. In one such program, a Croatian Serb woman denounced the old "communist policy" in Croatia, claiming that under it "[t]he majority of Serbs would be assimilated in ten years", while another interviewee stated "Where Serbian blood was shed by Ustasha knives, there will be our boundaries." Various Serbian state television reports featured Jovan Rašković,[who?] who stated the Croatian people had a "genocidal nature".
The director of Radio Television of Serbia during Milošević's era, Dušan Mitević, later admitted, in a PBS documentary, that "the things that happened at state TV, warmongering, things we can admit to now: false information, biased reporting. That went directly from Milošević to the head of TV".
During the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, the concept of a Greater Serbia was widely seen outside of Serbia as the motivating force for the military campaigns undertaken to form and sustain Serbian states on the territories of the breakaway Yugoslav republics of Croatia (the Republic of Serbian Krajina) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Republika Srpska).
Serbia's role in the Slovenian war
Immediately after the Slovenian independence referendum, the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) announced a new defence doctrine that would apply across the country. The socialist doctrine of "General People's Defence", in which each republic maintained a Territorial Defence Force (TO), was to be replaced by a centrally-directed system of defence. The republics would lose their role in defence matters, and their TOs would be disarmed and subordinated to JNA headquarters in Belgrade. The Slovenian government resisted these moves, and successfully ensured that the majority of Slovenian Territorial Defence equipment was kept out of the hands of the JNA.
General Veljko Kadijević was de facto commander of Yugoslav People's Army during the Slovenian Independence War. The officer corps was dominated by Serbs and Montenegrins. The rank and file troops however were conscripts, many who had no strong motivation in fighting against the Slovenes. Of the soldiers of the 5th Military District, which was in action in Slovenia, about 30% were Albanians. Milošević's government was not particularly concerned about Slovenia's independence, as there was no significant Serb minority in the country. On 30 June, Defence Minister General Kadijević suggested to the Yugoslav federal presidency a massive attack on Slovenia to break down the unexpectedly heavy resistance. But the Serb representative, Borisav Jović, shocked the military establishment by declaring that Serbia did not support further military action against Slovenia.
Serbia's role in the Croatian war
Milošević believes he now has the historic opportunity to, once and for all, settle accounts with the Croats and do what Serbian politicians after World War I did not - rally all Serbs in one Serbian state.— Belgrade newspaper Borba, August 1991.
In May 1991, Stipe Mesić, a Croat, was scheduled to be the chairman of the rotating Presidency of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, but Serbia blocked his installation, so this maneuver technically left Yugoslavia without a leader.
In various verdicts, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) concluded that Krajina presidents Milan Babić and Milan Martić were cooperating with Serbia's president Milošević who sent ammunition, financial assistance and the JNA and Serb paramilitary as back up during 1991 and 1992 in order to take over large chunks of Croatia. After the United Nations imposed sanctions against Serbia, the JNA formally withdrew from Croatia by May 1992. However, in the 2011 verdict regarding Momčilo Perišić, the ICTY established that Belgrade was, through the 30th and 40th Personnel Centre, still supplying armies of Krajina and Republika Srpska all until 1995, despite international sanctions. In the judgement, the judges ruled that members of the Yugoslav Army served under banners of Military of Serbian Krajina (SVK) and VRS, but received pensions, salaries, benefits and promotions directly from Belgrade. Although Perišić did not have effective control over the VRS, he had control of the SVK, but failed to sanction them for the Zagreb rocket attacks.
Serbia's role in the Bosnian war
During the Bosnian war, it was a part of the strategic plan by Serb leadership, aimed at linking Serb-populated areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina together, to gain control over these areas and create a separate Serb state, from which most non-Serbs would be permanently removed. The Serb leadership was aware that their strategic plan could only be implemented by the use of force and fear, thus by the commission of war crimes.
The Bosnian Serb Army was "under overall control" of Belgrade and the Yugoslav Army, which meant that they had funded, equipped and assisted in coordination and planning of military operations. The Army of Republika Srpska arose from the Yugoslav army forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Despite sanctions, Belgrade was still the main source of soldiers, ammunition, spare parts and financial assistance for Republika Srpska until 1995.
Milošević realized that Bosnia and Herzegovina was about to be recognized by the international community, and since Yugoslav Army troops were still located there at that point, their presence on Bosnian territory could have led to the Serbia and Montenegro being accused of aggression. To avoid this, Milošević decided to move all JNA soldiers originating from Serbia and Montenegro back into Serbia and Montenegro, and to move all JNA soldiers originating from Bosnia and Herzegovina to Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this way, every Bosnian Serb was transferred from the Yugoslav army to what became the newly created Bosnian Serb Army. Through this, the Bosnian Serb army also received extensive military equipment and full funding from the FRY, as the Bosnian Serb faction alone could not pay for the costs.
The Bosnian Serb Army was led by an ex-Yugoslav military commander, Ratko Mladić, an extremely controversial figure, who served the Yugoslav Army during the Croatian War of Independence 1991-1992, and has been accused of committing war crimes in Bosnia.
Serbian Radical Party founder and paramilitary Vojislav Seselj publicly claimed Milošević personally asked him to send paramilitaries from Serbia into Bosnia and Herzegovina. After 1993, media reports of large-scale atrocities by the Bosnian Serb armed forces, such as the long siege of Sarajevo, resulted in increased pressure and sanctions by western governments against Serbia and Montenegro to persuade Milošević to withdraw his support of the Bosnian Serbs. After 1993, Milošević abandoned his alliance with the Serbian Radical Party and declared that his government advocated a peaceful settlement to the war. The new coalition government abandoned its support of Radovan Karadžić's Bosnian Serb government and pressured the Bosnian Serbs to negotiate a peace treaty. During the Dayton Accord, Milošević sparred with Karadžić, who opposed the Dayton Accord, which Milošević supported as it gave Bosnian Serbs autonomy and self-governance over most of the territories they had claimed. In 1995, Milošević, President of Serbia, represented the Bosnian Serbs during the signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement.
Serbia in the Kosovo war
In 1998, facing political crisis, Milošević again formed a national-unity government with the Serbian Radical Party. After 1998, conflict in Kosovo intensified. The Yugoslav Army and the Serbian Police were in spring 1999. "in an organized manner, with significant use of state resources" conducted a broad campaign of violence against Albanian civilians in order to expel them from Kosovo and thus maintain political control of Belgrade over the province.
By June 1999, the Yugoslav military, Serbian police and paramilitaries supposedly expelled 862,979 Albanians from Kosovo, and several hundred thousand more were internally displaced, in addition to those displaced prior to March. Presiding Judge Iain Bonomy concluded that "deliberate actions of these forces during the campaign provoked the departure of at least 700,000 ethnic Albanians from Kosovo in the short period from late March to early June 1999".
Numerous war crimes were committed by Serbian military and Serbian paramilitary forces during the Yugoslav Wars. The crimes included massacres, ethnic cleansing, systematic rape, crimes against humanity and genocide. The International Court of Justice, cleared the Republic of Serbia of direct involvement in genocide, but found that it had failed to prevent mass killings, rapes, and ethnic cleansing.
The war crimes were usually carried out on ethnic and religious grounds and were primarily directed against civilians (Albanians, Croats, Bosniaks). Several United Nations bodies have judged that the aim of these war crimes in various wars was to create an ethnically pure Serbian state, or "Greater Serbia", encompassing Serbia as well as the Serb-populated areas in former Yugoslavia.
After the wars in the 1990s, many senior military and political leaders were convicted of war crimes, some of them are still on trial, such as Vojislav Šešelj and Radovan Karadžić. Others, including Ratko Mladić and Goran Hadžić were not apprehended by Serbian authorities until 2011, but are now on trial.
All parties involved in the conflict have committed «grave breaches» of the Geneva Conventions and other violations of international humanitarian law. These violations include the killing of civilians, rape torture, and the deliberate destruction of civilian property, including cultural and religious property, such as churches and mosques. But, there are significant qualitative differences. Most of the violations were committed by Serbs against Bosnian Muslims.— Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts
According to definition of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Serbian forces included the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), Serb Territorial Defense of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, the Military of Serbian Krajina, the Army of Republika Srpska, territorial defense of Serbia and Montenegro, Police of Serbia and Police of Republika Srpska, including national security, special police forces of Krajina known as Martićevci (after Milan Martić), as well as all Serbian paramilitary forces and volunteer units.
The Tribunal claimed that around 170,000 Croats were expelled from territories Serbian forces sought to control. Rebel Croatian Serbs' forces together with Serbian military and paramilitary forces committed numerous war crimes and massacres in Republic of Croatia:
- Baćin massacre
- Bruška massacre
- Dalj massacre
- Erdut massacre
- Lovas massacre
- Saborsko massacre
- Široka Kula massacre
- Škabrnja massacre
- Voćin massacre
- Vukovar massacre
There were also prison camps, where several hundred Croatian prisoners of war and civilians were kept by Serbian authorities.
- Begejci camp (Logor Begejci) in Begejci near Zrenjanin, Serbia.
- Sremska Mitrovica camp in Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia.
- Stajićevo camp (Logor Stajićevo) in Stajićevo near Zrenjanin.
According to Croatian Association of Prisoners in Serbian Concentration Camps, a total of 8,000 Croatian civilians and Prisoners of war (a large number after the fall of Vukovar) went through Serb prison camps such as Sremska Mitrovica camp, Stajićevo camp, Niš camp and many others where many were heavily abused and tortured. A total of 300 people never returned from them. A total of 4570 camp inmates have started legal action against the former Republic of Serbia and Montenegro (now Serbia) for torture and abuse in the camps.
According to Croatia's lawsuit against Yugoslavia (later the Republic of Serbia) in front of the International Court of Justice, 590 cities and villages were damaged and 35 entirely razed to the ground, three national parks, five natural parks and 19 park cultural monuments were damaged while 171,000 housing units (about 10 percent of the entire housing capacity of the country) were destroyed or damaged in Croatia during the war. About three million landmines were left by the warring fractions that blocked about 300,000 hectares of arable land.
In its verdict against Ante Gotovina, the ICTY for the first time concluded that the War in Croatia was an international armed conflict as the military of Serbian Krajina acted as an extension to Serbia's military.
In particular, the Trial Chamber considered the evidence pertaining to Serbian President Milošević's control and influence over SVK forces and Serbia/FRY's funding, arming and supplying of the Krajina Serbs. Based on the above evidence, the Trial Chamber finds that Serbia/FRY had overall control of the SVK. Recalling the agreement of all the parties that Croatia and Serbia were engaged more broadly in hostilities around the beginning of the Indictment period, the Trial Chamber further finds that the armed conflict that existed at the outset of the Indictment period was international. If it was not already an international armed conflict in 1991, then it became one based on the SVK acting on behalf of Serbia/FRY— ICTY in its verdict against Ante Gotovina
- Ahatovići massacre
- Bijeljina massacre
- Doboj massacre
- Foča massacres
- Korićani Cliffs massacre
- Prijedor massacre
- Višegrad massacre
- Tuzla Massacre
- Paklenik Massacre
- Markale massacres
- Srebrenica massacre
- Massacre of Srebrenica schoolchildren
- Zvornik massacre
- Siege of Bihać
- Siege of Goražde
- Siege of Sarajevo
There were several concentration and prison camps in Bosnia, run by Serbs:
The Court concludes that the acts committed at Srebrenica falling within Article II (a) and (b) of the Convention were committed with the specific intent to destroy in part the group of the Muslims of Bosnia and Herzegovina as such; and accordingly that these were acts of genocide, committed by members of the VRS in and around Srebrenica from about 13 July 1995.
In the spring of 1999, the Serbian police and the Yugoslav Army were "in an organized manner, with significant use of state resources" conducted a broad campaign of violence against Albanian civilians in order to expel them from Kosovo and thus maintain political control of Belgrade over the province.
According to the legally binding verdict of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Federal Army and Serbian police after the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia 24 March 1999, systematically attacked villages with Albanian population, abused, robbed and killed civilians, ordering them to go to Albania or Montenegro, burning their houses and destroying by their property. Within the campaign of violence, Albanians were mass expelled from their homes, murdered, sexually assaulted, and their religious buildings destroyed. Serbian forces committed numerous war crimes during the implementation of "joint criminal enterprise" whose aim was to "through the use of violence and terror, force a significant number of Kosovo Albanians to leave their homes, across the border, the state government to retain control over Kosovo". Ethnic cleansing of the Albanian population is performed by the following model: first the army surrounded a place, then followed the shelling, then the police entered the village, and often with them and the army, and then crimes occurs (murders, rapes, beatings, expulsions...).
Presiding Judge Iain Bonomy was imposing sentence said, "deliberate actions of these forces during the campaign provoked the departure of at least 700,000 ethnic Albanians from Kosovo in the short period from late March to early June 1999."
Incomplete list of massacres attributed to Serb forces:
- Suva Reka massacre — 48 Albanian civilians victims, including 14 children, two infants, a pregnant woman and a 100-year-old woman.
- Račak massacre — 45 Albanians villagers.
- Podujevo massacre - 19 Albanian civilians.
- Massacre at Velika Kruša — according to the Court, Serbian special police units murdered 42 persons.
- Izbica massacre — approximately 120 Albanian civilians.
- Drenica massacre — 29 bodies found.
- Gornje Obrinje massacre - 18 bodies found, but more people slaughtered.
- Cuska massacre — 41 known victims.
- Bela Crkva massacre — 62 known victims.
- Orahovac massacre — between 50 and 200+ ethnic Albanian civilians.
- Dubrava Prison massacre — Serbian prison guards killed more than 70 Albanian prisoners.
- Ćuška massacre near Peć on 14 May 1999 attributed to the Šakali
Goran Stoparić, an ex-member of the Special Anti-terrorist Unit (SAJ), speculating about motives behind the Podujevo massacre, stated:
"In my opinion, the only motive was the fact that the victims were Albanians, and perhaps because of some hidden immaturity or sickness of mind on their part. They would probably have killed them had they been Bosnians or Croats. But it is certain that they were killed because they were not Serbs".
Number of victims in the Kosovo war
War crime trials
||This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
International Court of Justice treated all violent conflicts in ex-Yugoslavia until 7 September 1991 as internal clashes or civil war. But after that date, all conflicts, especially armed confrontations and human victims, are international armed conflicts. Republic of Serbia officially denied any military engagement into Bosnian War and Croatian War for Independence. However, many Serbian political, military and paramilitary leaders (including Slobodan Milošević, Vojislav Šešelj, Jovica Stanišić, Franko Simatović, Veljko Kadijević, Blagoje Adžić and Željko Ražnatović) were accused of war crimes committed in Bosnia and Croatia. According to Prosecution, those leaders participated in a joint criminal enterprise aimed to established "Greater Serbia" from the disintegrating Yugoslavia.
The prosecution's argument that [...] the allegations made in the three indictments [Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo] were all part of a common scheme, strategy or plan on the part of the accused [Slobodan Milošević] to create a "Greater Serbia", a centralised Serbian state encompassing the Serb-populated areas of Croatia and Bosnia and all of Kosovo, and that this plan was to be achieved by forcibly removing non-Serbs from large geographical areas through the commission of the crime charged in the indictments. Although the events in Kosovo were separated from those in Croatia and Bosnia by more than three years, they were, the prosecution claimed, no more than a continuation of that plan, and they could only be understood completely by reference to what had happened in Croatia and Bosnia.— Decision of the ICTY Appeals Chamber; 18 April 2002.
Complicity in a joint criminal enterprise also included "Serbian forces", that includes the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), later the Yugoslav Army (VJ), the newly formed Serbian Territorial Defense of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, Republic of Serbian Krajina Army, the Army of the Republika Srpska, territorial defense of Serbia and Montenegro, the police of Serbia and the police of Republika Srpska, including national security, special police forces of the Krajina region known as "Martićevci, as well as all Serbian paramilitary forces and volunteer units.
Slobodan Milošević, along with Milan Milutinović, Nikola Šainović, Dragoljub Ojdanić and Vlajko Stojiljković were charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) with crimes against humanity including murder, forcible transfer, deportation and "persecution on political, racial or religious grounds" during the Kosovo War. Further indictments were leveled in October 2003 against former armed forces chief of staff Nebojša Pavković, former army corps commander Vladimir Lazarević, former police official Vlastimir Đorđević and the current head of Serbia's public security, Sreten Lukić. All were indicted for crimes against humanity and violations of the laws or customs of war. Tribunal prosecutor's office has accused Milosevic of "the gravest violations of human rights in Europe since the Second World War". Milošević died in detention before he could be sentenced.
- Milan Milutinović, former President of the Republic of Serbia and Yugoslav Foreign Minister, acquitted.
- Nikola Šainović, Yugoslav Deputy Prime Minister, guilty on all counts, sentenced to 22 years in prison.
- Dragoljub Ojdanić, Chief of General Staff of the VJ, guilty to two counts, sentenced to 15 years in prison.
- Nebojša Pavković, commander of Third Army, guilty on all counts, sentenced to 22 years in prison.
- Vladimir Lazarević, commander of the Pristina Corps VJ, guilty of two counts, sentenced to 15 years in prison.
- Sreten Lukić, Chief of Staff of the Serbian police, guilty on all counts, sentenced to 22 years in prison.
The democratic leadership of Serbia recognized the need to investigate Serbian war crimes after the fall of Slobodan Milošević, and a special war crimes tribunal was founded in Belgrade in 2003, after the Parliament of Serbia passed the Law on Organization and Competence of State Bodies in the Proceedings Against War Crimes Perpetrators. Since then, the special prosecutor has prosecuted and the court has convicted several individuals for instances of war crimes, also committed under the command of the Serbian Ministry of Internal Affairs and other state agencies.
War crime denials
In Serbia, many deny war crimes imputed to Serbia or the Serb people. The policy of war crime denials is implemented through the Serbian educational system that teaches schoolchildren about crimes committed against Serbs, but not about crimes committed by Serbs.[when?] Some public figures who are known for speaking openly about crimes committed by Serbs are labeled as a "traitors".
|This section does not cite any sources. (August 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Despite the ICTY finding, confirmed by the ICJ, a range of alternative views of the Srebrenica massacre exist, most of which argue that fewer than 8,000 were killed. The denial of the figure points out that fewer names were listed, that some were not even killed in that area and had died in previous years, in some cases people turned to be alive etc.
|“||Denial of the Srebrenica genocide takes many forms. The methods range from the brutal to the deceitful. Denial is present most strongly in political discourse, in the media, in the sphere of law, and in the educational system.||”|
According to Human Rights Watch, the ultra-nationalist Serbian Radical Party "launched an aggressive campaign to prove that Muslims had committed crimes against thousands of Serbs in the area", which "was intended to diminish the significance of the July 1995 crime". The ICTY Office of the Prosecutor noted that the number of Serb deaths in the region alleged by the Serbian authorities had increased from 1400 to 3500, a figure the Prosecutor stated "[does] not reflect the reality". Personal details were only available for 624 victims. The validity of labeling some of the casualties as "victims" is also contested — studies have found a significant majority of military casualties compared to civilian casualties. In this way, using exactly the same arguments that Serbian side uses to contest the figure of 8000, ICTY prosecutors reflect denial of war crimes committed against Serbs, bias and extreme hypocrisy.
The Serbian police denied Drenica massacres in February–March 1998 and claimed they were just pursuing "terrorists" who had attacked the police. A police spokesman denied the "lies and inventions" about indiscriminate attacks and excessive force and said "the police has never resorted to such methods and never will." Belgrade government also denied responsibility for Vučitrn and Gornje Obrinje massacre on 26 September 1998. President Slobodan Milosevic has denied a policy of ethnic cleansing during the NATO bombing in Kosovo 1999, but the Court latter found that Serbian state conducted systematic campaign of terror and violence against Kosovo Albanians in order to expel them from Kosovo.
The high number of casualties incurred in the Battle of Vukovar caused serious popular discontent in Serbia and Montenegro, where tens of thousands of those receiving draft papers went into hiding or left the country. A near-mutiny broke out in some reservist units, and mass demonstrations against the war were held in the Serbian towns of Valjevo, Čačak and Kragujevac. In one famous incident, a tank driver named Vladimir Živković drove his tank all the way from the front line at Vukovar to the federal parliament in Belgrade. Many Serbs did not identify with the Croatian Serb cause and were unwilling to see their lives, or those of their children, sacrificed at Vukovar.
Following the end of Yugoslav Wars, Serbian war crimes court sparked controversy on at least four occasions after issuing indictments and arrest warrants against non-Serbs that were later found to be entirely unfounded. These indictments against foreign citizens of Serbia are perceived by some as key to redressing the "aggressor-victim" balance in the wars.
- Hasan Morina - a Kosovo Albanian, accused by the prosecutor's office of war crimes against Serbs, was acquitted of all charges by a court and released from detention.
- Ejup Ganić - Bosniak member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War. On 1 March 2010, Ganić was arrested on Heathrow Airport in London after Serbian judicial authorities issued an extradition warrant against him for alleged war crimes against Serbs. Judge Timothy Workman, however, decided that Ganić should be immediately released because Serbia's request lacked "any serious evidence". In his decision, he also said that Serbia's request "[was] being used for political purposes, and as such amounts to an abuse of the process of this court".
- Tihomir Purda - a former Croat soldier who defended Vukovar during the battle of Vukovar the 87-day siege of the city in 1991. In February 2011, he was detained on the Bosnian border because Serbia issued an extradition warrant against him for alleged war crimes against Serb soldiers in Vukovar. Serbia's indictment was based on the time when Purda was in the Begejci and Sremska Mitrovica camps, and forced to sign a statement admitting the crimes. Purda denied any wrongdoing and told the judges in Bosnia that his confession in Serbia was obtained under torture. After Deputy war crimes prosecutor Bruno Vekarić subsequently interviewed 44 witnesses both in Serbia and Croatia, the investigation did not find a single witness who burdened Purda. The indictment against him was dropped in March.
- Jovan Divjak - a Bosnian general (of ethnic Serb descent) during the Bosnian War. On 3 March 2011, he was detained in Vienna because Serbia issued an extradition warrant against him for alleged war crimes against Serb in the 1992 Yugoslav People's Army column incident in Sarajevo. After an almost four month review of evidence, the Austrian authorities rejected Serbia's extradition request due to lack of proof. He too was released and returned to Sarajevo on 29 July 2011.
Controversy involving PTSD
A study conducted in the Greater Toronto Area, involving the University of Toronto, regarding Posttraumatic stress disorder, found symptoms of PTSD in 26.3% of Serbian children due to war-related stress or during the Kosovo Conflict.
Displaced Serbs after the wars
At the conclusion of the wars in Bosnia and Croatia, numerous Serbs left those countries and moved to Serbia and Montenegro. By 1996, Serbia and Montenegro hosted about 300,000 registered refugees from Croatia and 250,000 from Bosnia and Herzegovina, while an additional 15,000 persons from Macedonia and Slovenia were also registered as refugees. The UNHCR registered 566,000 refugees from Croatia and Bosnia in Serbia and Montenegro. During the first half of 1996, more than 40,000 Bosnian Serbs arrived in the FRY. About three quarters had left suburbs of Sarajevo that were to fall under the control of the Bosnian Federation. After the defeat in the Kosovo War, an additional 200,000 to 245,000 Serbs and Roma, Ashkali or Egyptian people fled into Serbia proper or within Kosovo, fearing revenge, amounting to about 700,000 displaced or refugees in that country. One out of eleven people were refugees or displaced in Serbia by 1999. This made that country a host of one of the largest populations of displaced people in Europe.
Military groups reported of committing war crimes
- Serbian Guard (paramilitary)
- White Eagles (paramilitary), also known as Šešeljevci, for ethnic cleansing in Bosnia, Vojvodina and Kosovo.
- Serb Volunteer Guard, also known as Arkan's Tigers, for ethnic cleansing in Bosnia.
- Scorpions (paramilitary)
- Yellow Wasps
- Vukovi s Vučjaka
- Special Anti-terrorist Unit (SAJ), carried out Attack on Prekaz.
- "Weighing the Evidence". Human Rights Watch. December 13, 2006. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
- "Croatia Human Rights Practices, 1993". US Department of State. 31 January 1994. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- René van der Linden (29 March 1996). "Croatia's request for membership of the Council of Europe – Report". Council of Europe. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
The Yugoslav National Army (JNA), under Mr Milošević's control, prevented Croatian authorities from restoring law and order.
- "The former Yugoslavia - Conflicts". The Hague: ICTY. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- "Resolution 47/121, 91st plenary meeting, The situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina". United Nations General Assembly. 18 December 1992. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
Gravely concerned about the deterioration of the situation in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina owing to intensified aggressive acts by the Serbian and Montenegrin forces to acquire more territories by force, characterized by a consistent pattern of gross and systematic violations of human rights, a burgeoning refugee population resulting from mass expulsions of defenceless civilians from their homes and the existence in Serbian and Montenegrin controlled areas of concentration camps and detention centres, in pursuit of the abhorrent policy of "ethnic cleansing", which is a form of genocide. Strongly condemning Serbia and Montenegro and their surrogates in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina for their continued non-compliance with all relevant United Nations resolutions, Deeply regretting that the sanctions imposed by the Security Council have not had the desired effect of halting the aggressive acts by Serbian and Montenegrin irregular forces and the direct and indirect support of the Yugoslav People's Army for the aggressive acts in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- "Prosecution submission of an expert report of Reynaud J.M. Theunens pursuant to Rule 94bis" (PDF). The Hague: The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. December 16, 2003. p. 27630-33; 27561-65. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- United Nations Commission of Experts established pursuant to the United Nations Security Council Resolution 780 (1992) (1994-12-28). "Annex IV: The policy of ethnic cleansing". Final report. Retrieved 2010-10-28.
- International Centre Against Censorship. "Forging War: The Media in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina", International Centre Against Censorship, Article 19. Avon, United Kingdom: Bath Press, May 1994. p. 55
- International Centre Against Censorship. "Forging War: The Media in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina", International Centre Against Censorship, Article 19. Avon, England, UK: Bath Press, May 1994. pp. 76-79
- Renaud de la Brosse (4 February 2003). "Political Propaganda and the Plan to Create a "State for all Serbs" - Consequences of Using the Media for Ultra-Nationalist Ends - Part 3" (PDF). Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
- "Wide Angle, Milošević and the Media", Part 3: Dictatorship on the Airwaves, pbs.org; accessed 10 April 2015.
- "Reasons for the Decision on Prosecution Interlocutory Appeal from Refusal to Order Joinder" (PDF). Case number: IT-99-37-AR73, IT-01-50-AR73, IT-01-51-AR73 - Prosecutor v. Slobodan Milošević - Decision of the ICTY Appeals Chamber. 18 April 2002. Retrieved 28 October 2010.; Paragraph 8 (HTML version from the Netherlands Institute of Human Rights (SIM) documentation site)
- Meier, Viktor (1999). Yugoslavia — A History of its Demise. London, UK: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-18595-0.
- Vasić, Miloš. "The Yugoslav Army and the Post-Yugoslav Armies", in Yugoslavia and After — A Study in Fragmentation, Despair and Rebirth, ed. David A. Dyker & Ivan Vejvoda. Longman, London, UK (1996).
- del Ponte, Carla (23 October 2002). "The Prosceutor of the Tribunal against Slobodan Milosevic - Second Amended Indictment". International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
30. From at least March 1991 until 15 June 1992, Slobodan Milosevic exercised control over the four members of the "Serbian Bloc" within the Presidency of the SFRY (later the FRY). These four individuals were Borisav Jovic, the representative of the Republic of Serbia; Branko Kostic, the representative of the Republic of Montenegro; Jugoslav Kostic, the representative of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina; and Sejdo Bajramovic, the representative of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohia. Slobodan Milosevic used Borisav Jovic and Branko Kostic as his primary agents in the Presidency, and through them, he directed the actions of the "Serbian Bloc". From 1 October 1991, in the absence of the representatives of the Presidency from Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the four members of the "Serbian Bloc" exercised the powers of the Presidency, including that of collective "Commander-in-Chief" of the JNA. This "Rump Presidency" acted without dissension to execute Slobodan Milosevic's policies. The Federal Presidency had effective control over the JNA as its "Commander-in-Chief" and the TO units and volunteer units acting in co-ordination and under supervision of the JNA. Generals Veljko Kadijevic and Blagoje Adzic, who directed and supervised the JNA forces in Croatia, were in constant communication and consultation with the accused.
- "Milan Babić Transcript". ICTY. 17 February 2006. p. 1501. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
- "Stanisic and Simatovic Transcripts - page 11485". The Hague: ICTY. 5 May 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
- John Pike (20 October 2005). "Serbo-Croatian War". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- "Milan Babić Verdict - Case Information Sheet" (PDF). The Hague: International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. March 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- "Milan Martić Verdict - Case Information Sheet" (PDF). The Hague: International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. June 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- "Momčilo Perišić Verdict - Case Information Sheet" (PDF). The Hague: International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. September 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- "Radoslav Brđanin verdict" (PDF). ICTY. 1 September 2004.
1. Joint Criminal Enterprise [...] C. The implementation of the Strategic Plan in the Bosnian Krajina"
- "Trial Judgement" (PDF). Tadić (IT-94-1) "Prijedor". ICTY. 11 November 1999. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
- "Transcript of Milošević trial". ICTY. 18 November 2003. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
- Bosnia: Who Lit the Fire?. 11 November 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2016 – via YouTube.
- "Profile: Ratko Mladić". The British Broadcasting Corporation. 31 July 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
- "Judgement summary" (PDF). Šainović et al. (IT-05-87). International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
- Serbian translation of ICTY judgement, pescanik.net; accessed 5 August 2016.
- Statistic from: "The Kosovo refugee crisis: an independent evaluation of UNHCR's emergency preparedness and response", UNHCR Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, February 2000.
- Under Orders: War Crimes in Kosovo (Human Right Watch report)
- "Serbia cleared of genocide, failed to stop killing". Reuters. 26 February 2007. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- "Case information sheet - IT-03-67 - Vojislav Šešelj" (PDF). Communications Service of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
- "Atrocities in Yugoslavia unraveled much later". Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- Simons, Marlise (10 October 2001). "Milosevic, Indicted Again, Is Charged With Crimes in Croatia". New York Times. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Danijel Rehak ponovno izabran za predsjednika Hrvatskog društva logoraša". Vjesnik (in Croatian). 28 March 2004. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- "APPLICATION OF THE CONVENTION ON THE PREVENTION AND PUNISHMENT OF THE CRIME OF GENOCIDE (Croatia vs. Yugoslavia)" (PDF). International Court of Justice. 2 July 1999. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- "The Prosecutor vs. Ante Gotovina, Ivan Ćermak & Mladen Markač - Judgement. Volume 2 (p. 1693)" (PDF). ICTY. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- ICJ; The Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro), case 91, The Hague, 26 February 2007, p. 108, paragraph 297. 
- Hudson, Alexandra (26 February 2007). "Serbia cleared of genocide, failed to stop killing". Reuters. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- "Presude "kosovskoj šestorki"" (in Serbian). BBC. 29 December 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
- Dusan Stojanovic, Associated Press (23 April 2009). "Serbia jails ex-policemen for Kosovo massacre". The Independent. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- "BBC NEWS - Europe - Racak massacre haunts Milosevic trial". Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- "FoxNews.com - Breaking News". Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- SUĐENJA ZA RATNE ZLOČINE
- Article about massacre at Velika Kruša in Gazeta Wyborcza(Polish)
- "CNN - U.S.: Massacre video matches mass grave evidence - May 19, 1999". Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- Drenica Region Massacres (February-March 1998)
- "BBC News - Europe - Serbs attack Kosovo massacre reports". Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- "A WEEK OF TERROR IN DRENICA". Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- American Public Media. "Qyshk". Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- "Balkan Witness: News and Progressive Perspectives on the Yugoslav Wars". Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- Survivors describe massacre in Kosovo
- Under Orders. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- "Massacre at Podujevo, Kosovo", cbc.ca, 29 March 2004.
- "Death toll could be Kosovo's argument at ICJ: analysts". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- Kifner, John (18 July 1999). "Inquiry Estimates Serb Drive Killed 10,000 In Kosovo". The New York Times.
- Diplomatsko priznanje Hrvatske i Slovenije, amac.hrvati-amac.com; accessed 10 April 2015.
- "About us". Republic of Serbia-Office of the War Crimes Prosecutor. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
- Belgrade District Court War Crimes Chamber, amended indictment against Aleksandar Medic in Case K.V. 6/2005, 1 October 2008 ; retrieved 7 April 2010.
- Anthony Dworkin, "Serbian Court Convicts Four over Killings in Scorpions Tape", tuzilastvorz.org.rs; accessed 4 May 2015.
- Srebrenica profile, crimesofwar; retrieved 6 April 2010.
- Nenad Pejić (24 March 2009). "Serbia's Decade Of Denial". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
- Denial of genocide - on the possibility of normalising relations in the region by Sonja Biserko (the Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia) and Edina Becirevic (faculty of criminology and security studies of the University of Sarajevo).
- "Oric's Two Years". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- "Weekly Press Briefing". ICTY. 6 July 2005. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
- "The Myth Of Bratunac: A Blatant Numbers Game". RDC. Archived from the original on April 22, 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- "UNDER ORDERS: War Crimes in Kosovo - 2. Background". Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- "BBC News - Europe - Serbs attack Kosovo massacre reports". Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- Milosević denies ethnic cleansing, bbc.co.uk; accessed 4 May 2015.
- "Profiles: Kosovo trial accused". BBC. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
- "Hrtkovci 16 godina posle zločina". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). 6 May 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
- Stevanović, Vidosav; Johansson, Trude (2004). Milošević: The People's Tyrant. I.B. Tauris. p. 70. ISBN 1-86064-842-8.
- "Popular Bosnian Retired General Arrested in Vienna". ISA INTEL. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- "War Crimes Prosecutor's Office Blocking War Crimes Trials in Serbia". Humanitarian Law Centre. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- Workman, Timothy (27 July 2010). "The Government of the Republic of Serbia vs. Ejup Ganić" (PDF). City of Westminster Magistrates' Court. p. 3. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
- "Croatians protest veteran's arrest". Al Jazeera. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- "Serbian prosecutors drop case against Purda". SETimes. 3 March 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- "Austria won't send Bosnia general to Serbia". Reuters. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- "Bosnian wartime general freed by Austrian court". reuters.com. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
- "Ex-Bosnian Muslim army general released". B92. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- Virtual Library Document, ceris.metropolis.net; accessed 4 May 2015.
- "U.S. Committee for Refugees World Refugee Survey 1997 – Yugoslavia". UNHCR. 1 January 1997. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- "Internal displacement in Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia" (PDF). Internal displacement monitoring centre. March 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- "Serb refugees return to Kosovo". BBC News. 13 August 2001. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- "Bleak outlook for Serb refugees". BBC News. 22 March 2000. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- "2012 UNHCR country operations profile - Serbia (and Kosovo: SC Res. 1244)". UNHCR. 1 January 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- The policy of ethnic cleansing (Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts)
- "Ethnic Cleansing" continues in Northern Bosnia (Human Rights Watch/Helsinki 38 November 1994)
- Human Rights in Kosovo: As Seen, As Told, 1999 (OSCE report)
- Under Orders: War Crimes in Kosovo (Human Right Watch report)
- Kosovo: Rape As A Weapon Of "Ethnic Cleansing" (Human Right Watch report)
- Photographic Evidence of Kosovo Genocide and Conflict
- The Serbian Unity Congress and the Serbian Lobby - A Study of Contemporary Revisionism and Denial at the Wayback Machine (by Free Serbia)