Serbian protests (2018–present)
|Serbian protests, 2018–present|
One of the symbols of the 2018–19 protest depicting hashtag One of Five million
|Date||30 November 2018 – present|
|Methods||Demonstrations, civil disobedience, civil resistance, riot, occupation of administrative buildings, internet activism|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
In late 2018, a series of peaceful protests over the rise of political violence and against the authoritarian rule of Serbian President Aleksandar Vučić and his governing Serbian Progressive Party (SNS) began to take place in the Serbian capital of Belgrade, soon spreading to cities across the country. The protests were precipitated by an assault on an opposition non-parliamentary politician Borko Stefanović in November 2018. The protests were also triggered by many scandals of ruling party members, such as sexual harassment at work, assaults on investigative journalists, PhD thesis controversy, the arrest of whistleblower who uncovered the arms trade that ended up in the hands of ISIS fighters in Yemen, as well as the smear campaign and the unsolved murder of Kosovo Serb opposition leader Oliver Ivanović.
Parallel to the protests, Vučić launched a campaign "Future of Serbia”, organizing rallies in all districts of Serbia, while the pro-government media have constantly demonized protesters and opposition leaders, linking them to fascism as well, spreading misinformation to their readers.
The non-partisan expert group formulated the demands of the protests, concluded there were no conditions for free and fair elections, and drafted a comprehensive document with demands and recommendations. The protest resulted in inter-party European Parliament-mediated negotiations, but the largest opposition parties announced a boycott of the coming parliamentary elections due to lack of press freedom and fair electoral conditions.
Since the 2000 mass unrests that ended Milošević's rule, major opposition protests had been relatively rare in Serbia. The protests commencing in 2018 have been the third series of such mass demonstrations in three years. The previous series of protests took place in 2017 and were also directed at Vučić and his party, denouncing SNS's perceived domination of the media and voicing concern regarding claims of voter intimidation. The 2016 protests were similarly in part also directed against Vučić.
Vučić became Prime Minister after a snap election was called in 2014. He was a longtime member of the ultra-nationalist Serbian Radical Party, leading to fears that he would "succumb to the temptations of authoritarianism" after his accession to the premiership in 2014. As head of SNS, Vučić however tended to embrace more politically moderate conservative populist and pro-European values, steering government policy toward an eventual entry into the European Union while also maintaining close ties with Russia and China. However, particularly since being elected President in 2017, Vučić had "amassed more power, silenced the press, and undermined opposition", displaying increasingly authoritarian tendencies. Furthermore, Serbia's press freedom rankings decreased sharply during Vučić's rule, with the European parliament admonishing the government to "improve the situation regarding freedom of expression and freedom of the media". Serbia is ranked 90th out of 180 countries in the 2019 Press Freedom Index report compiled by Reporters Without Borders, declining its ranking by fourteen if compared to 2018 and 24 places if compared to 2017. In 2018, International Research & Exchanges Board described the situation in the media in Serbia as the worst in recent history, and that Media Sustainability Index dropped because the most polarized media in almost 20 years, an increase in fake news and editorial pressure on media. Freedom House reported that Serbia's status declined from Free to Partly Free due to deterioration in the conduct of elections, continued attempts by the government and allied media outlets to undermine independent journalists through legal harassment and smear campaigns, and Vučić's accumulation of executive powers that conflict with his constitutional role. Observers have described Vučić's rule as authoritarian or autocratic. Data from the Transparency International showed that a significant increase in perceived corruption was seen exactly from 2012, when Vučić came into power. According to research conducted by the Centre for Investigative Journalism, the battle against corruption in practice comes down to media announcements and arrests in front of cameras.
During 2017, Oliver Ivanović, Kosovo Serb opposition politician, was the target of a smear campaign led by Serb List, Serbian Progressive Party and pro-government Serbian media prior local elections. In July 2017, his car was burned down by unknown perpetrators. On 16 January 2018, Ivanović was shot in a drive-by shooting, while entering his office in North Mitrovica.
The protests were prompted by an assault on Borko Stefanović, one of the leaders of the strongest opposition coalition Alliance for Serbia. Stefanović was attacked by multiple assailants wielding steel rods on November 23, 2018. Stefanović, speaking to a New York Times reporter, said he was struck in the head from behind and knocked unconscious, after which the attackers continued battering him with strikes to the head, leading him to conclude the attack was in fact a failed assassination attempt. A day after the attack, Stefanović displayed his bloodied shirt from the night of the attack at a press conference. The image later became a symbol of the protests, with protesters carrying signs and rallying under the slogan "No More Bloody Shirts" / "Stop the Bloody Shirts". Following the assault, members of the opposition asserted that the attackers (multiple suspects were arrested shortly thereafter but denied any involvement) had ties to the ruling party, or that the assault was a result of hateful and vitriolic rhetoric used by the government against its opponents.
On December 11, the house of investigative journalist Milan Jovanović was shot up and bombarded by Molotov cocktails. The attack on the journalist (who "narrowly escaped") further fueled the protests. Jovanović believes that the attack was related to his reporting on corruption in the municipality.
The protests have been organised by various students and activists, along with the Alliance for Serbia, a loose alliance of various opposition parties and organisations. Prominent leaders of the protests have included actor Branislav Trifunović, and Jelena Anasonović, a political science student. Boško Obradović, a hard-right opposition politician, has also emerged as a leading figure of the protests. The political background of protesters and organizers is diverse, with both far-left, liberal, moderate, and far-right nationalist factions voicing opposition to the government. The protests are formally headed by the group Protest Against Dictatorship which also organised similar protests in 2016.
The protests have been non-partisan in nature (despite opposition parties providing some logistical support), but some protesters and supporters have voiced consternation over the inefficacy of the political opposition, expressing concern that without a viable electoral outlet, the momentum of the protests will simply fizzle out. Notably, the magazine Foreign Policy argued that demonstrations against Vucic’s authoritarian government won’t achieve anything until the opposition can present a coherent alternative. This is a similar concern voiced by experts who argue that Vucic's opposition is too fragmented and its leaders too different to work in unison against Vucic. The survey conducted among the protesters showed that about half of the protesters do not support any political party, but to protest against the suppression of media freedom and corruption. The vast majority of protesters (77%) were made by highly educated citizens and students.
The protesters have called for greater press freedom, greater political freedom and plurality, electoral reform, new elections, and more government transparency, and condemned what they perceive as Vučić's increasingly authoritarian tendencies (with manifestations including "hate speech" against opponents, suppression of dissenting voices, and mounting control over the country's media), while also accusing him of creating a climate of fear and violence, and the party he heads of being corrupt. Some protesters and prominent figures also called for Vučić's resignation.
- November 23, 2018 – the leader of a minor opposition party is thrashed by several assailants wielding metal rods.
- November 30, 2018 - the first meeting was announced for Friday, November 30 in Krusevac itself. He began as a regular forum of the Alliance for Serbia with the support of other parties and movements. However, after that, the attendants walked out to the streets and organized a protest walk, which was attended by about a thousand people.
- December 8, 2018 – the initial rally is held in Belgrade.
- December 11, 2018 – the home of an investigative journalist is shot up and attacked with firebombs.
- December 20, 2018 – the protest organizers announced the demands: five minutes for the protests on the Radio Television of Serbia, equal coverage by public broadcasters of all political options, the identifcation of the killers and masterminds behind the murder of Oliver Ivanovic, as well as those behind a murder attempt on Borko Stefanović and journalist Milan Jovanovic.
- January 13, 2019 – rally in Belgrade for the sixth consecutive Saturday, rallies in several other cities.
- January 16, 2019 – protesters stage a candlelit vigil for Kosovan Serb politician assassinated in 2018 whose murder remained unsolved, demanding an inquiry.
- January 17, 2019 – Vučić meets Russian President Putin in a lavish reception that critics label a publicity stunt and distraction. Tens of thousands of attendants are bused in, some are reportedly cajoled into attendance by material rewards or coerced by threatening firing.
- January 2019 – the protests have spread from the capital to several other cities, including Novi Sad, Niš, and several smaller towns.
- January 25, 2019 – Vučić announces an arrest of a mayor belonging to his party in connection to the attack on a journalist's home.
- January 24-31, 2019 – more than 1,200 scientists and university professors, as well as more than 400 actors and artists, have signed a proclamation supporting the protests.
- February 6, 2019 – opposition presents and signs draft of the Agreement with the People. The document outlines plans for profound democratic reform and democratic principles in line with the demands of the protesters to which the opposition pledges to adhere. Opposition also declares intention to begin a boycott of legislative bodies/other assemblies "in which the regime has abolished democratic principles of parliamentarism".
- February 6, 2019 – parallel to the protests, Vučić launched a campaign "Future of Serbia”, visiting towns throughout Serbia and championing his policies.
- February 11, 2019 – parts of the parliamentary opposition vow to boycott parliament in an act of solidarity and support with the protesters, with at least 45 of the 250 members of parliament participating.
- February 8, 2019 – professors of the University of Belgrade Faculty of Philosophy have launched a panel discussion each Thursday, where intellectuals discuss different aspects of the crisis Serbian society is in under Vučić, with the aim of joining protests and empowering society.
- March 12, 2019 – special Tuesday protests to mark the 16th anniversary of the assassination of former centrist liberal PM Zoran Đinđić that played an important role in the democratic transition of the country. Close associates of Đinđić welcome and endorse the protests.
- March 16, 2019 – protesters surround the presidential residence and storm the building of the state broadcaster and are confronted by riot police using tear gas to disperse the crowds, several are arrested. After the arrests, protesters gather before the police headquarters, demanding the release of the arrested demonstrators.
- April 13, 2019 – the most massive protest; a plan for a dialogue on media and election rules was presented.
- April 20, 2019 – the announcement of a non-partisan expert negotiation team to talk to the authorities about three key points – throttled media, abuses by the Regulatory Body for Electronic Media and irregular elections.
- May 25, 2019 – the European Commission stated in the Serbia 2019 Report that overall peaceful protests, demanding freedom of the media and free and fair elections, grew over time. They criticized election conditions, which include the lack of transparency of party and campaign financing, the blurred distinction between party and state activities, and the unbalanced media coverage. The Commission expresseed a serious concern about freedom of expression and that cases of threats, intimidation and violence against journalists are still a concern.
- June, 2019 – the protests become some of the longest-running in Europe.
- June 3, 2019 – the expert team concluded there were no conditions for free and fair elections in the country, due to the lack of public communication and inequality in that process, and they drafted a comprehensive and systematic document with six demands and six annexes.
- August 26, 2019 – Sergej Trifunović, leader of the Movement of Free Citizens and one of the most prominent figures of protests, wrote an open letter to David McAllister, the Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the European Parliament, asking him to consider facilitating a cross-party dialogue.
- September 3, 2019 – the protest organizers called for a boycott of the coming parliamentary election because no recommendation of the expert team was adopted.
- September 16, 2019 – parties of the Alliance for Serbia, the major opposition group, had taken a joint decision to boycott the next elections.
- October 9-10, 2019 – the first round of inter-party European Parliament-mediated dialogue in Serbia took place, while the Alliance for Serbia refused to participate, stating that there is no time for their demands for fair election conditions to be met before April, when the election is scheduled.
Responding to the protests, Vučić said that he would not compromise with the protesters "even if there were 5 million people in the street" (prompting protesters to adopt the slogan "One of Five Million" ("#1od5miliona")) but saying he would be willing to call a snap election. Both Vučić and his Serbian Progressive Party maintain popularity of over 50% in spite of the protests, and opposition leaders have responded to Vučić's suggestions of an early election by committing to a boycott due to what they describe as "unfair conditions. One of the political opposition leaders justified the boycott plans by saying that no election can be considered legitimate until "normal conditions for elections and living are created". Instead, many of them have called for the institution of a technocratic transitional government which would serve for a period of 1 year after which elections would be held.
In an interview in late December, Vučić declared he was ready to discuss the protesters' demands, saying "I am ready to look at what causes dissent of the people".
In late January, Vučić announced the arrest a mayor (and a member of Vučić's SNS party) in connection to the attack on the journalist's home, saying "A party membership card will not save anyone from responsibility. Journalists will be protected no matter for whom they work for [sic] ... No one will be protected because of being a politician" while also promising a fiercer fight against political violence and cronyism, including legislative actions.
After several months of protests, President Vučić and the ruling party members have labeled protesters "fascists, hooligans and thieves" and accuse them of violence. Goran Vesić, Belgrade’s Deputy Mayor, linked the protests to the “celebration of the day that Adolf Hitler invaded Belgrade”, as well as alleged support by Ramush Haradinaj, Prime Minister of Kosovo whom Serbia charges of war crimes, with the ultimate goal of overthrowing Aleksandar Vučić.
On January 17, 2019, President Vučić received visiting Russian President Vladimir Putin in a "lavish welcome" and a showing of friendship and mutual support. Tens of thousands of attendants were bused to Belgrade from across Serbia for an event that critics labeled a "popularity stunt" and a purposeful distraction from the protests. Many of those in the cheering crowd of 100,000 were said to have been "offered incentives to attend, including five liters of milk", while others were said to have been threatened with firing by bosses should they choose not to attend, according to media reports. It was also speculated that the reception was an attempt by Vučić to placate and shore up support of conservative pro-Russian sections of the population who are concerned about the pro-European tendencies of the President and his government.
The ceremony was staged at the same location where, just a day prior, tens of thousands of protesters marched for a candlelight vigil to honour the death of Oliver Ivanović, a moderate Serb politician that was assassinated in broad daylight in Kosovo in 2018. The vigil was organised by the same groups that were spearheading the ongoing anti-Vučić protests; the unsolved murder had become a "rallying point" for the protesters, signifying the repressive and sometimes violent political atmosphere of the region.
- Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognized as an independent state by 112 out of 193 United Nations member states, while 12 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition.
- "Skupovi podrške protestima "1 od 5 miliona" večeras u Pragu i Beču". Danas (in Serbian). 2019-02-23. Retrieved 2019-02-23.
- "Prva šetnja "Jedan od pet miliona" u Čikagu". N1 (in Serbian). 2019-03-03. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
- "Thousands protest in Serbia over attack on opposition politician". Reuters. 2018-12-08. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "Anti-Govt Protests for 6th Week Against Serbian Leader". The New York Times. 2019-01-12. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "More than 10,000 protest in Belgrade against Serbian president". Reuters. 2019-01-19. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "Thousands rally in Belgrade against Serbian president". Reuters. 2019-01-05. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "Thousands march against Serbia's president for 4th week". AP NEWS. 2018-12-29. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "Thousands in Serbia continue to march in nationwide, anti-government protests". Public Radio International. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "Fourth protest held in Belgrade". B92. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
- "Organizatori protesta: Želimo da se mladi probude i vrate žar za promenama". rs.n1info.com (in Serbian). Retrieved 2018-12-24.
- "Serbian Protesters Challenge Govt in Poster War". Balkaninsight.com. Retrieved 2019-03-02.
- "Belgrade protest lends support to students in Rectorate". rs.n1info.com. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
- "Saturday protest in support of Krusik whistleblower". rs.n1info.com. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
- Veljkovic, Jelena (2019-10-14). "Storm over Serbia Whistleblower Arrest in State Arms Scam". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
- "Protests against President Vucic spreads throughout Serbia". France 24. 9 February 2019.
- Jovanović, Srđan Mladenov (October 2016). ""One out of Five Million": Serbia's 2018-19 Protests against Dictatorship, the Media, and the Government's Response". Open Political Science. 2: 1–8. doi:10.1515/openps-2019-0001.
- Staff; agencies (2016-05-26). "Serbs rally against shady demolitions after masked crew 'tied up witnesses'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-01-24.
- "Serbian Protesters Face Dilemma Over Movement's Goals". Balkaninsight.com. Retrieved 2019-01-24.
- "Vučić po manj kot dveh letih na oblasti za predčasne volitve". RTVSLO.si (in Slovenian). Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "Serbia". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "Vucic's victory". The Economist. 2014-03-17. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "Thousands march against Serbian leader". 2019-01-05. Retrieved 2019-01-25.
- "Serbians Are Fighting to Keep Democracy Alive as the Country Takes an Authoritarian Turn". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- France-Presse, Agence (2018-12-30). "Serbia: thousands rally in fourth week of anti-government protests". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-01-25.
- "Serbia : RSF expects concrete measures from Vucic after formal meeting in Belgrade". Reporters Without Borders. January 22, 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
- "Serbia profile". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- "Serbia, Media Sustainability Index". International Research & Exchanges Board. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
- "Freedom in the World 2019" (PDF). Freedom House. January 5, 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- Bieber, Florian (July 2018). "Patterns of competitive authoritarianism in the Western Balkans". East European Politics. 38 (3): 337–54. doi:10.1080/21599165.2018.1490272.
- Günay, Cengiz; Džihić, Vedran (October 2016). "Decoding the authoritarian code: exercising 'legitimate' power politics through the ruling parties in Turkey, Macedonia and Serbia". Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. 16 (4): 529–549. doi:10.1080/14683857.2016.1242872.
- "A Serbian Election Erodes Democracy". The New York Times. 9 April 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- Eror, Aleks (9 March 2018). "How Aleksandar Vucic Became Europe's Favorite Autocrat". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- Jovanović, Srđan Mladenov (2019). "Poor governance, good corruption: an overview of Serbia's government's affair-ridden governance (2012-2018)". Przegląd Europejski. 2018 (4): 161–178. doi:10.5604/01.3001.0013.3501.
- Jahić, Dino; Jeremić, Ivana (15 February 2017). "Koliko je zaista uspešna borba protiv korupcije i kriminala" (in Serbian). Centar za istraživačko novinarstvo Srbije. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- "Ivanovic's Murder Shows Words Can Kill". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
- "Zapaljen automobil Olivera Ivanovića u Kosovskoj Mitrovici". n1info.com (in Serbian). Beta. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Prominent Kosovo Serb politician Oliver Ivanovic killed in drive-by shooting". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Ubijen Oliver Ivanović sa pet metaka iz zasede". blic.rs. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Serbian Protesters Face Dilemma Over Movement's Goals". Balkaninsight.com. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "Thousands march in Belgrade in anti-government protest". Reuters. 2019-01-16. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "Serbia leader announces arrest of mayor over attack on journalist". News.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
- "Serbian leader targeted by Belgrade rally". 2019-03-17. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
- Reuters (2019-01-17). "Beset by Protests, Serb Leader Stages Lavish Reception for Putin". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- Eror, Eleks (March 19, 2019). "Serbia's Protests Aren't the Beginning of a Balkan Spring". Foreign Policy.
- "Građani na proteste "1 od 5 miliona" izlaze zbog neslobode medija i korupcije". N1 (in Serbian). Retrieved 2019-04-23.
- "Protests against Serbia's President Vucic enter sixth week". Reuters. 2019-01-12. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- Press, The Associated (2019-01-19). "Belgrade Protests for 7th Week Against Serbian Leader". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "Belgrade protests for 7th week against Serbian leader". WSOC. 2019-01-19. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- RFE (2018-12-23). "Protesters Call On Serbian President To Resign". RFE. Retrieved 2019-02-05.
- "Thousands protest in Serbia over attack on opposition politician". Reuters. 2018-12-08. Retrieved 2019-01-24.
- Miljković, Piše: Miloš D. (28 November 2018). "Tribina "Stop krvavim košuljama": Stvoreni smo da ne budemo podanici". Dnevni list Danas. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- Božović, Nenad. "Protestna šetnja opozicije u Kruševcu". Blic.rs. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- "Organizatori protesta "1 od 5 miliona" traže pet minuta u Dnevniku RTS". N1. 20 Decenber 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2019. Check date values in:
- Press, The Associated (2019-01-16). "Several Thousand in Belgrade Seek Truth About Kosovo Murder". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-24.
- Reuters (2019-01-17). "Beset by Protests, Serb Leader Stages Lavish Reception for Putin". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-24.
- Santora, Marc; MacFarquhar, Neil (2019-01-17). "Putin Gets Red Carpet Treatment in Serbia, a Fulcrum Once More". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-24.
- "Belgrade Protests Start Spreading Across Serbia". Balkaninsight.com. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
- "Univerzitetska podrška #1 od 5 miliona". Peščanik (in Serbian). 2019-01-24.
- "Glumci i saradnici u kulturi podržali proteste: Branimo načela demokratije". N1 (in Serbian). 2019-01-31.
- "Serbian opposition publishes Agreement With the People". N1 Srbija (in Serbian). Retrieved 2019-02-13.
- "Serbian Opposition Groups Boycott Parliament as Protests Spread". Bloomberg.com.
- "Radonjić: Premijerka je problem gušenja sloboda svela na "klozetsko pitanje"". N1 Srbija (in Serbian). 2019-02-08.
- "Nije filozofski cutati". IMDb.
- "Serbia Protesters to March in Memory of Djindjic". Balkan Insight. 2019-03-12. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
- staff, Guardian; agencies (2019-03-17). "Protesters invade Serbian state TV amid demonstrations across Balkans". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
- "The massive protests few people know about". N1. Retrieved 2019-04-13.
- "Serbian protest organizers name negotiators, define issues for talks". N1. Retrieved 2019-04-20.
- "Serbia 2019 Report" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved 2019-05-29.
- "Serbia's anti-regime protesters make demands, say ready for dialogue if they met". BBC News. Retrieved 2019-06-14.
- "Civil protests' experts: No conditions for free and fair elections in Serbia". N1. Retrieved 2019-06-03.
- "Predstavljanje preporuka stručnog tima protesta #1od5miliona". poceloje.rs. Retrieved 2019-06-03.
- "Leader of Serbia's opposition party asks for EP's mediation of cross-party talks in a letter to McAllister". European Western Balkans. Retrieved 2019-08-26.
- "Organizatori protesta „1 od 5 miliona" pozvali na bojkot izbora (VIDEO)". Danas (in Serbian). Retrieved 2019-09-03.
- "Opposition Alliance for Serbia declares boycott". N1. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
- "First EP-mediated dialogue in Serbia: Part of the opposition refuses to participate". European Western Balkans. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
- Reuters (2019-01-12). "Protests Against Serbia's President Vucic Enter Sixth Week". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "Thousands protest against Serbian president". Reuters. 2018-12-29. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- "Serbia protests: President Vucic the target of Belgrade rally". BBC. 2019-03-17. Retrieved 2019-04-23.
- "Vesic says no violence in Belgrade, opposition youth play games". N1. 2019-04-07. Retrieved 2019-04-23.
- "Belgrade deputy mayor says opposition celebrating Nazi seizure of city". N1. 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-04-23.
- "Haradinaj najavi proteste kojima će biti srušen Vučić, a onda Đilas organizuje svoj navodni skup protiv nasilja! To je vrlo indikativno, kaže Goran Vesić!". Informer (in Serbian). 2019-12-16. Retrieved 2019-04-23.
- Santora, Marc; MacFarquhar, Neil (2019-01-17). "Putin Gets Red Carpet Treatment in Serbia, a Fulcrum Once More". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- Press, The Associated (2019-01-16). "Several Thousand in Belgrade Seek Truth About Kosovo Murder". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jedan od pet miliona.|