Jump to content

Serdar Ferhad Pasha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Serdar Ferhat Paşa (Ottoman Turkish: سردار فرهاد پاشا; Turkish: Serdar Ferhat Paşa) was an Ottoman statesman of Albanian descent. He was twice grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire between 1 August 1591 and 4 April 1592 and between 16 February 1595 and 7 July 1595.[1]

Ferhad
Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
In office
1 August 1591 – 4 April 1592
MonarchMurad III
Preceded byKoca Sinan Pasha
Succeeded byKanijeli Siyavuş Pasha
In office
6 February 1595 – 7 July 1595
MonarchMehmed III
Preceded byKoca Sinan Pasha
Succeeded byKoca Sinan Pasha
Personal details
Bornc. 1530
Albania (then Ottoman Empire)
DiedOctober 1595
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire (modern Turkey)
NationalityOttoman
Spouse
(m. 1591)
(disputed)

Career[edit]

Tomb of Serdar Ferhad Pasha in Eyup Sultan

He became Agha of the Janissaries in 25 February 1582, but lost his position because of Koca Sinan Pasha. In 1582 he was appointed vizier by Grand Visier Siyavus Pasha and joined Ottoman forces during the Safewid wars where he soon became second commander (serdar). He made Tebriz his military base and captured Ganja. He attended peaceful negotiations with Shah Abbas I and turned Istanbul with Safewid embassy.[2] The Treaty of Ferhad Pasha of 1590 ending the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–1590) (also called the Treaty of Constantinople) was named for him.

His successful campaign during the Safewid wars returned him to the position of Grand Vizier in 1 August 1591, but he lost his position in 4 April 1592 again by the intrigue of Koca Sinan Pasha.

During his second term, he campaigned against Michael the Brave, the ruler who rebelled in Wallachia. He ordered a bridge be built between Ruse and Giurgiu across the Danube. During preparations, he faced a military uprising at the gate of Divan-ı Hümayun. More than 1000 kuloğulları requested ulufe (wages) from the grand vizier for their campaign during the Safewid wars but he rejected that claim. They infiltrated the troops and organized them against the Grand Vizier, saying, "We won't accept any ulufe until Ferhad Pasha is decapitated for insulting us."[This quote needs a citation] Ferhad Pasha blamed Koca Sinan Pasha and Cığalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha for that provocation and ordered punishment for both. Later he relented and exiled Koca Sinan Pasha to Malkara and Cığalazade to Karahisar-ı Şarki.[3]

Ibrahim Pasha, the second vizier, who was appointed as kaymakam to the Porte, incited Sultan Murad III about the dismissal of Ferhad Pasha. On 7 July 1595, while Ferhad Pasha was trying to build a bridge in Ruse, again lost his position, and Koca Sinan Pasha became grand vizier again.

Ferhâd Pasha had taken lessons from Ahmed Karahisari[4] during his education in Enderûn-ı Hümâyûn. Karahisai was one of the important figures of the culture and art environments of the period. Whenever he had the opportunity, he would copy the mushâf-ı şerîf and would sell the Qur'an-i-kerîms he wrote. Two of the mushafs he wrote are in the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts and the Library of the Topkapı Palace Museum.

According to some sources[5][6] he was married to Hümaşah Sultan, a daughter of Murad III.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ İsmail Hâmi Danişmend, Osmanlı Devlet Erkânı, Türkiye Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1971 (Turkish)
  2. ^ Mehmet İpşi̇rli̇ (1995). "FERHAD PAŞA". TDV Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. 12 (Eys – Fikhü'l-Hadîs) (in Turkish). Istanbul: Turkiye Diyanet Foundation, Centre for Islamic Studies. ISBN 978-975-389-439-5.
  3. ^ Hasan Beyzade Ahmet, -1636 or 1637. (2004). Hasan Bey-zâde târîhi. Aykut, Şevki Nezihi., Atatürk Kültür, Dil, ve Tarih Yüksek Kurumu (Turkey). Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi. ISBN 975-16-0999-2. OCLC 57346667.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ F. Déroche, M. Farhad, and S. Rettig (2016). The Art of the Qurʼan: Treasures from the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts, p. 35.
  5. ^ Kohen, Elli (2007). History of the Turkish Jews and Sephardim: Memories of a Past Golden Age. p. 172.
  6. ^ K. von Behr (1870). Genealogie der in Europa regierenden Fürstenhäuser nebst der Reihenfolge. p. 160.
Political offices
Preceded by Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
1 August 1591 – 4 April 1592
Succeeded by
Preceded by Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
16 February 1595 – 7 July 1595
Succeeded by