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Starr 040713-0118 Setaria parviflora.jpg
Setaria parviflora in Hawai'i
Scientific classification

P.Beauv. 1812, conserved name not Ach. ex Michx. 1803 (a lichen)[1][2]
Type species
Setaria viridis
caption=Setaria distantiflora (A.Rich.) Pilg., herbarium sheet

Setaria is a widespread genus of plants in the grass family.[5][6]

The name is derived from the Latin word seta, meaning "bristle" or "hair", which refers to the bristly spikelets.[7]

The genus includes over 100 species distributed in many tropical and temperate regions around the world,[8] and members are commonly known as foxtail or bristle grasses.[2][9][10][11][12][13]

Three species of Setaria have been domesticated and used as staple crops throughout history: foxtail millet (S. italica), korali (S. pumila) in India, and, before the full domestication of maize, Setaria macrostachya in Mexico.[14] Several species are still cultivated today as food or as animal fodder, such as foxtail millet (S. italica) and korali (S. pumila), while others are considered invasive weeds.[15] Setaria viridis is currently being developed as a genetic model system for bioenergy grasses.

  1. Setaria acromelaena
  2. Setaria alonsoi Pensiero & A.M.Anton
  3. Setaria apiculata (Scribn. & Merr.) K.Schum.
  4. Setaria appendiculata (Hack.) Stapf
  5. Setaria arizonica Rominger
  6. Setaria atrata Hack. ex Engl.
  7. Setaria australiensis – scrub pigeon grass
  8. Setaria austrocaledonica
  9. Setaria barbata (Lam.) Kunth – bristly foxtail grass, corn grass, Mary grass
  10. Setaria barbinodis R.A.W.Herrm.
  11. Setaria bathiei A.Camus
  12. Setaria cernua Kunth
  13. Setaria chondrachne (Steud.) Honda
  14. Setaria cinerea T. Koyama
  15. Setaria clivalis (Ridl.) Veldkamp
  16. Setaria cordobensis R.A.W.Herrm.
  17. Setaria corrugata (Elliott) Schult.
  18. Setaria dielsii R.A.W.Herrm.
  19. Setaria elementii (Domin) R.D. Webster
  20. Setaria faberi R.A.W.Herrm. - giant foxtail, Chinese foxtail
  21. Setaria fiebrigii R.A.W.Herrm.
  22. Setaria finita Launert
  23. Setaria forbesiana (Nees ex Steud.) Hook.f.
  24. Setaria globulifera (Steud.) Griseb.
  25. Setaria gracillima Hook.f.
  26. Setaria grandis Stapf
  27. Setaria grisebachii E.Fourn.
  28. Setaria guizhouensis S.L.Chen & G.Y.Sheng
  29. Setaria hassleri Hack.
  30. Setaria homonyma (Steud.) Chiov.
  31. Setaria humbertiana A.Camus
  32. Setaria hunzikeri Anton
  33. Setaria incrassata (Hochst.) Hack. – Vlei bristlegrass
  34. Setaria intermedia Roem. & Schult.
  35. Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv. – foxtail millet, dwarf setaria, Italian millet
  36. Setaria jaffrei Morat
  37. Setaria kagerensis Mez
  38. Setaria lachnea (Nees) Kunth
  39. Setaria latifolia (Scribn.) R.A.W.Herrm.
  40. Setaria leucopila (Scribn. & Merr.) K.Schum. – plains bristle grass, streambed bristle grass
  41. Setaria liebmannii E.Fourn.
  42. Setaria lindenbergiana (Nees) Stapf
  43. Setaria longipila E.Fourn.
  44. Setaria longiseta P.Beauv.
  45. Setaria macrosperma (Scribn. & Merr.) K.Schum.
  46. Setaria macrostachya Kunth
  47. Setaria madecassa A.Camus
  48. Setaria magna Griseb. – giant bristle grass
  49. Setaria megaphylla (Steud.) T.Durand & Schinz – broad-leaved bristle grass, ribbon bristle grass
  50. Setaria mendocina Phil.
  51. Setaria mildbraedii C.E.Hubb.
  52. Setaria montana Reeder
  53. Setaria nepalense (Spreng.) Müll. Stuttg.
  54. Setaria nicorae Pensiero
  55. Setaria nigrirostris (Nees) T.Durand & Schinz – black-seed bristle grass
  56. Setaria oblongata (Griseb.) Parodi
  57. Setaria obscura de Wit
  58. Setaria oplismenoides R.A.W.Herrm.
  59. Setaria orthosticha K.Schum. ex R.A.W.Herrm.
  60. Setaria palmeri Henrard
  61. Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf – palm grass, highland pitpit
  62. Setaria pampeana Parodi ex Nicora
  63. Setaria paraguayensis Pensiero
  64. Setaria parodii Nicora
  65. Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen – knotroot bristle grass, slender pigeon grass
  66. Setaria paspalidioides Vickery
  67. Setaria pauciflora Linden ex Herrm.
  68. Setaria paucifolia (Morong) Lindm.
  69. Setaria perrieri A.Camus
  70. Setaria petiolata Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
  71. Setaria pflanzii Pensiero
  72. Setaria plicata
  73. Setaria poiretianagrama negra, gramalote sacha
  74. Setaria pseudaristata (Peter) Pilg.
  75. Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. – yellow foxtail
  76. Setaria queenslandica Domin
  77. Setaria restioidea (Franch.) Stapf
  78. Setaria rigida Stapf
  79. Setaria roemeri Jansen
  80. Setaria rosengurttii (Nicora)
  81. Setaria sagittifolia (A.Rich.) Walp.
  82. Setaria scabrifolia (Nees) Kunth
  83. Setaria scandens Schrad.
  84. Setaria scheelei (Steud.) Hitchc. – southwestern bristle grass
  85. Setaria scottii (Hack.) A.Camus
  86. Setaria seriata Stapf
  87. Setaria setosa (Sw.) P.Beauv.
  88. Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb. – African bristle grass, South African pigeon grass
  89. Setaria stolonifera Boldrini
  90. Setaria submacrostachya Luces
  91. Setaria sulcata Raddi
  92. Setaria surgens Stapf
  93. Setaria tenacissima Schrad.
  94. Setaria tenax (Rich.) Desv.
  95. Setaria texana Emery
  96. Setaria vaginata Spreng.
  97. Setaria vatkeana K.Schum.
  98. Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. – bristly foxtail
  99. Setaria villosissima (Scribn. & Merr.) K.Schum.
  100. Setaria viridis (L.) P.Beauv. – green foxtail
  101. Setaria vulpiseta (Lam.) Roem. & Schult. – plains bristle grass
  102. Setaria welwitschii Rendle
  103. Setaria yunnanensis Keng f. & K.D.Yu
formerly included[4]

Numerous species were once considered members of Setaria but have since been reassigned to the following genera: Brachiaria, Dissochondrus, Echinochloa, Holcolemma, Ixophorus, Oplismenus, Panicum, Paspalidium, Pennisetum, Pseudoraphis, Setariopsis, and Urochloa

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tropicos, Setaria Ach. ex Michx.
  2. ^ a b "Genus: Setaria P. Beauv". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
  3. ^ lectotype designated by Hitchcock, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22(3): 156 (1920)
  4. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  5. ^ Palisot de Beauvois, Ambroise Marie François Joseph. 1812. Essai d'une Nouvelle Agrostographie page 51 in Latin
  6. ^ Palisot de Beauvois, Ambroise Marie François Joseph. 1812. Essai d'une Nouvelle Agrostographie plate XIII (13), figure III (3) line drawing of Setaria viridis
  7. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. Vol. 4: R-Q. CRC Press. p. 2470. ISBN 0-8493-2673-7.
  8. ^ Aliscioni, S., et al. An overview of the genus Setaria (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) in the Old World: Systematic revision and phylogenetic approach. Abstract. Botany 2004. Salt Lake City. August 3, 2004.
  9. ^ Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 1, 499, 531 狗尾草属 gou wei cao shu Setaria P. Beauvois, Ess. Agrostogr. 51. 1812
  10. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
  11. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana Archived 2015-02-01 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Atlas of Living Australia
  13. ^ Sanbi Red List of South African Plants
  14. ^ Diao, Xianmin; Jia, Guanqing (2017). "Origin and Domestication of Foxtail Millet". 19: 61–72. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-45105-3_4. ISSN 2363-9601.
  15. ^ Dekker, Jack. "4". In Inderjit. Weed Biology and Management. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 65–67. ISBN 9781402017612.
  16. ^ The Plant List search for Setaria
  17. ^ "Setaria". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
  18. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Setaria". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-03-03.

External links[edit]

  • Setaria. California Department of Food and Agriculture.