Serotonin reuptake inhibitor
A serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) by blocking the action of the serotonin transporter (SERT). This in turn leads to increased extracellular concentrations of serotonin and, therefore, an increase in serotonergic neurotransmission.
SRIs are not synonymous with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), as the latter term is usually used to describe the class of antidepressants of the same name, and because SRIs, unlike SSRIs, can either be selective or non-selective in their action. For example, cocaine, which non-selectively inhibits the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, is an SRI but not an SSRI.
SRIs are used predominantly as antidepressants (e.g., SSRIs, SNRIs, and TCAs), though they are also commonly used in the treatment of other psychological conditions such as anxiety disorders and eating disorders. Less often, SRIs are also used to treat a variety of other medical conditions including neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia (e.g., duloxetine, milnacipran), and premature ejaculation (e.g., dapoxetine) as well as for dieting (e.g., sibutramine). Additionally, some clinically used drugs such as chlorpheniramine, dextromethorphan, and methadone possess SRI properties secondarily to their primary mechanism of action(s) and this contributes to their side effect and drug interaction profiles.
A closely related type of drug is a serotonin releasing agent (SRA).
List of selective SRIs
Many SRIs exist, an assortment of which are listed below. Note that only SRIs selective for the SERT over the other monoamine transporters (MATs) are listed below. For a list of SRIs that act at multiple MATs, see other monoamine reuptake inhibitor pages such as SNRI and SNDRI.
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
- Alaproclate (GEA-654)
- Cericlamine (JO-1017)
- Citalopram (Celexa)
- Dapoxetine (Priligy)
- Escitalopram (Lexapro, Cipralex)
- Femoxetine (Malexil)
- Fluoxetine (Prozac)
- Fluvoxamine (Luvox)
- Ifoxetine (CGP-15,210-G)
- Indalpine (Upstene)
- Panuramine (WY-26,002)
- Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat)
- Pirandamine (AY-23,713)
- Sertraline (Zoloft, Lustral)
- Zimelidine (Normud, Zelmid)
- Active metabolites of SSRIs
- Combined SRIs and serotonin receptor ligands
- Drugs with SRI actions as weaker and/or unintended secondary effects
- Other SRIs
- Werling LL; Keller A; Frank JG; Nuwayhid SJ (2007). "A comparison of the binding profiles of dextromethorphan, memantine, fluoxetine and amitriptyline: treatment of involuntary emotional expression disorder". Exp Neurol. 207 (2): 248–57. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2007.06.013. PMID 17689532.
- Gillman PK (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". Br J Anaesth 95 (4): 434–41. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210. PMID 16051647.
- Yeh SY; Dersch C; Rothman R; Cadet JL (September 1999). "Effects of antihistamines on 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced depletion of serotonin in rats". Synapse 33 (3): 207–17. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2396(19990901)33:3<207::AID-SYN5>3.0.CO;2-8. PMID 10420168.
- Li C, Shan L, Li X, Wei L, Li D (2014). "Mifepristone modulates serotonin transporter function". Neural Regen Res 9 (6): 646–52. doi:10.4103/1673-5374.130112. PMC 4146234. PMID 25206868.
- Pharmaceutical compositions containing mesembrine and related compounds. U.S. Patent 6,288,104