Serbian historiography

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Serbian historiography (Serbian: Српска историографија/Srpska istoriografija) refers to the historiography (methodology of history studies) of the Serb people since the founding of Serbian statehood. The development can be divided into four main stages: traditional historiography, Ruvarac's critical school, Communist–Marxist legacy, and the renewed Serbian national movement.[1]

Modern Serbian historiography[edit]

Jovan Rajić (1726–1801) was the forerunner to modern Serbian historiography,[2] and has been compared to the importance of Nikolay Karamzin to Russian historiography.[3] The foundations of Serbian ecclesiastical historiography were laid by Bishop Nikodim Milaš (1845–1915).[4] Ilarion Ruvarac (1832–1905) is regarded the founder of the critical school of Serbian historiography.[5][6] Ruvarac's school clashed with that of Panta Srećković (1834–1903).[7] Serbian historiography was mostly focused on national issues during the Society of Serbian Scholarship and Serbian Learned Society (1841–1886).[8]

Serbian ecclesiastical historiography has coincided with nationalist perspectives contained within secular Serbian historiography.[4] Orthodox Church tradition and early Serbian historiography through folk poetry based upon the Battle of Kosovo assisted in overcoming gaps and linking the old with the then new Serbian state.[9][10] The nation and religion were closely connected within nationalist Serbian history in the early 19th century.[11] Patriotic historiography viewed the Serbs as liberators from foreign oppression of their South Slavic brothers in the Balkan Wars and World War I. Serbian nationalists claim that in Communist historiography, Serbs were transformed into oppressors, the Chetniks of World War II branded as collaborationist as the Ustaše, and the massacres of Serbs were downplayed.[12] In post-WW2 Yugoslavia, Serbian historians claimed that histories of individual peoples no longer existed after unification in contrast to Slovene and Croat historians who claimed otherwise.[13] From the 1950s onward intellectual activities came less under state control and by the 1960s debates about the Second World reappeared culminating with more works in the 1980s.[14]

Post communist Serbian historiography (1980s-present)[edit]

Throughout the post war era, though Tito denounced nationalist sentiments in historiography, those trends continued with Croat and Serbian academics at times accusing each other of misrepresenting each other's histories, especially in relation to the Croat-Nazi alliance.[15] Communist historiography was challenged in the 1980s and a rehabilitation of Serbian nationalism by Serbian historians began.[16][17] Historians and other members of the intelligentsia belonging to the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SANU) and the Writers Association played a significant role in the explanation of the new historical narrative.[18][19][20] The process of writing a "new Serbian history" paralleled alongside the emerging ethno-nationalist mobilisation of Serbs with the objective of reorganising the Yugoslav federation.[17] Four factors and sources that influenced the "new history" include:[17]

  1. Serbian ethno-nationalist ideology
  2. Nationalism that originated from Church historiography and the Orthodox Church
  3. Serbian émigré propaganda and myths
  4. Genocide and Holocaust studies (due to Serbs identifying with Jews as crimes against Serbs were viewed alongside the Holocaust as being equivalent)

Using ideas and concepts from Holocaust historiography, Serbian historians alongside church leaders applied it to World War Two Yugoslavia and equated the Serbs with Jews and Croats with Nazi Germans.[21] In relation to World War Two Serb casualties, during the Milošević era Serbian historians and the regime saw it as important to secure support from prominent Yugoslav Jewish individuals and organisations regarding the idea relating to a common Serbian-Jewish martyrdom.[22] As such, a few Yugoslav Jews gave their assistance for the new Serbian historiography.[22] In the 1980s, Serbian historians produced many works about the forced conversion during World War Two of Serbs to Catholicism in Ustaša Croatia.[23] These debates between historians openly became nationalistic and also entered the wider media.[16] Historians in Belgrade during the 1980s who had close government connections often went on television during the evenings to discuss invented or real details about the Ustaša genocide against Serbs during World War Two.[24] These discussions had the effect of being theoretical deductions that served as a precursor for the eventual ethno-demographic engineering that took place in Croatia.[24] During this time some well known Serbian historians such as Vasilije Krestić and Milorad Ekmečić were at the vanguard of the nationalist movement.[25] In 1986, Vasilije Krestić alongside historian Radovan Samardžić were members of a commission that later drafted the Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts which referred to a "genocide" being committed against Serbs by Albanians and Croats in Yugoslavia.[25][26]

During the 1980s and 1990s, the main focus of nationalist history was Kosovo.[27] Serbian academics such as Dušan Bataković obtained generous support for publishing nationalist works which were translated into other languages and other Serbian historians Dimitrije Bogdanović, Radovan Samardžić and Atanasije Urošević also produced similar works on Kosovo.[27] Though some Serb historians did not promote nationalistic views, the practice of history within Serbia has been influenced by limitations placed upon it from state-sponsored nationalism.[27] The focus of research for Serbian historians has been restricted to the Serbian experience of life under "the Turks" and only a few Serb historians can read Ottoman documents.[27] As such, Hapsburg documents have been used though Serbian historians sideline the corpus of local and important evidence based in Ottoman documents when compiling national history.[28]

Works from Serbian historians and ethnographers that were academically obsolete and politically biased aiming to justify Serb expansionism were republished a century later with some works going for a second edition in the 1990s.[29] These works were praised by Serb historians because they viewed them as almost being primary sources due to their archaic style and closeness to the described events and hence promoted their republishing during the 1990s.[29] Whereas the works and ideas of these 19th and early 20th century nationalistically oriented Serbian historians were expanded upon by writers on the Serbian literary scene during the 1990s.[30] When the wars broke out during the 1990s, most Serbian historians focused on suffering that Serbs had undergone in previous conflicts to emphasize past Serbian victimisation, ethnic cleansing of Serbs and sexual assaults against Serbian women.[31] Serbian historians defended the actions of the regime during the dissolution of Yugoslavia.[18]

Few Serbian scholars have critically engaged with literature of Serbian historiography that is based heavily on myth.[32] Of those that have include historian Miodrag Popović who stated that Serbian history in the Ottoman Empire is separate from myths contained in Serbian folk poetry.[33] Popović added that myths about the "Turkish yoke" and "slavery under the Turks" were a product of later times meant to mobilize Serbians during the nation-state building process which is why the myth contains so much anti-Islamic and anti-Turkish views.[33] Serbian historiography in contemporary times still remains politically sensitive.[34] The fall of the Milošević regime (2000) heralded divisions within the intelligentsia about coming to terms with the recent wartime past and moral responsibility in Serbia.[35] Amongst liberal historians their efforts have been concentrated on refuting nationalist discourses prominent in media and public views and the failure of embracing modernity by Serbian society.[35] Their views about the dissolution of Yugoslavia are based upon the wider polarization and mass debate contained in Serbian public debate regarding the past and as replies to nationalist discourses of historians affiliated with the nationalist-patriotic group.[35]

Themes[edit]

Serbian historiography (19th century - present) has through its historians developed various histriographical positions, views and conclusions on subjects and topics that relates to the study of Serbian history and the Serb people. Of those are:

Medieval and pre-independence periods[edit]

In Serbian historiography there is a divergence of positions regarding Byzantine cultural influence on Serbia with some Serbian historians supporting the view that there was and others seeing it as being minimal.[36] Serbian historians have contended that Vlachs in Dalmatia during the early Middle Ages were thoroughly Slavonicised and hence to be really Serbs.[37] The rivalry between Prince Branimir (ruled 879–887) who chose (Catholic) Rome over (Orthodox) Constantinople and Duke Sedeslav (ruled 878–879) who favoured Constantinople ended in execution of the latter by the former.[38] In Serbian church historiography, Sedeslav is viewed as a martyr of the Orthodox church and Branimir's rise to power is interpreted as disastrous that divided two Slavic peoples who both until that time leaned toward the Orthodox church.[38] King Zvonimir (ruled 1075–1089) a figure who consolidated Catholicism and rejected Orthodoxy in Croatia is viewed by Serbian Church historians as an enemy of the Orthodox Christian religion.[38] Serbian historians contend that the medieval Bosnian Church was part of the Orthodox church and not heretical.[39]

Serbian historiography emphasizes an Orthodox Serbian origin for the Bosniaks who are interpreted as relinquishing ties to that ethno-religious heritage after converting to Islam and later denying it by refusing to accept a Serbian identity.[40][41] While the battle of Kosovo (1389) against Muslim Ottoman forces has been taken out of its context within Serbian historiography.[42] That event has been utilized by placing it within the wider Serbian political objective of vilifying Bosnian Muslims by associating their conversion to Islam with the identity of the Ottoman invader.[42] Bosnian Muslims within the bulk of Serbian nationalist historiography are presented as the descendants of the mentally ill, lazy, slaves, greedy landlords, prisoners, thieves, outcasts or as Serbs who confused and defeated chose to follow their enemies religion.[43] Serbian historiography mythologized the emergence of Islam within the Balkans as the outcome of coercion and the devşirme system instead of it being a genuine and complex phenomenon.[44][45]

Serbian history often emphasizes that the Patriarchate of Peć was reestablished (1557) by Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, a grand vizier from Bosnia who by origin was of Orthodox Christian heritage and thus claimed as a Serb in Serbian history, while a relative of his became the first patriarch.[46] In some Serbian historiography, the Orthodox clergy is ascribed as having played a leading military and ideological role during the First Serbian Uprising (1804–1813).[47] Adopting mainly the perspective of Eastern European traditions, Serbian historiography views the national struggle as having been attained through liberation from what has been referred to as "five centuries of" the "Turkish yoke".[48][49] Serbian historiography views the Serbs as being at the vanguard of protecting Balkan Christians.[50] The Mountain Wreath, a 19th-century poem written by Petar Petrović Njegoš containing a narrative about Slavic Muslims refusing to revert to Christianity followed up with their massacre is viewed within Serbian historiography as part of the ideology of national liberation from Ottoman rule.[51] Critical Serbian historiography views the event to be mythical as Montenegrin tribal customs did not allow for fellow clan members to be killed.[52]

Independence, World War One and Interwar Yugoslavia[edit]

From the first Serbian Uprising (1804) onward, Serb historians have viewed the Balkans as a region of perpetual ethnic conflicts of whom Balkan peoples have been anti-Serb for centuries.[53] Within Serbian historiography, "minority" groups have been portrayed as unreliable with "natural" tendencies for rebellion, treachery and deceit.[54] Within Serbian historiography references to Muslim treachery and Albanian irredentism were made that coincided with new campaigns to expel people from Macedonia and Kosovo to Turkey.[55]

Serbian historiography holds the view that Russians and Serbs have a special relationship expressed through Slavophilism and pan-Slavism and that both peoples are part of a larger Slavic "brotherhood".[50] In the early 20th century, Serbian historiography in geography textbooks had a tendency to serving the political goal of Greater Serbia by viewing the bulk of Balkan Slavic lands as inhabited by Serbs, until the Yugoslav idea gradually shifted those views.[56] Patriotic Serbian historiography portrays the Serbs during the Balkan Wars (1912–1913) and World War One (1914–1918) as liberating fellow South Slavs from foreign oppressors.[57] Serbian historians have viewed the Balkan wars (1912–1913) as mainly a Serbian event of state expansion.[58] Regarding the post-World War One unification of Montenegro with Serbia, Serbian alongside Montenegrin historians attempted to critically analyze the events though were hampered by political concerns and ideological bias of the Yugoslav era.[59] Only in recent times have a few Serbian and Montenegrin historians with less ideological baggage attempted to engage with the events.[59] Serbian historians assert that during the period of the Balkan Wars, a Macedonian nation was nonexistent and that local Slavs were either Serbian or Bulgarian.[60][61]

The assassin Gavrilo Princip who in Sarajevo (1914) killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand is viewed by Serbian historians as a Serbian hero.[62] A majority of Serbian historians view Austria-Hungary and Germany (Central Powers) as instigating the First World War while the actions of Mlada Bosna are presented as being autonomous and not dependent on Serbian government circles.[63] The role of the Russian Empire and the position it took on the eve of war is portrayed favorably within Serbian historiography.[63]

Some Serbian historians are of the view that the ideology of Yugoslavism and the creation of the banovinas diminished Serbian identity.[64] Others Serbian historians have suggested the opposite in that the banovinas strengthened Yugoslavia by making Serbs the dominant group within 6 of them.[64] The actions of Serbs within interwar Yugoslavia are portrayed in nationalist Serbian historiography as defensive and to safeguard the state from Croatian secessionism that is blamed for state's unstable interwar parliamentary system.[65]

World War Two[edit]

Chetniks along with the Ustaša were vilified by Tito era historiography within Yugoslavia.[66] In the 1980s, Serbian historians initiated the process of reexamining the narrative of how World War Two was told in Yugoslavia which was accompanied by the rehabilitation of Chetnik leader Draža Mihailović.[67][68] Monographs relating to Mihailović and the Chetnik movement were produced by some younger historians who were ideologically close to it toward the end of the 1990s.[69] Being preoccupied with the era, Serbian historians have looked to vindicate Chetnik history by portraying Chetniks as righteous freedom fighters battling the Nazis while removing from history books the ambiguous alliances with the Italians and Germans.[70][66][71][72] Whereas the crimes committed by Chetniks against Croats and Muslims in Serbian historiography are overall "cloaked in silence".[73] During the Milošević era, Serbian history was falsified to obscure the role Serbian collaborators Milan Nedić and Dimitrije Ljotić played in cleansing Serbia's Jewish community, killing them in the country or deporting them to Eastern European concentration camps.[22]

The topic of World War Two Serbian population casualties has been strongly debated since the conclusion of World War Two.[74][75] Within Serbian historiography, documenting Nazi and Ustaša crimes against the Roma, Jews and Serbs was undertaken as a priority.[73] For Serbian historians, the Independent State of Croatia was responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of Serbs throughout rural areas and in concentration camps such as Jasenovac.[74][75] During the 1980s and 1990s, the issue of World War Two civilian casualties were contested and subject to manipulation between Croats and Serbs.[14][76][77] Serbian historians alongside politicians exaggerated often the figures of those killed at Jasenovac to spread fear among the wider Serbian populace during the breakup of Yugoslavia.[77]

Historiography within Tito's Yugoslavia had presented the Ustaša Independent State of Croatia (NDH) as an imposition of Nazi invaders and a deviation within the history of the Croats.[17] By the middle of the 1980s this portrayal was challenged by Serbian historians.[17] They contended that the Independent State of Croatia was a well organised entity that inflicted genocide upon the Serbs that had been in the making for several centuries in Croatia.[17] During the 1980s, the Vatican became a focus for Serbian historiography.[78] The popes were depicted as anti-Serbian, as being intrinsic to the demise of interwar Yugoslavia and taking part in the genocide against Serbians within the pro-Axis Independent State of Croatia.[78] The new Serbian historiography of the 1980s of which secular and church historians contributed highlighted the role that religion played in being as the main source of Serbian-Croatian enmities.[17] The Catholic Church was portrayed as the main carrier of hatred that inspired the idea of genocide against the Serbs during World War Two.[17] In the works of Serbian historians, the Vatican is linked to a recurring Croatian plot to destroy Serbia.[14] Using analogies from the Vatican's historic role in the Balkans, Serbian historians asserted that the Vatican did not understand the implications of the Muslim-Albanian awakening in Kosovo and other parts of Yugoslavia.[78]

Among Serbian historians focusing on World War Two, they interpret the Albanian Balli Kombëtar movement as either "anti-Yugoslav" or "counter revolutionary".[79] While the Bujan Conference (1943) is viewed as contravening the anti-fascist struggle due to Albanian communists insisting on the allocation of Kosovo to Albania at the war's conclusion.[79] Though Tito was against such unification, in the 1980s Serbian historians held the Bujan meeting against him.[80] Within Yugoslavia until the 1990s, Serbian historiography celebrated the aid given to Albania by Yugoslavia after the Second World War.[81]

Kosovo[edit]

In Serbian historiography Prince Lazar, a figure who assembled Serb forces at the battle of Kosovo to fight the Ottomans is portrayed as a blessed martyr.[82] Amidst the Kosovo Battle anniversary of the late 1980s, two Serbian historians independently concluded after critical historiographical analysis that Vuk Branković during the Kosovo battle was not a traitor and this finding is considered an important milestone for Serbian historiography.[83] Of the Serbian historians who have accepted Serbian mythology, the battle of Kosovo is viewed as the main battle overriding all other battles and for some of them it is viewed as a historical idea assisting the nation to connect with a real historical past.[84][85][86] Serbian historians until the late 1940s were still portraying the Kosovo battle as a "victory" of the Serbs over the Ottoman Turks.[87] Serbian historiography contends that from the Battle of Kosovo (1389) onward, Serbians have undergone centuries of oppression by the Muslim-Ottoman Empire and they have fought to restore their medieval Serbian empire.[88][89] The Kosovo myth still influences Serbian historiography as Serbian martyrdom and suffering alongside conflict and incompatibility between Christianity and Islam are emphasized.[88] The battle of Kosovo is for Serbian historiography the historical event that legitimizes the claim of the Serbian character of Kosovo.[90]

Serbs crossing the river for Austrian territory, 1690.

Some Serbian historians contend that a document issued on 6 April 1690 by the Austrian emperor referred to an "invitation" for Serbs to resettle in Hungary.[91] Serbian settlement on the Pannonian plain is viewed within Serbian historiography as the outcome of a cataclysmic exodus from Kosovo that occurred in 1690 called the Great Migration (Velika Seoba) after Kosovan Serbs rebelled and joined incoming Hapsburg forces battling the Ottomans.[92][93] Serbian historians regard the migration as being undertaken on a huge scale.[94]

Serbian historians have often dealt with Albanian history in an narrowly nationalist approach.[95] Serbian historians dispute the argument that Albanians are the descendants of ancient Illyrians and being established in the region prior to the Slavs, while contending that the presence of Albanians in the Balkans starts from the 11th century.[96] The majority of contemporary Serbian historiography portrays a situation of conflictual relations between Serbians and Albanians after they converted to Islam.[88] Scholarship on Kosovo has also encompassed Ottoman provincial surveys that has revealed the 15th century ethnic composition of some Kosovo settlements, however like their Albanian counterparts, Serbian historians using these records have made much of them while proving little.[97]

Serbian historiography does not support the Albanian argument that the progenitors of Kosovan Albanians were native to Kosovo.[98] Instead within Serbian historiography the presence of Kosovan Albanians and their eventual predominance in the region has been attributed by (nationalist) Serbian historians[99] to a number of causes. Of those either the arrival and northward spread of Albanians from Albania after the Ottoman conquest, the Austro-Ottoman war that led to the northward migration of Serbs in 1690 with replacement by Albanians and or the assimilation of local Serbians into Albanians.[98][100][101][102][99][103][104][105] Serbian national history views the Albanian presence in Kosovo apart from being recent immigrants as one that strongly supported and reinforced Ottoman rule meant to dislodge Serbs and to enforce Muslim control.[93]

Many Serbian historians reject that Albanian family clans during the Ottoman period assisted to safeguard and preserve Orthodox monasteries and churches in Kosovo.[106] Instead they contend that Albanians held imperial Ottoman military and administrative employment and were to blame as much as the Turks for the turmoil that forced many Serbs in 1690 and 1734 to migrate northward.[106]

Independent Serbia[edit]

Serbian historiography holds the view that Western powers have always targeted Serbia.[50]

Differing from a Bosnian nationalist perspective, nationalist Serbian historians have asserted that Sandžak has 420,000 people of which 60% are Bosniaks and the region encompasses an area of 8,201 km2.[107]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Woolf 2014, p. 825.
  2. ^ Lucian Boia (1 January 1989). Great Historians from Antiquity to 1800: An International Dictionary. Greenwood Press. p. 343. ISBN 978-0-313-24517-6.
  3. ^ University of Colorado (1956). Journal of Central European Affairs. 16. Boulder, Colorado: University of Colorado. p. 23.
  4. ^ a b Perica 2002, p. 72.
  5. ^ Serbian Studies. 45. North American Society for Serbian Studies. 1986. p. 180. Among these historians he points out the significance of Jovan Rajic (1726–1801) and Ilarion Ruvarac (1832–1905). The former indeed "stood on the threshold between the enlightenment and the age of romanticism" and later, as the principal representative and founder of the critical school of Serbian historiography, took "the first relatively objective look at ...
  6. ^ Matthew Anthony Fitzsimons; Alfred George Pundt; Charles E. Nowell (1967). The development of historiography. Kennikat Press. p. 348. Ruvarac (1832–1905) belonged to the rigidly scientific, relentlessly analytic school of historiography which held that the sources must be ... the school of Ruvarac triumphed in the end, and by the early 1880's Serbian historiography was definitely founded in ...
  7. ^ Philip Lawrence Harriman; Massimo Salvadori (1953). Contemporary Social Science. Stackpole Company. p. 255.
  8. ^ Paul Stephenson (20 December 2010). The Byzantine World. Routledge. pp. 482–. ISBN 978-1-136-72787-0.
  9. ^ Velikonja, Mitja (2003). Religious separation and political intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Texas A&M University Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-60344-724-9.
  10. ^ Bennett, Matthew (2004). "The Kosovo Liberation Army". In Bennett, Matthew; Latawski, Paul. Exile armies. Springer. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-230-52245-9.
  11. ^ Deringil, Selim (2012). Conversion and apostasy in the late Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-139-51048-6.
  12. ^ A. Pavkovic (8 January 2016). The Fragmentation of Yugoslavia: Nationalism and War in the Balkans. Springer. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-0-230-28584-2.
  13. ^ Klemenčič, Matjaž; Žagar, Mitja (2004). The former Yugoslavia's diverse peoples: A reference sourcebook. Abc-Clio. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-57607-294-3.
  14. ^ a b c Cox, John K. (2002). The history of Serbia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-313-31290-8.
  15. ^ Kolander, Patricia (1999). ""Malevolent Partnership of Blatant Opportunism?" Croat-German Relations, 1919–1941". In Bullivant, Keith; Giles, Geoffrey J.; Pape, Walter. Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural identities and cultural differences. Rodopi. p. 267. ISBN 978-90-420-0678-2.
  16. ^ a b Brunnbauer, Ulf (2011). "Historical Writing in the Balkans". In Woolf, Daniel; Schneider, Axel. The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 5: Historical Writing Since 1945. Oxford University Press. p. 364. ISBN 978-0-19-922599-6.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Perica 2002, p. 147.
  18. ^ a b Bieber & Galijaš 2016, p. 117
  19. ^ Ramet 2002, p. 19.
  20. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P. (2006). The three Yugoslavias: State-building and legitimation, 1918–2005. Indiana University Press. p. 322. ISBN 978-0-253-34656-8.
  21. ^ Perica 2002, p. 150.
  22. ^ a b c Perica 2002, p. 151.
  23. ^ Aleksov 2007, p. 106.
  24. ^ a b Stojanović 2011, p. 221.
  25. ^ a b Armour, Ian D. (2014). Apple of Discord: The" Hungarian Factor" in Austro-Serbian Relations, 1867–1881. Purdue University Press. pp. xvii. ISBN 978-1-55753-683-9.
  26. ^ Ramet 2002, pp. 19–20.
  27. ^ a b c d Anscombe 2006, p. 761. "Even if some Serbian historians have not promoted a consciously nationalistic view, history as practised in Serbia has observed the constraints imposed by state-sponsored nationalism. As suggested in Part I, nation-building states in former Ottoman territories have used their influence over education, support for and dissemination of research, and the media to draw implicit, and sometimes explicit, boundaries for acceptable historical interpretation. Minor variations on the established narrative may be allowed, but even less overtly ideological historians remain chroniclers of the nation. As in most other post-Ottoman states, few historians in Serbia are able to read Ottoman texts: the focus of their research is confined to Serbs and Serbian lands under 'the Turks'. In the 1980s and 1990s, overtly nationalist Serbian scholars such as Dušan Bataković received the most generous support for the publication of their work. [2] The focus of much of such nationalist history was Kosovo. Footnote: [2] Bataković wrote a series of nationalist works on Kosovo, of which several (The Kosovo Chronicles [Belgrade, 1992] and Kosovo, la spirals de la haine [Paris, 1993]) have been translated into other languages. Many similar works have not been translated: e.g., Kosovo i Metohija u srpskoj istoriji, ed. R. Samardžic (Belgrade, 1989); D. Bogdanović, Knjiga o Kosovu (Belgrade, 1985); and A. Urošević, Etnički procesi na Kosovu tokom turske vladavine (Belgrade, 1987)."
  28. ^ Anscombe 2006, p. 771. "Malcolm, like the historians of Serbia and Yugoslavia who ignore his findings, overlooks the most valuable indigenous evidence. Unwillingness to consider Ottoman evidence when constructing national history is exemplified by the Serbian historians who commemorated the three-hundredth anniversary of the great migration by compiling a compendium of previously unpublished references to Serbs in contemporary documents, all of them Habsburg in origin and none of them Ottoman."
  29. ^ a b Aleksov 2007, p. 96. "The works of these historians and ethnographers, while scholarly obsolete and politically biased in their aim to justify Serbian expansionism, have nevertheless been revived almost a century later, and many of them went to a second edition in the 1990s. Serbian historians who praised them and advocated their reprinting in the 1990s treated them as if they were almost primary sources because of their archaic style and alleged proximity to events they described."
  30. ^ Hašimbegović, Elma; Gavrilović, Darko (2011). "Ethnogensis Myths". In Bosković, Aleksandar; Dević, Ana; Hašimbegović, Elma; Ljubojević, Ana; Velikonja, Mitja. Political Myths in the Former Yugoslavia and Successor States. Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation. p. 21. ISBN 978-90-8979-067-5.
  31. ^ Bokovoy, Melissa (2012). "Gender and Reframing of World War I in Serbia during the 1980s and 1990s". In Regulska, Joanna; Smith, Bonnie G. Women and gender in postwar Europe: From cold war to European Union. Routledge. p. 183. ISBN 978-1-136-45480-6.
  32. ^ Karić 2011, p. 739. "In all fairness, it should be mentioned that there are a few Serbian scholars who have unmasked those works of Serbian historiography that relied heavily upon myth."
  33. ^ a b Karić 2011, p. 739.
  34. ^ Feldman, Matthew; Turda, Marius (2008). "'Clerical Fascism' in Interwar Europe: An introduction". In Feldman, Matthew; Turda, Marius; Georgescu, Tudor. Clerical fascism in interwar Europe. Routledge. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-317-96899-3.
  35. ^ a b c Bieber & Galijaš 2016, p. 120.
  36. ^ Mishkova, Diana (2015). "The afterlife of a Commonwealth: Narratives of Byzantium in the National Historiographies of Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania". In Daskalov, Roumen; Vezenkov, Alexander. Entangled Histories of the Balkans-Volume Three: Shared Pasts, Disputed Legacies. Brill. p. 200. ISBN 978-90-04-29036-5.
  37. ^ Judah, Tim (2000). The Serbs: History, myth, and the destruction of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-300-08507-5.
  38. ^ a b c Perica 2002, p. 65.
  39. ^ Bringa, Tone (1995). Being Muslim the Bosnian way: Identity and community in a central Bosnian village. Princeton University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-691-00175-3.
  40. ^ Bieber, Florian (2006). Post-War Bosnia: Ethnicity, Inequality and Public Sector Governance. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-230-50137-9.
  41. ^ Mekić, Sejad (2016). A Muslim Reformist in Communist Yugoslavia: The Life and Thought of Husein Đozo. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-230-50137-9.
  42. ^ a b Keles, Fethi (2008). "Bridging the macro with the micro in conflict analysis: Structural simplification as a heuristic device". In Fleishman, Rachel; O'Leary, Rosemary; Gerard, Catherine. Pushing the Boundaries: New Frontiers in Conflict Resolution and Collaboration. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-84855-291-3.
  43. ^ Alibašić, Ahmet (2014). "Bosnia and Herzegovina". In Cesari, Jocelyne. The Oxford Handbook of European Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 431. ISBN 978-0-19-102640-9.
  44. ^ Ingrao, Charles W. (2009). Confronting the Yugoslav Controversies: A Scholars' Initiative. Purdue University Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-55753-533-7.
  45. ^ Aleksov 2007, p. 100.
  46. ^ Anscombe 2006, p. 765. "Serbian history makes much of the fact that the re-establishment of the patriarchate of Peć in 1557 was attributable to Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, by origin an Orthodox Christian from Bosnia (and thus claimed as a member of the nation in Serbian history), and grand vizier late in the reign of Sultan Suleyman I ('The Magnificent') and early in that of his successor, Selim II. One of Mehmed's relatives became the first patriarch."
  47. ^ Lampe, John R. (1995). "Nationalism in Former Yugoslavia". In Latawski, Paul. Contemporary Nationalism in East Central Europe. St Martin's Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-349-23809-5.
  48. ^ Omerika, Armina (2015). "Competing national Orientalisms: The cases of Belgrade and Sarajevo". In Kemper, Michael; Kalinovsky, Artemy M. Reassessing Orientalism: Interlocking Orientologies During the Cold War. Routledge. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-317-63670-0.
  49. ^ Spasić, Ivana (2015). "The trauma of Kosovo in Serbian national narratives". In Eyerman, Ronald; Alexander, Jeffrey C.; Breese, Elizabeth Butler. Narrating trauma: on the impact of collective suffering. Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-317-25569-7.
  50. ^ a b c Gilberg, Trond (2000). ""Yugoslav" Nationalism at the End of the Twentieth Century". In Suryadinata, Leo. Nationalism and globalization: East and West. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 7. ISBN 978-981-230-073-7.
  51. ^ Karpat, Kemal H. (2001). The politicization of Islam: Reconstructing identity, state, faith, and community in the late Ottoman state. Oxford University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-19-513618-0.
  52. ^ Vujačić, Veljko (2015). Nationalism, Myth, and the State in Russia and Serbia. Cambridge University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-107-07408-8.
  53. ^ Karić 2011, p. 738.
  54. ^ Blumi, Isa (2012). Foundations of Modernity: Human Agency and the Imperial State. Routledge. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-415-88464-8.
  55. ^ Blumi, Isa (2013). Ottoman refugees, 1878–1939: Migration in a Post-Imperial World. A&C Black. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-4725-1538-4.
  56. ^ Segesten, Anamaria Dutceac (2011). Myth, identity, and conflict: A comparative analysis of Romanian and Serbian textbooks. Lexington Books. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-109-19838-6.
  57. ^ Pavković, Aleksandar (2000). The fragmentation of Yugoslavia: Nationalism and war in the Balkans. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-230-28584-2.
  58. ^ Troch, Pieter (2015). Nationalism and Yugoslavia: Education, Yugoslavism and the Balkans before World War II. Pieter Troch. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-85773-768-7.
  59. ^ a b Pavlović, Srdja (2008). Balkan Anschluss: The annexation of Montenegro and the creation of the common South Slavic state. Purdue University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-55753-465-1.
  60. ^ Despot, Igor (2012). The Balkan Wars in the Eyes of the Warring Parties: Perceptions and Interpretations. iUniverse. p. 243. ISBN 978-1-4759-4703-8.
  61. ^ Detrez, Raymond (2003). "The right to self determination and Secession in Yugoslavia: A Hornets Nest of Inconsistencies". In Coppieters, Bruno; Sakwa, Richard. Contextualizing secession: Normative studies in comparative perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-19-925871-0.
  62. ^ Stojanović 2011, p. 230.
  63. ^ a b Petrovskaya, Oksana (2015). "The origins of the First World War in the modern historiography of Post Communist Eastern Europe". In Biagini, Antonello; Motta, Giovanna. The First World War: Analysis and Interpretation, Volume 1. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-4438-8186-9.
  64. ^ a b Nielsen, Christian Axboe (2014). Making Yugoslavs: Identity in King Aleksandar's Yugoslavia. University of Toronto Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-4426-2750-5.
  65. ^ Biondich, Mark (2008). "The historical legacy: The evolution of interwar Yugoslav Politics, 1918–1941". In Cohen, Lenard J.; Dragović-Soso, Jasna. State collapse in South-Eastern Europe: New perspectives on Yugoslavia's disintegration. Purdue University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-55753-460-6.
  66. ^ a b Ramet, Sabrina P. (2005). Serbia since 1989: Politics and Society under Milopevic and After. University of Washington Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-295-80207-7.
  67. ^ Emmert, Thomas; Ingrao, Charles (2013). Conflict in Southeastern Europe at the End of the Twentieth Century: A" Scholars' Initiative" Assesses Some of the Controversies. Routledge. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-317-97016-3.
  68. ^ Drapac, Vesna (2014). "Catholic resistance and collaboration in the Second World War: From Master Narrative to Practical Application". In Rutar, Sabine. Beyond the Balkans: Towards an Inclusive History of Southeastern Europe. LIT Verlag. p. 282. ISBN 978-3-643-10658-2.
  69. ^ Stojanović, Dubravka (2011). Ramet, Sabrina; Listhaug, Ole, eds. Serbia and the Serbs in World War Two. Springer. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-230-34781-6.
  70. ^ MacDonald, David Bruce (2003). Balkan Holocausts?: Serbian and Croatian victim centred propaganda and the war in Yugoslavia. Manchester University Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-7190-6467-8.
  71. ^ Subotic, Jelena (2015). "The Mythologizing of Communist Violence". In Stan, Lavinia; Nedelsky, Nadya. Post-communist Transitional Justice: Lessons from Twenty-five Years of Experience. Cambridge University Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-1-107-06556-7.
  72. ^ Finney, Patrick (2010). "Land of Ghosts: Memories of War in the Balkans". In Buckley, John; Kassimeris, George. The Ashgate research companion to modern warfare. Routledge. p. 353. ISBN 978-1-4094-9953-4.
  73. ^ a b Bećirević 2014, p. 46.
  74. ^ a b Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia: 1941–1945. Stanford University Press. p. 718. ISBN 978-0-8047-7924-1.
  75. ^ a b Watson, Rubie S. (1999). Memory, History and Opposition: Under State Socialism. James Currey Publishers. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-85255-902-4.
  76. ^ Lukic, Reneo; Lynch, Allen (1996). Europe from the Balkans to the Urals: The disintegration of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. Oxford University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-19-829200-5.
  77. ^ a b Stone, Dan (2010). "Genocide and Memory". In Bloxham, Donald; Moses, A. Dirk. The Oxford handbook of Genocide Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-19-161361-6.
  78. ^ a b c Perica, Vjekoslav (2006). "The politics of ambivalence: Europeanization and the Serbian Orthodox Church". In Byrnes, Timothy A.; Katzenstein, Peter J. Religion in an expanding Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-1-139-45094-2.
  79. ^ a b Ramet, Sabrina P. (2001). Buckley, Mary; Cummings, Sally, eds. Kosovo: Perceptions of war and its aftermath. A&C Black. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-8264-5669-4.
  80. ^ Lampe, John R. (2000). Yugoslavia as history: Twice there was a country. Cambridge University Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-521-77401-7.
  81. ^ Çeku, Ethem (2015). Kosovo and Diplomacy since World War II: Yugoslavia, Albania and the Path to Kosovan Independence. I.B.Tauris. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-85773-953-7.
  82. ^ Galbreath, David J. (2007). The organization for security and co-operation in Europe (OSCE). Routledge. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-134-13353-6.
  83. ^ Popov, Nebojša (2000). The road to war in Serbia: Trauma and catharsis. Central European University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-963-9116-56-6.
  84. ^ Karić 2011, p. 739. "While for the Ottoman the battle of Kosovo was one among many battles, for Serbian historians who accepted Serbian mythology, this battle is the key battle, the battle of all battles."
  85. ^ Daskalovski, Židas (2003). "Claims to Kosovo: Nationalism and Self-determination". In Bieber, Florian; Daskalovski, Židas. Understanding the war in Kosovo. Psychology Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-7146-5391-4.
  86. ^ Fleming, Colin M. (2016). Clausewitz's Timeless Trinity: A Framework For Modern War. Routledge. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-317-16522-4.
  87. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P. (1998). Eastern Europe: Politics, culture, and society since 1939. Indiana University Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-253-21256-6.
  88. ^ a b c Duijzings, Gerlachlus (2000). Religion and the politics of identity in Kosovo. Hurst & Company. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-1-85065-431-5.
  89. ^ Gort, Jerald D.; Jansen, Henry; Vroom, Hendrik M. (2002). Religion, conflict and reconciliation: Multifaith ideals and realities. Rodopi. p. 345. ISBN 978-90-420-1166-3.
  90. ^ Hjärpe, Jan (2013). "Historiography and Islamic Vocabulary in War and Peace: A Memento for conflict resolution in the Muslim World". In Fry, Douglas P.; Björkqvist, Kaj. Cultural variation in conflict resolution: Alternatives to violence. Psychology Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-135-80883-9.
  91. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P. (2005). Thinking about Yugoslavia: Scholarly debates about the Yugoslav breakup and the wars in Bosnia and Kosovo. Cambridge University Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-521-61690-4.
  92. ^ Anzulovic, Branimir (1999). Heavenly Serbia: From myth to genocide. NYU Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-8147-0671-8.
  93. ^ a b Anscombe 2006, pp. 769–770. "According to Serbian national history, Kosovo's Serbs rose up to join the advancing Habsburgs in the struggle to drive out the Ottomans. When the Habsburg army withdrew, 37,000 Serbian families left with them, or fled ahead of the reconquering Ottoman horde, in answer to an 'invitation' from the Emperor Leopold I to settle in Hungary. Their places in Kosovo were taken by Albanians, deported or encouraged to migrate from northern Albania by the Ottomans to ensure the permanent displacement of the rebellious Serbs. Catholics among the Albanians soon converted to Islam and the settlers became staunch supporters of the Ottoman regime. Thus, Kosovo's Albanians are relatively recent immigrants, settled by the state to displace Serbs and to buttress Muslim rule."
  94. ^ Malcolm, Noel (1998). Kosovo: A short history. London: Macmillan. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-333-66612-8.
  95. ^ Magaš, Branka (1993). The destruction of Yugoslavia: Tracking the break-up 1980–92. Verso. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-86091-593-5.
  96. ^ Muhić, Maja (2011). "The paradox of the Solution: The impact of the Kosovo question on Macedonia". In Hudson, Robert; Bowman, Glenn. After Yugoslavia: Identities and politics within the successor states. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-230-20131-6.
  97. ^ Anscombe 2006, p. 785. "While the ethnic roots of some settlements can be determined from the Ottoman records, Serbian and Albanian historians have at times read too much into them in their running dispute over the ethnic history of early Ottoman Kosovo. Their attempts to use early Ottoman provincial surveys (tahrir defterleri) to gauge the ethnic make-up of the population in the fifteenth century have proved little."
  98. ^ a b Banac, Ivo (1988). The national question in Yugoslavia: Origins, history, politics. Cornell University Press. pp. 294–295. ISBN 978-0-8014-9493-2.
  99. ^ a b Janssens, Jelle (2015). State-building in Kosovo. A plural policing perspective. Maklu. p. 50. ISBN 978-90-466-0749-7.
  100. ^ Winnifrith, Tom (1992). Perspectives on Albania. Springer. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-349-22050-2.
  101. ^ Pavlakovic, Vjeran; Ramet, Sabrina Petra (2004). "Albanian and Serb rivalry in Kosovo: Realist and universalist perspectives on sovereignty". In Bahcheli, Tozun; Bartmann, Barry; Srebrnik, Henry. De facto states: The quest for sovereignty. Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-135-77121-8.
  102. ^ Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2007). The Balkans: a post-communist history. Routledge. p. 516. ISBN 978-1-134-58328-7.
  103. ^ Schwartz, Stephen (2000). Kosovo: Background to a war. Anthem Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-898855-56-9.
  104. ^ Janjetović, Zoran (2000). "From Foe to Friend and back. Albanians in Serbian History Textbooks 1918–2000". Balkanologie. 4 (1/2). para. 7.
  105. ^ Malcolm, Noel (2006). "Is it true that Albanians in Kosova are not Albanians, but descendants from Albanianized Serbs?". In Di Lellio, Anna. The case for Kosova: Passage to independence. Anthem Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-85728-712-0.
  106. ^ a b Udovički, Jasminka (2000). "The bonds and the fault lines". In Udovički, Jasminka; Ridgeway, James. Burn this house: The making and unmaking of Yugoslavia. Duke University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-8223-2590-1.
  107. ^ Rüma, Inan (2013). "Turkish Foreign Policy towards the Balkans: Overestimated change within underestimated continuity?". In Oktav, Özden Zeynep. Turkey in the 21st century: Quest for a new foreign policy. Ashgate Publishing. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-317-00598-8.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Books
Journals
  • Aleksić, Dragan (2010). "Izdajnici ili rodoljubi. Paralelna slika o kolaboraciji u srpskoj istoriografiji u zemlji i emigraciji". Istorija 20. veka (2): 163–174.
  • Györe, Zoltán (2006). "Serbian Historiography and the Modern State". Public power in Europe: studies in historical transformations. Pisa: Edizioni Plus. ISBN 88-8492-401-4.
  • Ković, Miloš (2012). "Imagining the Serbs revisionism in the recent historiography of nineteenth-century Serbian history" (PDF). Balcanica. 43: 325–346.
  • Milićević, Nataša; Marković, Predrag (2007). "Srpska istoriografija u vreme tranzicije: Borba za legitimitet". Istorija 20. veka: 145–167.
  • Ignjatović, Aleksandar (2016). "Byzantium's Apt Inheritors: Serbian Historiography, Nation-Building and Imperial Imagination, 1882–1941" (PDF). Slavonic & East European Review. 94 (1): 57–92.
  • Jovanović, Miroslav (2010). "Savremena srpska istoriografija: karakteristike i trendovi". Istorija 20. veka: 183–192.
  • Jovanović, Miroslav (2006). "Kriza i istorija: Društvena kriza i istorijska svest u Srbiji početkom 21. veka". Godišnjak za društvenu istoriju (1–3): 89–113.
  • Miljković, Maja (2000). "Beogradski istoriografski krugovi i problem racionalnog sagledavanja fenomena nacionalnog interesa na kraju 20. veka". Prilozi (29): 329–344.
  • Pavlović, M. "Југословенско-српска историографија о Косову". Историја (20): 179–188.