Serpukhov

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Serpukhov

Серпухов
Aerial view of Serpukhov
Aerial view of Serpukhov
Flag of Serpukhov
Flag
Coat of arms of Serpukhov
Coat of arms
Location of Serpukhov
Serpukhov is located in Russia
Serpukhov
Serpukhov
Location of Serpukhov
Serpukhov is located in Moscow Oblast
Serpukhov
Serpukhov
Serpukhov (Moscow Oblast)
Coordinates: 54°55′N 37°24′E / 54.917°N 37.400°E / 54.917; 37.400Coordinates: 54°55′N 37°24′E / 54.917°N 37.400°E / 54.917; 37.400
CountryRussia
Federal subjectMoscow Oblast[1]
Founded1339
City status since1374
Government
 • HeadDmitry Zharikov[2]
Area
 • Total37.516 km2 (14.485 sq mi)
Elevation
140 m (460 ft)
Population
 • Total127,041
 • Estimate 
(2018)[5]
125,817 (−1%)
 • Rank129th in 2010
 • Density3,400/km2 (8,800/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toSerpukhov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
 • Capital ofSerpukhovsky District[1], Serpukhov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
 • Urban okrugSerpukhov Urban Okrug[3]
 • Capital ofSerpukhov Urban Okrug[3], Serpukhovsky Municipal District[6]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[7])
Postal code(s)[8]
142200
Dialing code(s)+7 4967
OKTMO ID46770000001
Websiteserpuhov.ru

Serpukhov (Russian: Серпухов, IPA: [ˈsʲɛrpʊxəf]) is a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Oka and the Nara Rivers, 99 kilometers (62 mi) south from Moscow on the Moscow—Simferopol highway. The Moscow—Tula railway passes through Serpukhov. Population: 127,041 (2010 Census);[4] 131,097 (2002 Census);[9] 143,618 (1989 Census).[10] Serpukhov is the administrative center of the Serpukhov city district within the Moscow region. It has a population of126,273 (2020). Serpukhov is the center of the Serpukhov city agglomeration with a population of more than 260,000 inhabitants.[citation needed]

In the 14th and early 15th centuries, Serpukhov was the capital of the principality. Allocated to an independent administrative and economic unit with direct subordination to the executive committee of the regional council on September 14, 1939. Now a city of regional subordination, it is part of the municipal education of the city district of Serpukhov.[citation needed]

In modern times, Serpukhov has become a local industrial center with textile, mechanical engineering, furniture, and paper-producing industries. The SeAZ factory produces the Lada Oka microcar since the 1980s. The Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Reserve sprawls within 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from the city. By a resolution of the Moscow Regional Duma of April 28, 2016, the city was awarded the honorary title "The Inhabited Point of Military Valor".[citation needed]

Geographical location[edit]

Serpukhov is located in the southern part of the Moscow region on the Nara River, 99 km from the center of Moscow and 73 km from Moscow. Two regional centres, Tula and Kaluga, are located at approximately the same distance (about 80 km) from Serpukhov. The city and the surrounding area are located on the border of three physical and geographical provinces. The north of the district, located on the left bank of the Oka belongs to the Moskvoretsky-Oka Plain, which in the northwest passes into the slopes of the Smolensk-Moscow hill, in the northeast - to the Moscow Meshcher, and in the south is limited to the valley of Oka. The western part of the district, which includes the Nara Basin, where Serpukhov is located, belongs to the Smolensk province. The southern part, occupying the northern slopes of the Central Russian hill, is to the province of the city. The picturesque location of the city was celebrated in the 18th century by A. Bolotov: "All of it, being built on a curved and uneven kosogor,[clarification needed] represented some kind of beautiful amphitheater, and white in different places pointed tops of bell towers with their shiny golden crosses gave it excellent beauty."[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

The climate is moderately continental. Conditions are determined by the impact of the transfer of air masses of western and south-western cyclones, the removal of Arctic air from the north and the transformation of air masses of different origins. The consequence of exposure to air masses from the Atlantic Ocean is the probability of winter thaws and wet cool periods in the summer. The influence of arctic cold masses affects in the form of severe cold snaps in the winter months and in the form of "return of colds" in the spring-summer period, in which the temperature drops down to frosts on the soil.[citation needed]

The coldest month of the year is January: The average temperature is 8.6 degrees C. The warmest month is July with an average temperature of 18.5 degrees C. Absolute maximum temperature is recorded on August 6, 2010: 39.4 degrees C. Days with frosts are recorded even in summer, except July and August. The average duration of a warm period is above 0 degrees Celsius, with an average daily temperature above 216 days per year. The growing season of plants is 180 days.[citation needed]

During the year, the southwest quarter winds prevail - south, southwest and west, the recurrence of which is 15%, 19% and 17%, respectively, and a total of 51%. The average annual wind speed is 3.0 m/s. The average monthly wind speed is observed in winter, reaching a magnitude of 3.3 m/s, the minimum in summer - 2.5-2.6 m/s. In winter, the largest forces are the south-east and northwest winds (3.6 m/s), in the summer - northern and northwesterly (3.1-2.8 m/s). Wind speed, the recurrence of which is 5% - 6 m/s.[citation needed]

Precipitation is mainly determined by cyclonic activity. Precipitation associated with local circulation, even in summer, is a smaller proportion. The average long-term rainfall is 580–590 mm. During the warm period falls the main (up to 70%) - the amount of precipitation.

The height of snow cover in open spaces is on average 38 cm. In lowered and forested places the height of snow cover is much higher than specified, and it comes off later. The highest height of the snow cover reaches in March. The timing of the formation of a stable snow cover, as well as the timing of its appearance and convergence, vary greatly from year to year depending on the nature of the weather.

Ecological condition[edit]

As a result of emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere by the city's industrial enterprises, the level of air pollution in Serpukhov is often higher than the established standards. Urban transport infrastructure is struggling to cope with congestion during peak hours, leading to congestion. This fact cannot have a positive impact on the environmental situation.

Etymology[edit]

The city in 1336 is referred to as The Serpokhov, only from the 16th century entered into use the modern form of Serpukhov. There is still no clear explanation of the origin of Serpukhov's place-by-point. There are several variants of the origin of the name, none of which, however, is generally accepted: - from the hypothetical name "Serpoch" (derived from "Serp") with suffix - ; - from the name of the River Serpeiki; - from the sickle plant; - from the fact that the River Serpeika sickly skirted the Cathedral (Red) mountain; - from the fact that sickles were forged in the vicinity of the city; - from the canonical name Serapion; - different versions of theFinn-Ugricorigin and other versions.

History[edit]

Serpukhov was established in 1339 to protect the southern approaches to Moscow.[11] Two years later it was made a seat of the powerful princedom ruled by a cousin and close associate of Dmitry Donskoy, Vladimir the Bold. Town status was granted to it in 1374.[citation needed] The princedom continued until 1456, when the last prince escaped to Lithuania. The town frequently fell prey to the hordes of Tokhtamysh, Crimean Tatars, and other steppe conquerors. It was necessary to protect it with a stone citadel, or kremlin, which was completed by 1556 as part of the Great Abatis Belt.

Located on the Oka frontiers and serving as a fortress during the long struggle with the Mongol-Tatar and Lithuanian-Polish conquerors, Serpukhov for a long time remained a reliable outpost of the Moscow Principality. The Serpukhov principality, led by Prince Vladimir Brave, participated in the Battle of Kulikov. It was here that Tsar Ivan IV once conducted a large look at his military forces, here stood the camp of Boris Godunov with "rat people", in Serpukhov collected regiments "for the enemy of his Crimean tsar" Vasily Shuisky. One of the strongholds was the city for the peasant army of Ivan Bolotnikov.

In the mid-16th century Serpukhov maintained the role of an important strategic, administrative and economic center, experienced a revival in crafts and trade. The city consisted of three parts: the Kremlin, the posada and the suburb. Historically, Serpukhov's urban districts were formed from monastic suburbs and factory huts, and have been merged into a single whole already now.

The Middle[edit]

There is no written evidence of Serpukhov's existence in the Domangol era. However, as a result of archaeological research of serpukhovsky fortification, conducted in 1926-1927 by A.N. Voronkov, numerous remains of ceramics, glass, iron products of the 10th and 13th centuries were found. On the site of the fortification between the rivers Nara and Serpeika at the mouth of the last in the 14th century, there was already a city.

The first mention of Serpukhov in written sources is the spiritual letter of Ivan Kalita. In the will of the Moscow prince, the city is presented as one of his possessions. The text of the document exists in two versions with different dating. There are several opinions about the date of the will:

According to L. V. Cherepnin, both copies of the spiritual lettering were drawn up before Ivan Kalita's fourth trip to Orda in 1339. According to A. A. Simin, the document was created earlier than 1331 - either in 1327 or in 1328. A. V. Kuchkin believes that one copy of the will was made in 1336 (during the third trip of the prince to Orda), and the other - after this event. The official date from which the age of the city is counted is 1339, according to the first version.

According to spiritual literacy, the third son of Ivan Kalita Andrei Ivanovich inherited part of the land of the Moscow Principality, including Serpukhov, which became the center of the parish, and in the future - the basis of the new specific principality. In the middle of the 14th century, an epidemic of plague, known as "black death", swept across Europe. Prince Andrew fell to one of her victims in 1353. The deal is inherited by Prince Vladimir Andreevich. During the age of the prince's possessions are run by influential boyars. At this time in the history of the city is a significant event - Moscow Metropolitan Alexis in 1360 on the right bank of Nara founded the Monastery of The Lord. In 1367, in order to settle relations between Vladimir and his cousin Dmitry signed a contract, which confirms the subordinatium of the first second, as well as the right of Vladimir Andreevich to his fate and duties in relation to the Moscow prince. Soon Vladimir begins to pay considerable attention to the development of his possessions. Since the seventies of the 14th century, Serpukhov has been building a period of active construction. So in 1374, according to the chronicles on the Red (Cathedral) mountain begins the construction of a wooden kremlin, the city appointed the viceroy of the prince - Yakov Yuryevich Novosylets, established benefits to attract traders and artisans. In the same year, on the site of the Domongolian Slavic settlement of the High on the left bank of Nara, south of the Red Mountain, Prince Vladimir Andreevich founded a monastery named Vysotsky. The laying and consecration of the monastery was carried out by Sergiy Radonezki. Serpukhov's military, political and economic importance is growing, around which a full-fledged principality is formed, the core of which became parishes with centers in Lopasna, Darker and Rostovets. Since the end of the 14th century, the Serpukhov prince has been chasing his own coins.

As the main ally of Prince Dmitry (and part-time cousin), Vladimir could not help but participate in the events of 1380. Serpukhov becomes one of the centers of preparation for the campaign against Mamaya. The Serpukhov militia, led by Prince Vladimir Brave, operates as part of the Ambush Regiment in the Battle of Kulikov, which was a turning point in Russian history. In honor of the victory in 1381, a stone cathedral and a church with a refectory are being built in the Vysotsky Monastery. Soon Serpukhov was ruined during a campaign to Moscow by Khan Tokhtamish (1382). There is an opinion that the Ordyn army deviated from the direct route to Moscow in order to commit an act of revenge for the participation of the local prince and militia in the Battle of Kulikov.

1389 was marked by feudal conflict: Vladimir severed relations with the Moscow prince, who did not satisfy the demands of his cousin for new possessions. At the height of the quarrel, the grand prince captured the boyar of Serpukhov's prince, Vladimir, in turn, carried out the seizure of land belonging to Dmitry. The quarrel ended with the signing of another contract between feudal lords.

In the 15th century Serpukhov was twice ruined: in 1408 by the army of Edigea and in 1409 by Lithuanians under the leadership of Prince Svidrigailo. After the death of Vladimir the Brave in 1410, the principality was divided between five sons. Serpukhov went to the eldest - Ivan Vladimirovich. Later, Vladimir's descendants participated in feudal wars on the side of The Moscow Princes until the independent principality was liquidated in 1456, when Prince Vasily Yaroslavich, grandson of Vladimir the Brave, was imprisoned. Serpukhovsky brigade as part of the Moscow army participated in the campaign to Novgorod in 1478, and in 1480 in standing on the Egre.

Period between the Tatar-Mongolian yoke and the Troubled Time[edit]

In 1496-1502, the former Kazan khan Mohammad-Amin of the Ulu-Muhammad dynasty, who was given Serpukhov, Hatun and Kashira, was in the service of the Moscow ruler. This period in the history of the city is characterized by the oppression of local residents and violence by the henchman Ivan III. The next time Serpukhov was fed in 1532-1533 at another exiled Khan from Kazan, Shigale, who belonged to the Astrakhan dynasty of the Kasimov rulers. Shigalei, who was found to be in contact with Kazan, who violated feeding conditions, was exiled to Beloozeroin January 1533.

From the end of the 15th century, the period of grueling raids of crimean Tatars,which became dependent on the Ottoman Empire, began. The main of their routes to Moscow was Muravsky nobility, who walked from Perekop to Tula between t he upper rivers of two basins - Dnipro and North Donets. A key element of the system of protection against raids was a line of fortifications along the banks of the Oki, where up to 65,000 warriors, annually assembled in Moscow, were held in the deep autumn. The most important part of the line of protective structures was the tarus-Serpukhov-Kashir-Kolomna section. Thus, in 1512 there was a threat of a breakthrough of the Crimeans to Moscow, and in Serpukhov were concentrated troops led by The brother of Vasily III, Yuri Ivanovich, which became a barrier on the way of nomads to the capital. Five years later, in 1517, the Russian army stood up for Alone to the enemy. As a result of this campaign, the enemy was defeated, the losses of the Crimeans amounted to 15,000 people. The campaign of Mehmed I Girey in 1521 led to the ruin of Serpukhov, Borovsk, Kashira and the central counties of the state. The result of the disaster was the decision of Basil III on the construction of stone fortresses on the southern borders. In 1556, the construction of the white-stone Serpukhov Kremlin. In the same year in Serpukhov Ivan IV held a large viewing of serving people.

In 1565, after Tsar Ivan the Terrible divided the Russian state into an oprichnina and the land, the city became part of the last. With the construction of the new fortress Serpukhov increases its role in the defensive system and since 1572 the Grand Regiment of the Russian Armyhas been located here.

In 1571 there was a campaign of The Virgin I Giret. In April, the Crimean army crossed the Oma in the area of Orla,and in May it was already near Serpukhov, where the Volynsky detachment was defeated by J. F. Vosodo, led by Ivan IV, but could not gain a foothold in it. As a result, a retreat to Moscow was undertaken, the tsar fled to the Alexandrov suburb. Devlet I besieged Moscow and burned it. On the way back, the Crimeans ravaged several counties, including Serpukhovsky. Crimean troops in the described campaign were helped by traitors, among whom was Serpukhovich Rusin, one of the children of the Boyar Shishkins. In 1572, Devlet I Girey prepared a second raid on the Russian state. A regiment of up to 10,000 men was sent to meet the enemy, led by Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky, who was stationed in Serpukhov. On June 25, 1572, the Crimean army approached Eke. Crossing the river and breaking several guard Russian detachments, the 120,000-year-old army of Devlet Gireya headed to Moscow. Vorotynsky organized the pursuit of the advancing troops, which ended with a convincing victory of the Russians in the Battle of the Young.

The last breakthrough of the Crimean Tatars to Moscow dates back to 1581, when the army of Gaza II Gireya, crossing under Serpukhov through Alone and destroying the city plantation, moved to Moscow, where it failed and was pushed south. The leadership of the Russian army was conducted from Serpukhov by the tsarist governors. Boris Godunovtook an active part in the persecution of Gaza. This moment was one of the key moments in his political ascent.

A significant event in history was the Serpukhov campaign of Godunov in 1598. The Russian army, which came to meet the Tatars, was located on the shore of Oki near Serpukhov. Boris Godunov's camp is located in a meadow near the Vlad monastery. Several weeks in a row were conducted inspections of troops and demonstration of force in front of the enemy. As a result, the ambassadors of Gaza Gireya recognized Godunov's royal title and passed offers of friendship and peace. By this time, significant donations to local monasteries on the part of the king, which began stone construction. The Temple of the Great Martyr George the Victorious, the Gated Temple of the Martyr Theod of Ankirsky and the wall of the Lord's Monastery were built.

Troubled Time[edit]

The famine of 1601, the increase in the number of robber gangs, the uprising of peasants in 1603 did not bypass Serpukhovsky county. In a heated environment, false Dmitry I is on a trip to Moscow. In May 1605 the population of Serpukhov accepts False Dmitry I as king. The imposter's army, preparing to enter the capital, sets up a camp near the Monastery of The Lord.

After the murder of False Dmitry I and the election of Vasily Shuisky by Tsar in 1606, Serpukhov again housed a large regiment of the tsarist army, the city became the center from which the siege of southern cities, not controlled by the official authorities, was under control. At this time, the uprising led by Ivan Bolotnikov was gaining momentum. After the Battle of Krom, the rebels advanced to Moscow, taking Kaluga and Alexin along the way. In October 1606, Bolotnikov approached Serpukhov, and the locals voluntarily surrendered the city. As a result of the unsuccessful assault of the capital, the rebels retreated to Serpukhov and then to Kaluga. In the summer of 1607, Serpukhov once again became a base for the tsarist army, which on July 5–7 participated in the battle on the River Eight between Serpukhov and Kashira, where the rebels were defeated. On June 21, Shui's captive rebels were tried here. In honor of the victory of the Lord's Monastery,the king was presented with a miraculous image of St. Dimitri Uglichsky, placed in a specially constructed aisle in the Vvedensky Cathedral (later attached to the Temple of the Great Martyr George the Victorious).

During the Polish intervention, Serpukhov also did not escape military action. In January 1610 near the city a detachment of Cossacks led by Bezzubtsev defeated the Poles of Mlotsky. Soon the Cossacks left Serpukhov, who the next night was occupied by Poles. As a result, a large part of the civilian population was burnt down and a large part of the civilian population was killed.

In 1610-1611, the residents of Serpukhov participated in the First Land Militia of Lyapunov, in 1612 - in the Second Militia of Minin and Pozharsky.

As a result of the weakening of the state, which occurred during the Troubles, the nomads were again able to attack cities in Central Russia.

In 1613, Serpukhovsky County was ruined by the Nogai Tatars along with Borovsky and Kolomensky.

In 1618, hetman Piotr Sagaidachny, anally of the Polish king Vladislav, retreating with the army from Moscow to Kaluga, burned the Serpukhovsky plantation, but the fortress could not take. In 1633, the neighborhood of Serpukhov was ruined by the Crimean Tatars.

17th Century[edit]

The consequences of the events of the Troubles for Serpukhov were a sharp decline in the population and the decline of the economy. Residents, trying to reduce the tax burden, move to the monastic suburbs. The state forcibly, by the forces of a detective order, returns the population to the city plantation.

During the 17th century, Serpukhov continued to play the role of an important military center. At the beginning of the century the fortress survived a fire, after which it was restored and expanded. The head of the city administration at this time is appointed for a period of one to three years governor. In 1633, the urban suburbs of Serpukhov were ravaged by the Crimean army of Prince Mubarak-Gerai, who could not take the city Kremlin, however. In the "rebel age" the unrest could not bypass Serpukhov. In 1648, peasant riots engulfed the county. The estate of Kryvtsov's boyar son was burned down. As a result of the adoption in 1649 of the Council's settlement, the population reversed from monasteries to planting, which leads to the growth of the city and its population by 70-80%. In 1669 there is a big fire, Serpukhov burns almost to the ground.

The main occupations of Serpukhov's population in the 17th century: iron production, blacksmithing, pottery, shoe production, food, clothing. More than 40 people were engaged in trade outside Serpukhov. The 17th century is also characterized by the rise of stone construction in the city. In different years were built: the Church of Nikola (on the site of the current cathedral), the gated Three-Sacred Church, the walls and towers of the Monastery, the Baroque Church, the church of Athanasius Athos (disassembled in 1878), the new building of the Trinity Cathedral. In 1627, the Cathedral of conception was rebuilt in the Vysotsky Monastery.

18th Century[edit]

In Petrov's times, the population of Serpukhov actively participated in the construction of the fleet, new cities, fortresses. Sets of local craftsmen were made to participate in the king's projects. In the third decade of the 18th century, Serpukhov became one of the largest cities in the suburbs. Blacksmith production is being phased out. Trade is developing. In 1708, Serpukhov was part of the moscow province formed. In the 1730s, one after another, linen factories began to open. In the forties, the main ones are the enterprises of Vasily and Nikolai Kishkin (the largest in the city), Vasily, Stepan and Ivan Gerasimovich Serikov, Ivan Andreevich Serikov. By the sixties, Ivan Andreevich Serikov's company was taking the leading position in Serpukhov. In addition to linen in the city also open silk and cloth factories.

In 1761, 30% of the sails exported from Russia were of Serpkhov's origin. The city comes in fourth place in Russia in linen production after Yaroslavl, Kostroma and Moscow. The number of people employed in the textile industry is growing from 3,000 in the 1950s to 5,500 at the end of the century.

In addition to textiles in Serpukhov in the 80s there are eight tanners, seven brick, nine malts and one saty factory. The main areas of trade are the port of St. Petersburg (textile, leather), Moscow (food products).

19th Century[edit]

Factory belonging to the Konshin Brothers in Serpukhov, 1890

In 1812, the population of Serpukhov and the county participated in the Patriotic War. The militia of the Moscow province consisted of 2,246 residents of Serpukhov county. The war did not affect the city directly. The industry continued to produce most of the canvas produced in the region. At that time there were 14 factories with 855 textile mills in Serpukhov. During this period, the industry is reoriented to the production of cotton products. If in 1812 the first cotton enterprise of Alexey Ignatieff appeared in the city, in 1814 eleven factories were functioning. The largest of them were the enterprises of A. Serikov, Ignatius Shilkin, I. Serikov, Maxim Konshin. There were also three tannery factories in Serpukhov, and a paper factory was operating in the Alexandrov suburb (now the village of Borisovo).

Between 1810 and 1840, the number of people employed in urban enterprises increased to five thousand, with 950 employees employed in suburban factories in the fence, and the number of workers in other enterprises in the county to 2,000. The largest factories are owned by the Families of Konshin and Tretyakov. The leading industry of the Serpukhov industry is the production of cotton products. Thus, 4500 people are employed in seven paper-weaving and sitzenabive enterprises, 493 people are employed in ten linen. The main products of the industry: sith, mitkal, padded headscarves, canvas.

Between 1840 and 1860, Serpukhov experienced a period of intense industrial growth. By the mid-1850s, the number of people employed in the city's enterprises reached 8,500, along with the suburbs - 10,400 people. In the rest of the county, the number of workers has been reduced to one thousand, indicating an increase in the territorial concentration of production. The average size of cotton mills has grown from 487 to 742 since 1843, bringing the total number of people employed in the industry to 8,900. The leaders of the Serpukhov industry were the enterprises of N.M. Konshin (later transformed by his son into the N. N. Konshin), which owned the paper-tinget and sitzenabative factory "Old Cape" (founded by Maxim Konshin in 1814), spinning enterprise (opened in the north of the city in 1846), a paper office The New Cape weaving factory (opened in the late 1850s near the village of Glazechnya) made up the complex, which allowed to perform a full cycle of processing from spinning raw materials to finished padded products. Other sub-sectors of the textile industry include the hornets operating in Serpukhov at the same time. The production of the canvas by the middle of the 19th century is in decline: the four remaining factories in 1843 employed 126 people. From a technical point of view, Serpukhov's enterprises of that time were not highly developed: most of them used manual labor, as a motor force used horse drive and water wheels. In the 1850s, steam engines appeared.

Trade was an important part of the urban economy of the first half and mid-19th century. In the volume of trade operations Serpukhov took the second place in the province after Kolomna. The key trade routes were the road connecting Kharkiv with Moscow and the waterway along the Ska. The main items of trade - bread, wood, textiles. A significant role in the life of the city was occupied by craft production, which by 1861 employed more than 600 people. Key craft professions of the time: bakers, butchers, cobblers, tailors, fashionistas, blacksmiths, carpenters, carvers, stoves.

1901-1917[edit]

The city's industry in 1913 consisted of 27 plants with 17,057 people working for them, and the volume of production reached 49.6 million rubles.

1917-1941[edit]

In the first days of the war, several thousand Serpukhovich went to the mobilization front and as volunteers. Air defense posts were set up. The militias assembled in Serpukhov joined the division of the People's Militia of the Bauman district of Moscow after two weeks of training. At the city's enterprises, directors were given the right to introduce overtime from one to three hours a day. Donor points were organized.

In October 1941, the front line came close to the city. In the Serpukhov direction, the German-fascist troops were on the offensive as part of the 13th Army Corps, the 4th Field Army and the Motorized Units of the 2nd Guderian Tank Group. Defensive positions west of Serpukhov were occupied by the 49th Army of the Western Front under the command of Lieutenant General Saharkin, whose name is currently one of the city streets. German troops were located to the west of the city half-ring at a distance of 6-7 kilometers. The headquarters of the 49th Army was located in the village of Buturlino, east of Serpukhov. General Antipenko, the head of the army's rear, Nikolai Aleksandrovich, who was the head of the city's garrison, was in the city along with his headquarters. Serpukhov was directly defended by the 60th Infantry Division, which consisted of militias from the Leninsky district of Moscow. On October 25, 1941, the 5th Guards Rifle Division on the outskirts of Serpukhov took the line of defense of Upper-Shahlovo-Novylov-Kalinovo. On October 29, the division stopped the enemy at the turn 14 kilometers west of Serpukhov, east of Tarusa, the western outskirts of Aleksin. Parts of the 194th Infantry Division held the defense along the border of Borovna-Kremenki-Drakino. In the morning of 17.12.1941 parts of the division went on the offensive with the task of breaking through the defense on the right bank of the Protva River, on the Kremenka-Drakino section. By 25.12.1941 the division broke through the eight-kilometer defensive strip of the enemy. The air cover was carried out by the pilots of the 178th Fighter Aviation Regiment of the 6th Fighter Aviation Air Corps. The air regiment carried out a combat mission in the area of responsibility of the Southern Sector of the Moscow Air Defense Area,the leadership of which was entrusted to one of the deputy commanders of the 6th Air Defense Corps, Colonel Trifonov N.K. 178th IAP was based in the Oki border area, near the village of Lipitsa. The pilots of this regiment carried out 1695 sorties, conducted 59 air battles, shot down 22 enemy aircraft, destroyed 19 anti-aircraft guns. The regiment's commander, Lt. Col. Rakov Roman Ivanovich, personally flew 65 times on combat missions. One of Serpukhov's streets is also named after him.

The most fierce battles were fought on the Line of Drakino - Kremenka - Pavlovka. At the end of November 1941, the german offensive was halted.

In battles with the enemy also distinguished units and parts of the 1st Guards Cavalry Corps under the command of General Belov and military units of the 112th Tank Division under the command of Colonel Hetman. During the fierce battles, they thwarted the offensive of the 13th Wehrmacht Army Corps, inflicting heavy losses on it, liberated seven settlements and kept Serpukhov from encirclement and capture.

During the Mozhai-Maloyaroslavets operation, the compound and parts of the 49th Army managed to significantly weaken parts of the advancing units of the Wehrmacht, causing them significant defeat and by early December completely stopped the enemy's offensive at the border west of Serpukhov - Sukhodol (20 km southeast of Alexin).

Also in November, the evacuation of equipment of enterprises, workers, women and children began. Among the destinations were: Biysk, Ufa, Tyumen, Tashkent, Fergana. At the same time, six defensive districts are being created in Serpukhov: the Red Textile Maker, Novotkatsky, the Sitzenabive Factory District, Noginsky, the southern part of the city, and the Fence. Defensive structures are being erected: anti-tank ditches, slabs, barricades,c revices, bomb shelters, gas shelters. Hospitals were established on the basis of the surgical hospital, textile college, Semashko hospital, rabfak, schools No. 3, 11, 13, 22, 26, 28 hospitals where wounded fighters were received.

On December 16, Soviet troops went on the offensive. After the breakthrough, the German defense were released Tarus and Alexin. By January 1942, the front line was more than 150 kilometers away from Serpukhov. Since 1942, the restoration of the urban industry begins. The capacity of the city's enterprises produces tools for tank and mechanized units, motorcycle equipment, ammunition, food concentrates. In 1944, the construction of a condenser plant began. Industrial production reaches 80% of the pre-war level. In the premises of the former textile enterprises are deployed metal processing plants, the share of which in the industry of the city by 1945 was 35% against 23.4% in the textile industry.

During the war in Serpukhov, 597 buildings were destroyed and damaged, 202 civilians were killed and 317 wounded. In the early period of the war, 140 airstrikes were carried out on the city, 500 high-explosive and 35,000 incendiary bombs were dropped.

Symbolism[edit]

Based on the results of N.A. Soboleva's research, the main version of serpukhov's coat of arms is the following. Serpukhov's coat of arms was designed by his friend (deputy) heroldmaster Franz Matveevich Santi in the mid-twenties of the 18th century. A questionnaire has been sent to the cities of Russia in order to obtain information that can be taken into account when creating the coat of arms for each particularcity. The peacock became an element of the coat of arms on the basis of a message sent to the heroldy from Serpukhov, which said that not far from the city "in the monastery one peacocks will beborn".

The first coat of arms of the city was approved simultaneously with other coats of arms of the cities of the Moscow province on December 20, 1781. It was subsequently reviewed four times. The first time the coat of arms was changed on March 16, 1883, in accordance with the rules developed by Bernhard Vasilyevich Koene and introduced in 1857 with the rules of the city's coats of arms. In Soviet times, Stepan Marukhin developed a new coat of arms, approved on May 30, 1967. On July 2, 1992, a version of the coat of arms from 1883 was restored. The current version was approved on 6 October 1999 and is listed on the State Heraldic Register of the Russian Federation under No.564. It is based on the coat of arms, approved in 1883, which includes the coat of arms of 1781.

Attractions[edit]

There are a significant number of attractionsin Serpukhov. In total, there are 108 monuments of history and culture, of which 57 objects of Russian Orthodox culture. There are: 26 federal cultural heritage sites in the city; 39 - regional significance, 24 monuments of military glory, history and culture; 17 objects of cult architecture and 2 monasteries, which are the main objects of display for tourists. Among theattractions it is worth noting: a unique cultural monument - Serpukhovsky Historical and Art Museum; the ancient center of Serpukhov, located on a high hill at the confluence of the rivers Serpeiki and Nara,with the surviving fragments of the white-stone walls of the city Kremlin and the Trinity Cathedral,now used as a branch of the historical and art museum, Vysotsky Monastery, Vvedensky Vladny Monastery.

  • Vladimir brave (installed in 2009 in front of the city administration building, on the square named after him)
  • V. Lenin (monument of the work of sculptor Matrosov is installed in the historical part of the city, on the square named after Lenin)
  • V. Grishin (monument - bronze bust of the sculptor Leo Karbel,installed in the square in the central part of the city on the square of V. Brave)
  • Prince Sviatoslavu - made by sculptor Vasily Selivanov, opened in 2014 in the square on Lenin Square
  • P. A. Stolypinu - opened in 2014 in the square on Lenin Square
  • A. P. Chekhovu (located at the intersection of Voroshilov Street and Chekhov Street, authored by sculptor S.V. Sagaiko and architect V. V. Shuvalov, 1999))
  • A. S. Pushkinu (bust installed in 1962 in the courtyard of secondary secondary school No. 6 at: Vodonapornaya Street, 6, sculptor - Anatoly Pevsner).
  • O. N. Stepanov (monument to the Hero of the Soviet Union Oleg Stepanov installed in the city park of Serpukhov in 1958. Located at the main entrance from the side of Chekhov Street, sculptor - Anatoly Pevsner)
  • I.G. Sakharkin (monument - a bust of the hero of the Great Patriotic War, commander of the 49th Army,Colonel-General Ivan Grigoryevich Sakharkin (author - sculptor D. V. Kukkolos), installed near school No. 5 in 2015)
  • N. A. Kalinin (monument - bronze bust of the Hero of Socialist Labor, honorary citizen of Serpukhov, director of the Radiotechnical Plant Nikolai Alekseevich Kalinin, opened on December 14, 2018 in the square, named after him, in the village of Nogin, next to the railway bridge, the author - sculptor Ilya Dukov).
  • Reverend Varlaam (bronze monument (author - D. Kukkolas) to the Rev. Varlaam Serpukhovsky installed near the Vladych monastery (October Street) in 2014)
  • St. Peter and Fevronia - a bronze sculpture of the faithful Peter and Fevronia - the princely couple, which has become a symbol of marital loyalty and devotion, installed in the Prince Park, author - sculptor Ilya Dukov, opened - July 2016
  • A memorial sign to commemorate the 650th anniversary of the city - installed in the center of the fountain on Jubilee Square (Voroshilov Street, near the Oka Hotel), author - Serpukhov sculptor A. N. Volkov, opened in September 1989).
  • Peacock memorial sign - a symbol of the city
  • Monument to the soldiers of the 49th Army
  • "Black Tulip" commemorative sign
  • Monument to the Liberator Warrior (a mock-up of the monument erected in Treptow Park in Berlin, sculptor Vucetich)
  • Sculpture composition "Fair" in Hay Square: young shoe cleaner, cat, shaggy dog, girl with goose, city, lottery, watchmaker, family of the manufacturer (sculptor Ilya Dukov)
  • stele - Serpukhov, city of military prowess (sculptor Roman Fasayan)
  • Sculpture "The Lady with the Dog" (sculptor Ilya Dukov)
  • Sculpture "Rybaki" (sculptor Ilya Dukov)
  • Sculpture composition "Arrows" (sculptor Ilya Dukov)

Parks and squares[edit]

Serpukhov is quite a green city, within its borders there are about 50 gardens and squares, among the best knwon are Prinarsky Park, Nursery Park, Komsomolskiy Park, Pearl Park, and Oleg Stepanov's City Park of Culture and Recreation. The favorite resting place of the townspeople is "the boron," which is located within the city limits.

Contests[edit]

In 2008, Serpukhov won the first international competition "Best City of the CIS." The city received a diploma for preserving and supporting the cultural and historical heritage of The 15th International Film Forum "Golden Vityaz"was held in Serpukhov. The city also hosts many different competitions and festivals at the international, federal and regional levels. Starting in 2017, Serpukhov hosts an international competition of classical and folk art "Sunny Peacock" with the participation of Russia, China, Belarus and Tajikistan.

Theatres and palaces of culture[edit]

These include the Musical-drama theatre, Chamber Theatre "The Looking Glass," Palace of Culture "Russia," The Palace of Culture "Istok," Korston Cinema, and the B-Class Cinema

Museums[edit]

These include the Museum and Exhibition Centre, The Serpukhovsky Historical and Art Museum (opened in 1920), The Museum of Printing, the first in the suburbs, opened in September 2019 in an old printing house built on Hay Square in 1890, and The Bread Museum opened in September 2019 in a renovated 19th-century room in the Provincial Hotel and Restaurant Complex.

Libraries[edit]

Serpukhov's centralized library system was established in December 1977. Currently, the SCBS consists of nine libraries. These are the Central City Library of Chekhov, the Central Children's and Youth Library and branches of the library located in different parts of the city. The single fund of the system is 268,000 copies of documents, an extensive repertoire of periodicals, a unique collection of sound recordings, a local history fund of unpublished materials. Librarians serve more than 36.5 thousand readers a year. Library coverage is 29.1%.

Monasteries[edit]

Primarily Orthodox, those being , The Lord's Convent (founded in 1360), Vysotsky Men's Monastery (founded in 1374), and in 1665-1764 in the city there was a Rasutsky monastery.

On the site of the future monastery for a long time was the wooden Church of the Nativity (mentioned in the HundredThon Book of 1552).The brick-laden Cathedral of the Crucifixion of Christ was built in 1719 at the expense of Princess Nazareth Mikhailovna Gagarina; at the same time the monastery changed its name.

Closed during the time of Catherine II during the secularization of church and monastic lands.

Temples and chapels[edit]

  • Elijah Church of the Prophet
  • Church of the Assumption of Our Lady
  • Temple of the Savior of the Unmanual
  • Temple of All Saints
  • Nicola White Cathedral
  • Trinity Cathedral
  • Sreten Church
  • Epiphany Church
  • Temple of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God
  • Crucifixion Church

Since 2012, the Chapel of the Great Martyr Panteleimonhas been operating on the territory of Semashko Hospital. There are also chapels of Tikhvinskaya and Iberian Icon of the Mother of God.

Orthodox churches of the city and the district are united in the Serpukhov deanery (dean's district) of the Russian Orthodox Church. The benefactor is the priest Igor (Chaban).

Shrines[edit]

Icon of Our Lady "The Unstoppable Bowl" In the Vysotsky monastery Serpukhov collected many shrines, including about three hundred particles of relics of saints. A special place is occupied by the list of the icon of the Mother of God "The Unstoppable Bowl",which, according to believers, heals from a painful addiction to alcohol, drugs and smoking (the original, which was in the Monastery of The Lord was lost after the revolution). The relics of the Rev. Athanasius Vysotsky, the younger one, are also being rethroned in the Vysotsky Monastery.

In the Monastery of The Lord is the tomb of the Rev. Varlaam Serpukhovsky.

In 1993, in Serpukhov,the icon of the Virgin"Help for Childbirth"(revered by the miraculous) was revealed. Currently, the icon is located in the cathedral of St. Nicholas of Serpukhov.

In Serpukhov is also a miraculous list of the icon of the Mother of God "The Recovery of the Dead", which, according to legend, twice saved the city from the epidemic of cholera.

Education[edit]

Universities[edit]

Higher educational institutions are the Serpukhov Military Institute of Missile Troops, formerly called the Serpukhov Higher Military Command and Engineering School of Strategic Missile Forces (leads its history from the 2nd Moscow Military Aviation School of Secret Service Mechanics) (preparing officers for the RVSN, during the time of the university's presence in the RVSN trained about 12,000 officers-rocketing officers) and non-state educational institutions. The city is home to the Serpukhov Military Academy of Missile troops and branches of several Moscow based universities.

There are also branches of the following capital's universities in Serpukhov:

  • Moscow Aviation Institute (IAI Integration Training Centre)
  • Moscow State University of Technology and Management by K.K. Razumovsky

Secondary schools[edit]

The city is home to a number of secondary vocational schools.[citation needed]

There are 18 comprehensive schools in the city (including the Lyceum;education center,2 gymnasiums, including "Orthodox classical gymnasium in the name of the Reverend Varlaam Serpukhovsky"(90);a large number of kindergartens and other institutions of pre-school education (including a municipal educational institution for children in need of psychological, educational and medical-social assistance, a diagnostics center and a "chance"

Economic data[edit]

Municipal Budget

In 2018, the budget of the Serpukhov city district by income grew by 48.5% and amounted to 6.377 billion rubles and retained its social orientation: 3.252 billion rubles or 52.9% of all expenditures were allocated to the social sphere, which is 615.3 million rubles more than in 2017.

Employment

The number of employed in the economy - 54.5 thousand people or 43% of the total population of the city, of which 20,000 people work in large and medium-sized enterprises, the rest in small businesses, for hire from individuals engaged in business without the formation of a legal entity, or are engaged in personal farms.

Labour market indicators

The local unemployment rate is 0.44%,[citation needed] with the number of officially registered unemployed people being 298.[citation needed][when?]

Serpukhov's population, which is engaged in the economy of Moscow,providing a significant pendulum migration, the balance of which is 5.8 thousand people.[citation needed]

Industry[edit]

There are about 150 large and medium-sized enterprises and organizations in all sectors of the economy, and more than 1,600 small business organizations (including micro-enterprises) operate in Serpukhova. The city's industrial enterprises produce electric motors of various purposes, electric cars of low power, gyroscopic devices and precision mechanics products for navigation systems, systems of orientation and stabilization of aircraft, chemical fibers and filaments, insulation materials, reinforced concrete products, metal structures, alarm systems, capacitors, medical equipment, food.

In the first nine months of 2015, large and medium-sized manufacturing companies shipped their own products at actual prices of 13,255.3 million rubles, which is 14% more than in the same period last year.

Serpukhov's construction complex consists of about 52 construction organizations, including more than 40 small enterprises engaged in design, industrial, housing- civil and communal construction. The area of built-up land is 2.24 thousand hectares, of which 26% are occupied for production facilities, 65% for housing. Serpukhov's housing stock is represented by more than 1,136 apartment buildings with a total area of more than 3319086.22 m2. [95]

The Serpukhov region is operated by the Serpukhov Chamber of Commerce and Industry(STPP). It is a non-governmental non-profit organization established in 1995 to promote the development of all forms of entrepreneurship in the southern suburbs. It brings together about 200 organizations and individual entrepreneurs.

Transport[edit]

Serpukhov is conveniently located at the intersection of transport routes and has a developed infrastructure. Serpukhov's transport hub focuses on railway, road and waterways, which allows local and transit services.

Rail[edit]

The railway line of the Kursk direction of MOSCOW(Moscow Railway)Moscow(Kursk Station)- Belgorod( and passes further to Ukraine) passes through Serpukhov, where the city is located:

  • Serpukhov railway station, opened in 1865.
  • Oka railway platform, which stops daily with 7 pairs of electric trains per day, and 1 pair of electric trains on weekends. (as of July 2015).

At the station is an old building of the station pre-revolutionary building. On the square near the Serpukhov station is the city bus station, from which most city, suburban and long-distance bus routes depart.

Two unelectrified railway lines serving industrial enterprises - one to The Post station 4 km, the other to the STATION - come out from Serpukhov railway station. Post Station 4 km is a small node station, from which in addition to branches to industrial enterprises go two more unelectrified railway lines - one to the station Serpukhov-2, the other to the city of Protvino. Serpukhov-2 and PPIT stations serve only industrial enterprises. At the moment, the Station Post is 4 km.serves Rollton,FGUP 75th arsenal, Ecoresource LLC. Protvin railway-promtechdepo in Protvino. Serpukhov-2 station serves a coal warehouse. The PPIT station serves the 250th plant of UBI, Sedo, Oka Oil, Keramzit, Betontransservice, Secondurmet Enterprises on the Borisov and Oksky highways. All of the above businesses are working. Loading and unloading railway cars is carried out regularly. Data for July 2015.

Road transport[edit]

Directly next to the city are the M2 "Crimea" motorway and highway A 108 "Moscow Big Ring", near the highways of federal importance M4 "Don" and M3 "Ukraine" are.

There are about 600 kilometres of public roads in Serpukhov and the region. The main carrier of passengers on both urban, suburban and long-distance routes is the convoy 1790 of the Ministry of Defense "Mostransavto". Commercial trucking companies also operate in the city. In total, there are 25 city bus routes inSerpukhov. Serpukhov station is the final stop and stop for most routes.

The network of long-distance bus routes, which includes in addition to Moscow, Tula, Kaluga, many small towns and villages from the neighboring Serpukhovsky districts of Moscow (Chekhovsky, Stupinsky), Kaluga (Tarussky, Shchukovsky, Obninsky) and Tula (Saoksky, Alexinsky) regions (see map) are balanced.

The maintenance of municipal roads and inter-municipal roads is handled by the enterprises of Serpukhovsky DRSU and Serpukhovsky Avtodor, respectively. Serpukhov's road transport is concentrated with basic freight traffic - it accounts for 97% of all cargo, the railway - about 3%.[citation needed]

The most intense traffic is typical for the following streets of the city: Leninsky Komsomol Street, Moscow Highway, Soviet Street, 1st Moscow Street, Chernyshevsky Street, Borisov Highway, Voroshilov Street, Defense Street, Oka Highway, Northern Highway. Peak loads occur in the morning (exit from the city) and evening hours (entry to the city).[citation needed]

Water transport[edit]

Port Serpukhov, a subsidiary of the Moscow River Shipping Company, is present in the city. The port was founded in 1858 and is located on the Nara River, two kilometres from its entry into Aku. It carries out passenger and freight transport. Main passenger lines: Serpukhov - Gardens, Serpukhov - Polenovo, Serpukhov - Tarusa, Serpukhov - Velegozh. According to the official data of the shipping company, the annual passenger flow is about30,000people. The port produces mineral building materials (gravel, sand, soils) in the Oki water area. It carries out loading and unloading work, transportation of goods and serves three sites: Alexinsky, Serpukhovsky, and Kashirsky.

The volume of freight is more than 2 million tons (as of 2007).[citation needed]

Trade[edit]

Serpukhov has stores of all-Russian retail chains: Carousel, Crossroads, Five, Magnet, Dixie (Shop Network), Metro Cash and Kerry, SupermarketBilla, Atac, Tape (Supermarket and Hypermarket), Faithful, Red and White, Euroset, Connected, M.Video, Eldorado, Technosila, DNS, Children's World, Sportmaster, L'Etoile; Shops of local shopping chains "Taget," "Bravo". There are also online store booking points in the city: Citilink, Ulmart, Ozon.ru, Wildberries, ALL TRADE.RU, All-Tools.ru, Forum3.ru, and others. The city has several delivery points for online retailers and remote trading companies Boxberry.

There are three major shopping and entertainment centers in the city: That being, Korston, B-Class, and Atlas. The city has the official offices of Avtovaz and Nissan.

Serpukhov has fast food chains :McDonald's, Burger King, KFC. There are also several pizzerias: Domino's Pizza, Dodo Pizza, La Pizzeria, IL Patio, Bella Vita, Pazzo, Pizza Express 24.

In addition, there are a variety of cafes, bars, canteens and pancakes, Here are some of them:Baskin RobbinsIce Cream Par ice shop,Little Potato,Veranda in the Park Cafe, Vincek Sweet Cafe, Baba Ulya's Homemade Cafe, Oatmeal Cafe, MO Pan-Asian Cafe, Tokoro Sushi Bars: Mina, Minaki, Matrena Tea, Grill Roast burger, Russ restaurant, Three Pans, COFFE WAY coffee bar, Bellissimo Cafe, Kumanets, Old Yard, Provence, Randeva, Anshlag, Ochka, Four Seasons, Sweet Waffles, Coffemirov Coffee House, etc.

The city also has a number of restaurants, such as Sebastia, Farma, Mama's Apartment, zlata Praha, Beans, Kinto, Mikhailovsky, Antalya, Le Buffet, Extra Lounge, Noble, Japanese Sushi Restaurant, Italian Restaurant EVOO, etc.

Consumer market (by large and medium-sized enterprises) for the first half of 2015: The volume of retail turnover in current prices, million rubles: 4007,5 The volume of paid services to the population in the current prices, million rubles: 2356,7

Cellular communication[edit]

Cellular operators: Mts, Megaphone, Beeline, Sky Link, Iota, Tele2 Internet access is provided byNetByNet, Rostelecom, Beeline,MOU IIF,CREDO-TELECOM, RialCom, South Telecom,and Komtel.

Media[edit]

Only the newspaper "Communist" was present from the local media for a long time, later renamed "Serpukhovsky Vesti". The rapid development of the media began in the 1990s, when a significant number of new print publications, local television, opened, and in the 2000s it was time for radio stations. From 2004 to 2019, the city published a weekly newspaper called Oka Info.

Television[edit]

THE REN TV channel Serpukhovis broadcast on cable television in Serpukhov and Pushchino. In the second multiplex of digital terrestrial TV on the 58th decimeter channel, REN TV is broadcast without Serpukhov inserts (news, advertising). The city broadcasts Serpukhov's branch"Tv Channel of Moscow"(formerly "Serpukhov Tv" and then "Television and Radio Serpukhova" - TVIRS), broadcast only on cable TV. "Pro-TV" - broadcast only on cable TV. TV channel TNT/ "Window" - broadcast on cable television. In the second multiplex of digital terrestrial TV on the 58th decimeter channel, TNT is broadcast without Serpukhov's TV channel "Window" and other Serpukhov inserts (news, advertising). STS TV channel - broadcast on cable television. In the second multiplex of digital terrestrial TV on the 58th decimeter channel, the TV channel STS is broadcast without Serpukhov inserts (advertising). TV channel OVV Serpukhov - broadcast only on cable television. The city broadcasts the first and second multiplexes of digital terrestrial television on the 59th and 58th decimeter channels (778 MHz) and (770 MHz), which include 20 federal state TV channels and 3 federal radio stations.

Stadiums[edit]

Those being Labor Stadium, Spartak Stadium, Start Stadium, Olympus Sports Palace (with swimming pool), Typhoon Sports Centre, Physical and health complex (FOK) "Russian Bear," Ice Arena, and the Waterpark

There are many sports sections, amateur and professional clubs in the city.

In Serpukhov was based professional football club of the Second Division, zone "Center" and "Star" Serpukhov. FC Star played at the Trud Stadium. "Labor" was reconstructed (in fact, rebuilt) and opened in June 2005. It accommodates 5300 spectators, has a field with artificial turf, lighting system, a total area of the complex 29591 m2.

Other Spartak and Start stadiums are located in the city's boron and are used for local and regional tournaments. The oldest urban arena is Spartacus, where the city's first standard-sized football field was built in1910. At the Spartak Stadium, they played their home matches of the Russian championship in the second division of Dynamo Moscow. Also here were the amateur teams of FC Serpukhov and IStra FC.

Serpukhov also had another football club, Lokomotiv-M,which spent one season (2005) at a professional level in the Second Division.

The city is represented by the basketball club "Star" in the championship of the Moscow region.

Also in the city there is Serpukhovsky Children's and Youth Sports Club of the Olympic reserve volleyball, currently transferred to the hall (FOC) "Russian Bear." And representing the city at the championship of the Moscow region.

The Russian Bear Wrestling Club is popular.[citation needed] In the field of aviation sports, the Orlov ASC is known for its achievements.[citation needed]

In Serpukhov there is a Radio Club "Moscow" which is engaged in the training of young radio athletes.[citation needed][clarification needed]

For active youth in Serpukhov since 2006, there are "streetcellenge" events, team competitions by car with elements of search, creativity and orienteering on the ground.

Honorary citizens[edit]

-The order to create the 1st Equestrian Army and appoint Budenny as its commander was signed in Serpukhov.

-Mikhail Arsentievich - in 1941 he took command of the 60th Infantry Division as part of the 49th Army of General Saharkin near Serpukhov.

-Alexander Shumsky was one of the regiments of the 49th Army.

-Boris Kamchatov - In April 1942, as soon as the fascist occupiers were pushed away from the city, Kamchatov headed the City Theatre and the Park of Culture and Recreation.

-Vasily Palazhenko , the political commander of the 160th Reconnaissance Battalion of the 5th Guards Division distinguished himself in the defense of Serpukhov, went through the war to Berlin.

-Orlov Alexander - pilot, the war met near Hrodna, June 22, 1941 shot down his first enemy aircraft. He took part in battles on the Volga, Kursk arc, fought for Odessa, Chisinau, reached Berlin. They shot down 22 enemy aircraft, made 629 sorties.

-Aleksey Tkachenko is a member of the Moscow defense service, a veteran of the Armed Forces, and headed the Department of Physical Training and Sports at the Serpukhov Military School. He has 19 government awards, the Order of the Red Star and the Order of the Patriotic War II.

-Ageeva Musa - for 50 years engaged in music and pedagogical activities, 25 of them - in the children's music school No. 1. On a well-deserved rest continued her creative activity as a composer: she wrote songs about Serpukhov, his inhabitants, created a vocal class for gifted people.

-Treshchalina Vera is a World War II veteran. Serpukhova's oldest teacher. She was awarded: the Order of the October Revolution, the Medals "For the Defense of Moscow," "For valiant work during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945," "Excellent of people's education."

-Head Semyon Iosifovich - The pedagogical work of Semion Iosifovich gave about 50 years of his life, awarded numerous awards. Thirty-four years worked as the director of secondary school No. 13.

-Alexei Egorov is a participant of the Great Patriotic War. In 1948 he was sent to work in Serpukhovsky police department, where he worked for 33 years, more than 20 of which - the head of the department of internal affairs.

-Sergey Kudryakov was elected chairman of serpukhov's executive committee in 1969. For his great achievements in the development of sports and physical culture, S.N. Kudryakov was awarded the title of "Honored Worker of Physical Culture of the Russian Federation."

-Yudenko Dmitriy is a participant of the Great Patriotic War, a scout, a cavalier of six military orders. He took part in Serpukhov's defense near the villages of Kuzmenki, Kremenka.

-Yulia Alekseeva has been head of the cardiology department of the Central Bank of Moscow since 1990. Under her leadership, uniform recommendations for the examination and treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases have been developed. She was the first to master and implement an advanced method of laser therapy and echocardiography.

-Aleksandr Chistov - for his work in the field of sports, the titles "Honored Worker of Physical Culture of Russia", "Excellent Physical Culture and Sports" have been awarded. The coach is a teacher of the highest category, a judge of the Republican category.

-Elistratova Raisa Vasilyevna has worked in the health care system since 1948. Since 1971 he has been the director of Serpukhov medical school. On the initiative of Raisa Vasilyevna, the Serpukhov Medical School, one of the first, introduced training in new training programs in the specialties: "Therapeutic," "Nursing," "Pharmacy." The pride of the institution was the Museum of Combat and Labor Glory of the school, which was created on its initiative.

-Kozmina Alla - since 1965 works in vocational school No. 55, since 1980 - permanent head. In 2001, the school was converted into a college.

-Aleksandr Lysikov has been the director of the teaching school since 1985. He holds the title of "Honored Teacher of Russia", Academician of the International Teaching Academy, winner of the Governor's Award of the Ministry of Defense, "Honored Education Worker of the Moscow Region."

-Vladimir Sholokhov has been the chief engineer of the Serpukhov Gas Trust since 1971. Since 1986 he has been in control. As the head of the gas trust, he helped to survive our enterprises in the 1990s without interrupting (despite debts) their gas supply.

-Medvedeva Galina Kuzminichna has been the director of Serpukhov's correctional school since 1986. The teaching team twice became the team of the year, the winner of the All-Russian competition "Labour Glory of Russia-2000", in 2006 entered the top five educational institutions in the region, and Galina Kuzminichna became the leader of the year.

-Telegin Vladimir - since 1966 worked as a teacher of history and physical education at school No. 10. From 1977 to 2007 he was the headmaster of the school.

-Druzhinin Boris - since 1977 - teacher of school No. 6. Throughout the pedagogical activity instills love for children to an ancient, useful game of chess.

-Kasminin Boris - since 1985, he has been the head of SMH. Since 1987, Boris Viktorovich has combined his work with a serious social workload. He was deputy and then Chairman of the Board of Directors of Serpukhov. Later, the President of the Association of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs of Serpukhov was repeatedly elected as a member of the City Council.

-Vladimir Vanyushin - during his leadership of the Serpukhovsky telecommunication hub, a complete reconstruction of Serpukhov's telecommunications was carried out. The team under the leadership of V. M. Vanyushin increased the number capacity from 8,000 in 1981, to 54,000 in 2009.

-Pavel Kozlenkov - from October 1941 to November 1943 fought on the western front, took part in the Battle of Moscow as a machine gun company 518 pp. 2nd Moscow Division. He took part in the legendary parade on November 7, 1941 as part of the 129th Rifle OrlovSk Red Banner Division. After receiving a serious injury, Pavel Nikolaevich was in the hospital for treatment for a year.

-Tatiana Karzutova is the initiator of the creation of the Equal Opportunities Sports Club and a member of the Coordinating City Council for Disabled People. He leads an active, healthy lifestyle, engaged in sports and social activities.

-Vladimir Fokin has been working in the bakery industry for more than 38 years. His high professionalism, active life position in the management and organization of bakery production contributed to the creation of a highly automated and highly efficient enterprise of the modern type, which currently ranks third among the bakery industry in the Moscow region for the production of bakery products.

Other notable people[edit]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Serpukhov serves as the administrative center of Serpukhovsky District, even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as Serpukhov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction, an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Serpukhov City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Serpukhov Urban Okrug.[3]

Landmarks[edit]

The citadel commands a steep hill where the small Serpeyka River enters the Nara. However, during the 19th century, parts of the citadel were demolished by the town's inhabitants, who used its limestone for their private residences. Even now the vast majority of basements in nearby houses are built from this material. In the kremlin, the chief monument is the Trinity cathedral, built in 1696 in Moscow Baroque style.

The Vysotsky Monastery features a cathedral and refectory dating from the late 16th century, as well as the allegedly miracle-working icon Inexhaustible Chalice. Another important cloister is called Vladychny, with the Presentation cathedral and a tent-like St. George's church, both erected during Boris Godunov's reign. The latter monastery is named after the honorary title of Russian bishops, as it was founded by the holy metropolitan Alexis in 1360.

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Serpukhov is twinned with:[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #11/2013-OZ
  2. ^ Глава города Серпухова Павел Залесов отправлен в отставку
  3. ^ a b c d Law #11/2005-OZ
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  6. ^ Law #78/2005-OZ
  7. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. ^ Гарин Г. Ф., Савоскул С. С., Шилов В. В. (1989). Серпухов. М.: Моск. рабочий. ISBN 5-239-00271-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ "Города-побратимы". serpuhov.ru (in Russian). Serpukhov. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  • Московская областная Дума. Закон №11/2013-ОЗ от 31 января 2013 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области», в ред. Закона №249/2019-ОЗ от 29 ноября 2019 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области"». Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования (13 января 2013 г.). Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №24, 12 февраля 2013 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #11/2013-OZ of January 31, 2013 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast, as amended by the Law #249/2019-OZ of November 29, 2019 On amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast". Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication (January 13, 2013).).
  • Московская областная Дума. Закон №11/2005-ОЗ от 17 января 2005 г. «О статусе и границе городского округа Серпухов», в ред. Закона №220/2006-ОЗ от 14 декабря 2006 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границе городского округа Серпухов"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №20, 4 февраля 2005 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #11/2005-OZ of January 17, 2005 On the Status and the Border of Serpukhov Urban Okrug, as amended by the Law #220/2006-OZ of December 14, 2006 On Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On the Status and the Border of Serpukhov Urban Okrug". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Московская областная Дума. Закон №78/2005-ОЗ от 28 февраля 2005 г. «О статусе и границах Серпуховского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований», в ред. Закона №159/2012-ОЗ от 26 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Серпуховского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №44, 12 марта 2005 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #78/2005-OZ of February 28, 2005 On the Status and the Borders of Serpukhovsky Municipal District and the Newly Established Municipal Formations It Comprises, as amended by the Law #159/2012-OZ of October 26, 2012 On Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On the Status and the Borders of Serpukhovsky Municipal District and the Newly Established Municipal Formations It Comprises". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Гарин Г. Ф., Савоскул С. С., Шилов В. В. (1989). Серпухов. М.: Моск. рабочий. ISBN 5-239-00271-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

External links[edit]