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The Serbs (Sârbii) are recognized as an ethnic minority in Romania. According to the 2011 census, there were 18,076 Serbs in Romania or 0.1% of the population. Serbs mostly live in western Romania, in the Romanian part of the Banat region, where they constitute absolute majority in two communes and relative majority in one other.
Ottoman pressure traditionally forced members of several South Slavic communities to seek refuge in Wallachia - although under Ottoman rule as well, the latter was always subject to less requirements than regions to south of the Danube.
These groups are, however, hard to distinguish one from another in early Wallachian references, as the term "Serbs" is regularly applied to all Southern Slavs, no matter where they might have originated. This only changed in the 19th century, through a transition made clear by an official statistic of 1830, which reads "census of how many Serbs are resident here in the town of Ploiești, all of them Bulgarians" (Giurescu, p. 269).
Serbs-proper probably constituted the vast majority of mercenary troops known as seimeni, given that their nucleus is attested to have been formed by "Serb seimeni" (as it was during their revolt in 1655), and that the rule of PrinceMatei Basarab had witnessed the arrival of a large group of Serb refugees.
According to the 2011 census, there was 18,076 people of the Serb minority. In the 2002 census, there was 22,561 people.
In Caraș-Severin County, the Serbs constitute an absolute majority in the commune of Pojejena (52.09%) and a plurality in the commune of Socol (49.54%). Serbs also constitute absolute majority in the municipality of Svinița (87.27%) in the Mehedinți County. The region where these three municipalities are located is known as Clisura Dunării in Romanian or Banatska Klisura (Банатска Клисура) in Serbian. In Timis, they form a notable community in Sânpetru Mare (25,0%, 525), Variaș (12,4%, 502) and
Communes with a Serbian majority in Romania (2002 census)
Sveti Đorđe monastery (Манастир светог Ђорђа - Манастир свети Ђурађ / Manastir svetog Đorđa - Manastir sveti Đurađ). According to the legend, it was founded in 1485 by the Serbian despot, Jovan Branković. It was rebuilt in the 18th century.
Šemljug monastery (Манастир Шемљуг / Manastir Šemljug). It was founded in the 15th century.