While serine/threonine kinases all phosphorylate serine or threonine residues in their substrates, they select specific residues to phosphorylate on the basis of residues that flank the phosphoacceptor site, which together comprise the consensus sequence. Since the consensus sequence residues of a target substrate only make contact with several key amino acids within the catalytic cleft of the kinase (usually through hydrophobic forces and ionic bonds), a kinase is usually not specific to a single substrate, but instead can phosphorylate a whole "substrate family" which share common recognition sequences. While the catalytic domain of these kinases is highly conserved, the sequence variation that is observed in the kinome (the subset of genes in the genome that encode kinases) provides for recognition of distinct substrates. Most kinases are inhibited by a pseudosubstrate that binds to the kinase like a real substrate but lacks the amino acid to be phosphorylated. When the pseudosubstrate is removed, the kinase can perform its normal function.
Many serine/threonine protein kinases do not have their own individual EC numbers and use "188.8.131.52". These were formerly included in EC number "184.108.40.206", which was a general EC number for any enzyme that phosphorylates proteins while converting ATP to ADP (i.e., ATP:protein phosphotransferases.)
consists of two domains, a small domain with several β sheet structures and a larger domain containing several α helices. The binding sites for substrate and ATP are located in the catalytic cleft between the domains (or lobes). When ATP and substrate bind, the two lobes rotate so that the terminal phosphate group of the ATP and the target amino acid of the substrate move into the correct positions for the catalytic reaction to take place.
respond to extracellular stimuli (mitogens) and regulate various cellular activities, such as gene expression, mitosis, differentiation, and cell survival/apoptosis.
3-kinase]]. Three human akt genes exist. All three Akt kinases regulate cell proliferation and Akt2 is particularly important for insulin actions in cells. A major target of Akt kinases is glycogen synthase kinase-3.
^Nowakowski, J.; Cronin, C. N.; McRee, D. E.; Knuth, M. W.; Nelson, C. G.; Pavletich, N. P.; Rogers, J.; Sang, B. C.; Scheibe, D. N.; Swanson, R. V.; Thompson, D. A. (2002). "Structures of the cancer-related Aurora-A, FAK, and EphA2 protein kinases from nanovolume crystallography". Structure (London, England : 1993)10 (12): 1659–1667. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(02)00907-3. PMID12467573.edit