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The Serjeant Surgeon is the senior surgeon in the Medical Household of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. The origin of the post dates back to 1253. Early serjeant surgeons were military surgeons who followed their king into battle.
John Arderne, later famous as the Father of Proctology, accompanied Edward III at the Battle of Crecy in 1346. But the title did not refer to a military rank; the word "serjeant" comes from the Latin "serviens" or "serving".
Over the years, other duties of the Serjeant Surgeon have included embalming of the royal corpse, oversight of torture to ensure the prisoner was not killed, and the screening of applicants to be touched by the king for the cure of the King's evil (tuberculous glands of the neck).
The first knighthood to be granted to a serjeant surgeon was in the reign of Henry VIII, to John Aylef, who was said to have cured the king of a fistula. The first serjeant surgeon to receive a peerage was Joseph Lister, the founder of antiseptic surgery, who was created Baron Lister of Lyme Regis in the County of Dorset by Queen Victoria.
- Claudius Amyand 1715-1740
- Robert Keate FRCS 1841
- Benjamin Travers 1857–1858
- Sir William Lawrence, Bt FRCS FRS 1858
- Caesar Hawkins FRS 1862
List of serjeant surgeons from the beginning of the twentieth century
- Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, OM, FRS 1901
- Colonel Sir Frederick Treves, Bt GCVO CB 1902-1910
- Major-General Sir Richard Havelock Charles, 1st Baronet 1910-1928
- Colonel Sir Hugh Rigby, Bt KCVO 1928-1932
- Wilfred Trotter, MD MS FRCS FRS 1932-1939
- Sir Thomas Dunhill, KCVO CMG c.1944
- Brigadier Sir Arthur Porritt, Bt KCMG KCVO CBE MA MB MChir FRCS 1946-1966
- Sir Ralph Marnham, KCVO MChir FRCS 1967-1971
- Sir Edward Muir, KCVO MS FRCS 1972-1973
- Sir Edward Tuckwell, KCVO MCh FRCS 1973-1975
- Sir Hugh Lockhart-Mummery, KCVO MD MChir FRCS LRCP 1975-1983
- Sir William Slack, KCVO MD MCh BM FRCS 1983-1990
- John Leonard Dawson, CVO MS FRCS 1990-1991
- Sir Barry Jackson, MS FRCS 1991-2001
- Adam Lewis, CVO 2001-2006
- Sir Roger Vickers, KCVO FRCS 2006-10
- George Hamilton, CVO MD FRCS 2010-2016
- Satyajit Bhattacharya, LVO MS MPhil FRCS 2016-
Honorary serjeant surgeons
- Sir William MacCormac, Bt., KCB, KCVO 1901 
- Sir Thomas Smith, Bt. 1901-1909 
- Sir Frederick Treves, Bt., GCVO, CH, FRCS 1901 (he was appointed Serjeant Surgeon the following year)
- "Claudius Amyand". The Twickenham Museum.
- Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney, eds. (1891). "Hawkins, Cæsar Henry". Dictionary of National Biography. 25. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 206–207.
- "No. 27289". The London Gazette. 26 February 1901. p. 1414.
- "No. 27457". The London Gazette. 25 July 1902. p. 4738.
- London Gazette 12 June 2010
- "No. 27300". The London Gazette. 29 March 1901. p. 2194.