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Born in Korta, a village near Kutaisi, Serghei (Sergo) Arsenievici (Artenievici) Goglidze joined the Cheka in 1921. He served with GPU-NKVD border troops, rising through the ranks. In 1934 he was appointed People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the Transcaucasian SFSR, and, from 1937, of the Georgian SSR. Goglidze was a close associate and friend of Lavrentiy Beria, who promoted Goglidze to these high-level positions.
In 1941, he was appointed Plenipotentiary of the People's Commissar's Council in Moldavia (Romanian territory, occupied by Soviet Union following the ultimatum of June 26, 1940, itself a direct consequence of the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact), and was put in charge of a major deportation. In July 1941, after the start of the war, he was moved to Khabarovsk, working as a chief of the Soviet security apparatus in the Far East.
In 1953, after the death of Stalin and downfall of Beria, he was arrested and shot (in Moscow, on December 23, 1953) together with a group of other NKVD officers close to Beria.