Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent

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A serotonin–norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA), also known as a triple releasing agent (TRA), is a type of drug which induces the release of serotonin, norepinephrine/epinephrine, and dopamine in the brain and body. SNDRAs produce euphoriant, entactogen, and psychostimulant effects, and are almost exclusively encountered as recreational drugs.

A closely related type of drug is a serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI).

Examples of SNDRAs[edit]

Examples of SNDRAs include specific amphetamines such as MDMA, MDA, 4-methylamphetamine, methamphetamine (in high doses), certain substituted benzofurans such as 5-APB and 6-APB, naphthylisopropylamine; cathinones such as mephedrone and methylone; tryptamines such as αMT and αET; along with agents of other chemical classes such as 4,4'-DMAR, and 5-IAI.[1] αET and αMT are of special notability among SNDRAs in that those tryptamines were once used as pharmaceutical drugs, specifically as antidepressants, but were withdrawn shortly after introduction in the 1960s due to problems with toxicity and recreational use.[2][3][4] Such tryptamines were originally thought to act as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) before the signature monoamine-releasing actions were elucidated.[3][4] Many years after being withdrawn, αET was also determined to produce serotonergic neurotoxicity, similarly to MDMA and various other SNDRAs; the same is very likely true for αMT as well, although it has not specifically been assessed.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bruce E. Blough, Richard Rothman, Antonio Landavazo, Kevin M. Page, Ann Marie Decker. Phenylmorpholines and analogues thereof. US Patent 2013/0203752
  2. ^ Donald G. Barceloux (20 March 2012). Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 196–. ISBN 978-0-471-72760-6. 
  3. ^ a b Leslie Iversen (11 November 2013). Handbook of Psychopharmacology: Volume 14 Affective Disorders: Drug Actions in Animals and Man. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 132–. ISBN 978-1-4613-4045-4. 
  4. ^ a b Biological Research on Addiction: Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders. Academic Press. 17 May 2013. pp. 632–. ISBN 978-0-12-398360-2. 
  5. ^ Huang, Xuemei; Johnson, Michael P.; Nichols, David E. (1991). "Reduction in brain serotonin markers by α-ethyltryptamine (Monase)". European Journal of Pharmacology. 200 (1): 187–190. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(91)90686-K. ISSN 0014-2999. PMID 1722753.