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Seungsahn (1927–2004)
Seungsahn (1927–2004)
TitleDae Jongsa - Seonsanim
(Great Zen Master)
Dok-In Lee / 이덕인 / 李德仁

(1927-08-01)August 1, 1927
DiedNovember 30, 2004(2004-11-30) (aged 77)
Hwagaesa, Seoul, South Korea
ReligionJogye Order of Korean Seon
SchoolKwan Um School of Zen
EducationDongguk University
Other namesDae Soensa-nim
Senior posting
Chang Sik Kim

Seungsahn Haengwon (Korean숭산행원대선사; Hanja崇山行願大禪師; RRSungsan Haeng'weon Daeseonsa, August 1, 1927 – November 30, 2004), born Duk-In Lee, was a Korean Seon master of the Jogye Order and founder of the international Kwan Um School of Zen. He was the seventy-eighth Patriarch in his lineage. As one of the early Korean Zen masters to settle in the United States, he opened many temples and practice groups across the globe. He was known for his charismatic style and direct presentation of Zen, which was well tailored for the Western audience.

Known by students for his many correspondences with them through letters, his utilization of dharma combat and expressions such as "only don't know" or "only go straight" in teachings, he was conferred the honorific title of Dae Jong Sa in June 2004 by the Jogye Order for a lifetime of achievements. Considered the highest honor to have bestowed upon one in the order, the title translates "Great Lineage Master" and was bestowed for his establishment of the World Wide Kwan Um School of Zen. He died in November that year at Hwagaesa in Seoul, South Korea, at age 77.

Early life and education


Seung Sahn was born in 1927 as Duk-In Lee (modern romanisation: Yi Deog'in) in Sunchon (순천), South Pyongan Province of occupied Korea (now North Korea) to Presbyterian parents. In 1944, he joined an underground resistance movement in response to the ongoing occupation of Korea by the Empire of Japan. He was captured by Japanese police shortly after, avoided a death sentence, and spent time in prison. Upon his release, he studied Western philosophy at Dongguk University. One day, a monk friend of his lent him a copy of the Diamond Sutra. While reading the text, he became inspired to ordain as a monk and left school, receiving the prātimokṣa precepts in 1948.[1][2] Seung Sahn then performed a one-hundred day solitary retreat in the mountains of Korea, living on a diet of pine needles and rain water. It is believed he attained enlightenment on this retreat.

While seeking out a teacher who could confirm his enlightenment, he found Kobong, who told him to keep a not-knowing mind. In the fall of 1948, Seung Sahn learned dharma combat while sitting a one-hundred day sesshin at Sudeoksa—where he was known to stir up mischief, nearly being expelled from the monastery. After the sesshin was concluded, he received dharma transmission (inka) from two masters, Keumbong and Keum'oh. He then went to see Kobong, who confirmed Seungsahn's enlightenment on January 25, 1949, and gave him dharma transmission as well. Seung Sahn is the only person Kobong gave Dharma transmission to. He spent the next three years in observed silence.[3][4][5]


Seungsahn with monks from the Abbey of Our Lady of Gethsemani

Drafted into the Republic of Korea Army in 1953, he served as an army chaplain and then as a captain for almost five years, taking over for Kobong as abbot of Hwagaesa in Seoul, South Korea in 1957. In the next decade, he would go on to found Buddhist temples in Hong Kong and Japan. While in Japan, he was acquainted with the kōan (Korean gong'an) tradition of the Rinzai school of Zen, likely[clarification needed] undergoing kōan study with a Rinzai master.[1][3][6]

Coming to the United States in 1972, he settled in Providence, Rhode Island and worked at a laundromat as a repairman, spending much of his off time improving upon his English. Shortly after arriving, he found his first students at nearby Brown University, most of whom came by way of a recommendation from a professor there. Among these first students was Jacob Perl (Wubong), who helped to found the Providence Zen Center with the others.[3][4]

The Providence Zen Center in Cumberland, Rhode Island.

In 1974, Seung Sahn began founding more Zen centers in the United States—his school still yet to be established—beginning with Dharma Zen Center in Los Angeles—a place where laypeople and the ordained could practice and live together. That following year, he went on to found the Chogye International Zen Center of New York City, and then, in 1977, Empty Gate Zen Center. Meanwhile, in 1979, the Providence Zen Center moved from its location in Providence to its current space in Cumberland, Rhode Island.[7]

The Kwan Um School of Zen was founded in 1983 and, unlike more traditional practice in Korea, Seungsahn allowed laypersons in the lineage to wear the robes of full monastics, upsetting some in the Jogye Order by allowing lay Dharma teachers to wear long robes.[8][9]

Celibacy was not required and the rituals of the school are unique.[clarification needed] Although the Kwan Um School does utilize traditional Seon and Zen rituals, elements of their practice also closely resemble rituals found often in Pure Land Buddhism, Chan Buddhism, and the Huayan school. In 1986, along with a former student and Dharma heir Dae Gak, Seungsahn founded a retreat center and temple in Clay City, Kentucky called Furnace Mountain—the temple name being Kwan Se Um San Ji Sah (or, Perceive World Sound High Ground Temple). The center functions independently of the Kwan Um organization today.[3][10]

Seungsahn's Hermitage - The place of his one-hundred day solitary retreat

Over his tenure as Guiding Teacher, Seungsahn appointed many Dharma heirs. He created the title Ji Do Poep Sa Nim (JDPSN) for those not ready for full dharma transmission but capable of teaching at a higher capacity. In 1977, Seungsahn was hospitalized for cardiac arrhythmia and it was then discovered that he had advanced diabetes. He had been in and out of hospitals for heart complications for years preceding his death, and in 1987 began spending much less time at his residence in the Providence Zen Center.[8]

Starting in 1990, and under invitation from Mikhail Gorbachev, Seungsahn began making trips to the Soviet Union to teach. His student, Myong Gong Sunim, later opened a practice center in the country (Novgorod Center of Zen Meditation).[11]

Teaching style


Seungsahn implemented the use of simple phraseology to convey his messages, delivered with charisma, which helped make the teachings easier to consume for Western followers. Some of his more frequently employed phrases included "only go straight" or "only don't know".[12] He even went so far as to call his teachings "Don't Know Zen", which was reminiscent of the style of Bodhidharma.[13] Seungsahn used correspondences between him and his students as teaching opportunities. Back-and-forth letters allowed for a kind of dharma combat through the mail and made him more available to the school's students in his absence. This was another example of his skillful implementation of unorthodox teaching methods, adapting to the norms of Western culture and thus making himself more accessible to those he taught. He was a supporter of what he often termed "together action"—encouraging students to make the lineage's centers their home and practice together.[9][14]

Joan Halifax with Seungsahn at a sesshin at the Ojai Foundation in 1979.

Seungsahn also developed his own kōan study program for students of the Kwan Um School, known today as the "Twelve Gates". These twelve kōans are a mixture of ancient cases and cases which he developed. Before receiving inka to teach (in Kwan Um, inka is not synonymous with Dharma transmission), students must complete the Twelve Gates, though often they will complete hundreds more. One of the more well known cases of the Twelve Gates is "Dropping Ashes on the Buddha", the Sixth Gate, which is also the title of one of his books. In the book The Compass of Zen, this kong-an is transcribed as follows: "Somebody comes to the Zen center smoking a cigarette. He blows smoke and drops ashes on the Buddha." Seungsahn then poses the question, "If you are standing there at that time, what can you do?"[1][15] Not included in this version of the kōan is the Kwan Um School of Zen's following side note on the case, "[H]ere is an important factor in this case that has apparently never been explicitly included in its print versions. Zen Master Seung Sahn has always told his students that the man with the cigarette is also very strong and that he will hit you if he doesn't approve of your response to his actions."[16]

When Seungsahn first began teaching in the United States, there was an underemphasis in his message on the significance of zazen. Under advice from some students, however, he soon came to incorporate zazen into the curriculum more frequently. More than a few of his earliest students had practiced Zen previously under the Sōtō priest Shunryū Suzuki, laying out a convincing argument about how zazen and Zen were seen as inseparable in the Western psyche.[9]

Later life


Throughout the 1990s, Seung Sahn made trips to Israel, which led to the 1999 opening of the Tel Aviv Zen Center. His remaining years were spent in particularly poor health. He had a pacemaker put in his chest in 2000, followed by renal failure in 2002.[17] In June 2004, he was given the honorific title Dae Jong Sa "Great Lineage Master" by the Jogye Order in commemoration of his accomplishments, the highest title the order can grant.



Seung Sahn died on November 30, 2004, at the age of 77 in Seoul, South Korea at Hwagaesa, the first temple where he served as abbot.[3][18][19][20]

Affairs with students


In 1988, Seung Sahn admitted to having sexual relationships with several students.[1][21][22] Because Seung Sahn was understood to be a celibate monk, the revelation of the affairs caused some members to leave the school.[23] Seung Sahn did two repentance ceremonies[citation needed] and the Kwan Um School of Zen has since developed an ethics policy that has guidelines for teacher/student relationships and consequences for unethical behavior.[24]

According to Sandy Boucher in Turning the Wheel: American Women Creating the New Buddhism:

The sexual affairs were apparently not abusive or hurtful to the women. By all accounts, they were probably strengthening and certainly gave the women access to power. (However, no one can know if other women were approached by Soen Sa Nim, said nothing, and may have been hurt or at best confused, and left silently.) No one questions that Soen Sa Nim is a strong and inspiring teacher and missionary, wholly committed to spreading the Dharma, who has helped many people by his teachings and by his creation of institutions in which they can practice Zen. In his organization he has empowered students, some of them women, by giving them the mandate to teach and lead. And he has speculated, in a positive vein, on the coming empowerment of women in religion and government. Even his critics describe him as a dynamic teacher from whom they learned a great deal.[25]

Seung Sahn's lineage


The following list documents Seung-Sahn Haeng-Won's transmission lineage, starting with the Buddha and the First Patriarch.[26][27][28]


Sanskrit Chinese Vietnamese Japanese Korean
1 Mahākāśyapa 摩訶迦葉 / Móhējiāyè Ma-Ha-Ca-Diếp Makakashō 마하가섭 / Mahagasŏp
2 Ānanda 阿難陀 (阿難) / Ānántuó (Ānán) A-Nan-Đà (A-Nan) Ananda Buddha (Anan) 아난다 (아난) / Ananda Buddha (Anan)
3 Śānavāsa 商那和修 / Shāngnàhéxiū Thương-Na-Hòa-Tu Shōnawashu 상나화수 / Sangnahwasu
4 Upagupta 優婆掬多 / Yōupójúduō Ưu-Ba-Cúc-Đa Ubakikuta 우바국다 / Upakukta
5 Dhrtaka 提多迦 / Dīduōjiā Đề-Đa-Ca Daitaka 제다가 / Chedaga
6 Miccaka 彌遮迦 / Mízhējiā Di-Dá-Ca Mishaka 미차가 / Michaga
7 Vasumitra 婆須密 (婆須密多) / Póxūmì (Póxūmìduō) Bà-Tu-Mật (Bà-Tu-Mật-Đa) Bashumitsu (Bashumitta) 바수밀다 / Pasumilta
8 Buddhanandi 浮陀難提 / Fútuónándī Phật-Đà-Nan-Đề Buddanandai 불타난제 / Pŭltananje
9 Buddhamitra 浮陀密多 / Fútuómìduō Phục-Đà-Mật-Đa Buddamitta 복태밀다 / Puktaemilda
10 Pārśva 波栗濕縛 / 婆栗濕婆 (脅尊者) / Bōlìshīfú / Pólìshīpó (Xiézūnzhě) Ba-Lật-Thấp-Phược / Bà-Lật-Thấp-Bà (Hiếp-Tôn-Giả) Barishiba (Kyōsonja) 파률습박 (협존자) / P'ayulsŭppak (Hyŏpjonje)
11 Punyayaśas 富那夜奢 / Fùnàyèshē Phú-Na-Dạ-Xa Funayasha 부나야사 / Punayasa
12 Ānabodhi / Aśvaghoṣa 阿那菩提 (馬鳴) / Ānàpútí (Mǎmíng) A-Na-Bồ-Đề (Mã-Minh) Anabotei (Memyō) 아슈바고샤 (마명) / Asyupakosya (Mamyŏng)
13 Kapimala 迦毘摩羅 / Jiāpímóluó Ca-Tỳ-Ma-La Kabimora (Kabimara) 가비마라 / Kabimara
14 Nāgārjuna 那伽閼剌樹那 (龍樹) / Nàqiéèlàshùnà (Lóngshù) Na-Già-Át-Lạt-Thụ-Na (Long-Thọ) Nagaarajuna (Ryūju) 나가알랄수나 (용수) / Nakaallalsuna (Yongsu)
15 Āryadeva / Kānadeva 迦那提婆 / Jiānàtípó Ca-Na-Đề-Bà Kanadaiba 가나제바 / Kanajeba
16 Rāhulata 羅睺羅多 / Luóhóuluóduō La-Hầu-La-Đa Ragorata 라후라다 / Rahurada
17 Sanghānandi 僧伽難提 / Sēngqiénántí Tăng-Già-Nan-Đề Sōgyanandai 승가난제 / Sŭngsananje
18 Sanghayaśas 僧伽舍多 / Sēngqiéshèduō Tăng-Già-Da-Xá Sōgyayasha 가야사다 / Kayasada
19 Kumārata 鳩摩羅多 / Jiūmóluóduō Cưu-Ma-La-Đa Kumorata (Kumarata) 구마라다 / Kumarada
20 Śayata / Jayata 闍夜多 / Shéyèduō Xà-Dạ-Đa Shayata 사야다 / Sayada
21 Vasubandhu 婆修盤頭 (世親) / Póxiūpántóu (Shìqīn) Bà-Tu-Bàn-Đầu (Thế-Thân) Bashubanzu (Sejin) 바수반두 (세친) / Pasubandu (Sechin)
22 Manorhitajuna 摩拏羅 / Mónáluó Ma-Noa-La Manura 마나라 / Manara
23 Haklenayaśas 鶴勒那 (鶴勒那夜奢) / Hèlènà (Hèlènàyèzhě) Hạc-Lặc-Na Kakurokuna (Kakurokunayasha) 학륵나 / Haklŭkna
24 Simhabodhi 師子菩提 / Shīzǐpútí Sư-Tử-Bồ-Đề / Sư-Tử-Trí Shishibodai 사자 / Saja
25 Vasiasita 婆舍斯多 / Póshèsīduō Bà-Xá-Tư-Đa Bashashita 바사사다 / Pasasada
26 Punyamitra 不如密多 / Bùrúmìduō Bất-Như-Mật-Đa Funyomitta 불여밀다 / Punyŏmilta
27 Prajñātāra 般若多羅 / Bōrěduōluó Bát-Nhã-Đa-La Hannyatara 반야다라 / Panyadara
28 Dharmayana / Bodhidharma Ta Mo / 菩提達磨 / Pútídámó Đạt-Ma / Bồ-Đề-Đạt-Ma Daruma / Bodaidaruma Tal Ma / 보리달마 / Poridalma


28 / 1 達磨 / Ta-mo ? Đạt-Ma Daruma 달마 / Dal-Ma
29 / 2 慧可 / Hui-k'o 487–593 Huệ-Khả Eka 혜가 / Hye-Ga
30 / 3 僧璨 / Seng-ts'an ?–606 Tăng-Xán Sōsan 승찬 / Seung-Chan
31 / 4 道信 / Tao-hsin 580–651 Đạo-Tín Dōshin 도신 / Do-Shim
32 / 5 弘忍 / Hung-jen 601/2–674/5 Hoằng-Nhẫn Kōnin 홍인 / Hong-Ihn
33 / 6 慧能 / Hui-neng 638–713 Huệ-Năng Enō 혜능 / Hye-Neung
34 / 7 南嶽懷讓 / Nan-yüeh Huai-jang 677–744 Nam-Nhạc Hoài-Nhượng Nangaku Ejō 남악회양 / Nam-Ak Hwe-Yang
35 / 8 馬祖道一 / Ma-tsu Tao-i[33] 709–788 Mã-Tổ Đạo-Nhất Baso Dōitsu 마조도일 / Ma-Jo To-Il
36 / 9 百丈懷海 / Pai-chang Huai-hai 720?/749?–814 Bách-Trượng Hoài-Hải Hyakujō Ekai 백장회해 / Paek-Chang Hwe-Hae
37 / 10 黃蘗希運 / Huang-po Hsi-yün ?–850 Hoàng-Bá Hy-Vận Ōbaku Kiun 황벽희운 / Hwang-Byeok Heu-Iun
38 / 11 臨濟義玄 / Lin-chi I-hsüan ?–866/7 Lâm-Tế Nghĩa-Huyền Rinzai Gigen 임제의현 / Im-Je Eui-Hyeon
39 / 12 興化存奬 / Hsing-hua Tzun-chiang[34] 830–888 Hưng-Hóa Tồn-Tương Kōke Sonshō 흥화존장 / Heung-Hwa Chon-Jang
40 / 13 南院道癰 / Nan-yüan Hui-yung[35] d 930?/952? Nam-Viện Huệ-Ngung Nanin Egyō 남원도옹 / Nam-Weon To-Ong
41 / 14 風穴延沼 / Feng-hsüeh Yen-chao 896–973 Phong-Huyệt Diên-Chiểu Fūketsu Enshō 풍혈연소 / Peung-Hyeol Yeon-So
42 / 15 首山省念 / Shou-shan Shen-nien[36] 925/6–992/3 Thủ-Sơn Tỉnh-Niệm Shūzan Shōnen 수산성념 / Su-San Seong-Nyeom
43 / 16 汾陽善昭 / Fen-yang Shan-chao[37][38] 947–1024 Phần-Dương Thiện-Chiêu Funyō Zenshō 분양선소 / Pun-Yang Seon-Jo
44 / 17 慈明楚圓 / Tz'u-ming Ch'u-yüan[39] 986–1039 Thạch-Sương Sở-Viên Jimyō Soen 자명초원 / Cham-Yeong Cho-Weon
45 / 18 楊岐方會 / Yang-ch'i Fang-hui[40] 992–1049 Dương-Kỳ Phương-Hội Yōgi Hōe 양기방회 / Yang-Gi Pang-Hwe
46 / 19 白雲守端 / Pai-yün Shou-tuan 1025–1072 Bạch-Vân Thủ-Đoan Hakuun Shutan 백운수단 / Pae-Gun Su-Dan
47 / 20 五祖法演 / Wu-tsu Fa-yen[41] 1024–1104 Ngũ-Tổ Pháp-Diễn Goso Hōen 오조법연 / O-Jo Peob-Yeon
48 / 21 圓悟克勤 / Yuan-wu K'o-ch'in 1063–1135 Viên-Ngộ Khắc-Cần Engo Kokugon 원오극근 / Hwe-O Keuk-Keun
49 / 22 虎丘紹隆 / Hsü-ch’iu Shao-lung 1077–1136 Hổ-Khâu Thiệu-Long Kukyū Jōryū 호구소융 / Ho-Gu Sor-Yung
50 / 23 應庵曇華 / Ying-an T'an-hua 1103–1163 Ứng Am Đàm Hoa Oan Donge 응암담화 / Eung-Am Tam-Hwa
51 / 24 密庵咸傑 / Mi-an Hsi-chieh 1118?/1138?–1186 Mật Am Hàm Kiệt Mittan Kanketsu 밀암함걸 / Mir-Am Ham-Keol
52 / 25 破庵祖先 / P'o-an Tsu-hsien 1136–1211 Phá Am Tổ Tiên Hoan Sosen 파암조선 / Pa-Am Cho-Seon
53 / 26 無準圓照 / Wu-chun Yuan-chao

(無準師範 / Wu-chun Shih-fan)

1174/8–1249 .

(Vô Chuẩn Sư Phạm)


(Mujun Shiban)

무준원조 / Mujun Wenjo

(무준사범 / Mujun Sabeom)

54 / 27 雪巖惠朗 / Hsüeh-yen Hui-lang Tuyết Nham Tổ Khâm Setsugan 설암혜랑 / Seon-Am Hye-Rang
55 / 28 及庵宗信 / Chi-an Tsung-hsin Cật Yêm Tông Hâm 급암종신 / Keu-Bam Chong-Sil
56 / 29 石屋淸珙 / Shih-wu Ch'ing-kung[42] 1272–1352 Thạch Ốc Thanh Củng Sekioku Seikyō 석옥청공 / Seo-Gok Cheong-Gong


57 / 30 / 1 太古普愚 (Tàigǔ Pǔyú) 태고보우 / Tae-Go Bo-Wu 1301–1382
58 / 31 / 2 幻庵混修 (Huànān Hùnxiū) 환암혼수 / Hwan-Am Hon-Su[45] 1320–1392
59 / 32 / 3 龜谷覺雲 (Guīgǔ Juéyún) 구곡각운 / Gu-Gok Gak-Un
60 / 33 / 4 碧溪淨心 (Bìxī Jìngxīn) 벽계정심 / Byeok-Ge Jeong-Shim
61 / 34 / 5 碧松智嚴 (Bìsōng Zhìyán) 벽송지엄 / Byeok-Song Ji-Eom[46] 1464–1534
62 / 35 / 6 芙蓉靈觀 (Fúróng Língguān) 부용영관 / Bu-Yong Yeong-Gwan 1485–1567/1571
63 / 36 / 7 淸虛休靜 (Qīngxū Xiūjìng) 청허휴정 / Cheong-Heo Hyu-Jeong

(서산대사 / Seo-San Dae-Sa)

64 / 37 / 8 鞭羊彦機 (Biānyáng Yànjī) 편양언기 / Pyeon-Yang Eon-Gi 1581–1644
65 / 38 / 9 楓潭義諶 (Fēngtán Yìchén) 풍담의심 / Pung-Dam Eui-Sim[47] ?–1665
66 / 39 / 10 月潭雪霽 (Yuètán Xuějì) 월담설제 / Wol-Dam Seol-Je ?–1704
67 / 40 / 11 喚惺志安 (Huànxīng Zhìān) 환성지안 / Hwan-Seong Ji-An ?–1729
68 / 41 / 12 虎巖體淨 (Hǔyán Tǐjìng) 호암체정 / Ho-Am Che-Jeong ?–1748
69 / 42 / 13 靑峰巨岸 (Qīngfēng Jùàn) 청봉거안 / Cheong-Bong Geo-An
70 / 43 / 14 栗峰靑古 (Lìfēng Qīnggǔ) 율봉청고 / Yul-Bong Cheong-Kwa ?–1823
71 / 44 / 15 錦虛法沾 (Jǐnxū Fǎzhān) 금허법첨 / Geum-Heo Beop-Cheom
72 / 45 / 16 龍岩慧彦 (Lóngyán Huìyàn) 용암혜언 / Yong-Am Hye-Eon
73 / 46 / 17 永月奉律 (Yǒngyuè Fènglù) 영월봉율 / Yeong-Wol Bong-Yul
74 / 47 / 18 萬化普善 (Wànhuà Pǔshàn) 만화보선 / Man-Hwa Bo-Seon ?–1879
75 / 48 / 19 鏡虛惺牛 (Jìngxū Xīngniú) 경허성우 / Gyeong-Heo Seong-Wu 1849–1912
76 / 49 / 20 滿空月面 (Mǎnkòng Yuèmiàn) 만공월면 / Man-Gong Weol-Myeon 1871–1946
77 / 50 / 21 高峯景昱 (Gāofēng Jǐngyù) 고봉경욱 / Ko-Bong Gyeong-Uk 1890–1961/2
78 / 51 / 22 崇山行願 (Chóngshān Xíngyuàn) 숭산행원 / Seung-Sahn Haeng-Won 1927–2004

Dharma heirs

Su Bong, DSS, and Dae Gak


  • Gak, Hyon (2006). Wanting Enlightenment Is a Big Mistake: Teachings of Zen Master Seung Sahn. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 1-59030-340-7. OCLC 62896424.
  • Sahn, Sueng (2003). Zen: The Perfect Companion (Perfect Companions! Series). Black Dog & Leventhal Publishing. ISBN 1-57912-279-5. OCLC 52075077.
  • Seung Sahn; Hyon Gak (1997). The Compass of Zen. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 1-57062-329-5. OCLC 123275104.
  • Sahn, Seung; Hyon Gak (1992). The Whole World Is a Single Flower. C. E. Tuttle Company. ISBN 0-585-06104-1. OCLC 42855442.
  • Sahn, Seung (1987). Ten Gates: The Kong-An Teaching of Zen Master Seung Sahn. Primary Point Press. ISBN 0-942795-01-6. OCLC 40618475.
  • Kwan Um School of Zen (1987). Only Doing It For Sixty Years. Kwan Um School of Zen. OCLC 39712155.
  • Sahn, Seung (1985). Zen Dialogue in China. Hong Bup Won Publishing.
  • Sahn, Seung (1983). Chanting with English Translations and Temple Rules. Kwan Um School of Zen. OCLC 79625070.
  • Sahn, Seung; Stanley Lombardo (1982). Bone of Space: Poems. Four Seasons Foundation. ISBN 0-87704-053-2. OCLC 8281660.
  • Sahn, Seung; David O'Neal (1982). Only Don't Know: Selected Teaching Letters of Zen Master Seung. Primary Point Press. ISBN 0-942795-03-2. OCLC 28576745.
  • Sahn, Seung; Stephen Mitchell (1976). Dropping Ashes on the Buddha. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3052-6. OCLC 505759099.

Other media



  • 2000 Chanting Instructional CD
  • Perceive World Sound Zen Chanting CD (from 1978)


  • 1992 Wake Up! On the Road with a Zen Master (DVD and VHS) - Watch on YouTube
  • 1993 Sun Rising East (VHS)

See also



  1. ^ a b c d Ford, James Ishmael (2006). Zen Master Who?. Wisdom Publications. pp. 99, 100, 101. ISBN 0-86171-509-8.
  2. ^ Weishaus, Joel. "Paratext". University of Iowa. Archived from the original on February 22, 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
  3. ^ a b c d e Prebish, Charles S (1999). Luminous Passage: The Practice and Study of Buddhism in America. University of California Press. pp. 32, 33, 34. ISBN 0-520-21697-0.
  4. ^ a b "Coming Empty Handed: Zen Master Seung Sahn in Ann Arbor". Cutting Edge, American Zen Arts Quarterly. Spring 1985. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
  5. ^ Sahn, Seung (1992). Hyon Gak (ed.). The Whole World is a Single Flower. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 229–232. ISBN 0-8048-1782-0.
  6. ^ Batchelor, Stephen (1994). The Awakening of the West: The Encounter of Buddhism and Western Culture. Parallax Press. p. 222. ISBN 0-938077-69-4.
  7. ^ "Center". DharmaZen.
  8. ^ a b Ho Youn Kwon; Kwang Chung Kim, R. StephenWarner (2001). Korean Americans and Their Religions. Penn State Press. pp. 124, 125. ISBN 0-271-02073-3.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ a b c Prebish, Charles (1998). The Faces of Buddhism. University of California Press. pp. 122, 123, 254, 255. ISBN 0-520-21301-7.
  10. ^ Strecker, Zoe Ayn (2007). Kentucky Off the Beaten Path, 8th edition. Globe Pequot. pp. 106, 107. ISBN 978-0-7627-4201-1.
  11. ^ "Sant-Petersburg Zen Center of "Kwan Um" School of Zen / About us". Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
  12. ^ Simpkins, C. Alexander; Simpkins, Annellen M. (1999). Simple Zen: A Guide to Living Moment by Moment. Tuttle Publishing. p. 41. ISBN 0-8048-3174-2.
  13. ^ Seager, Richard Hughes (2000). Buddhism In America. Columbia University Press. p. 172. ISBN 0-231-10868-0.
  14. ^ Hayes, Richard (1998). Land of No Buddha. Windhorse Publications. ISBN 1-899579-12-5.
  15. ^ Sahn, Seung (1997). The Compass of Zen. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 1-57062-329-5.
  16. ^ "Seung Sahn's Twelve Gates". Kwan Um School of Zen. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
  17. ^ "VirtualTourist.com ceased operations". Members.virtualtourist.com. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  18. ^ "Zen Master Seung Sahn". Kwan Um School of Zen. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
  19. ^ Sahn, Seung (1997). The Compass of Zen. Shambhala Publications. p. 391. ISBN 1-57062-329-5.
  20. ^ Prebish, Charles S.; Martin Baumann (2002). Westward Dharma: Buddhism Beyond Asia. University of California Press. p. 183. ISBN 0-520-23490-1.
  21. ^ How the Swans Came to the Lake: A Narrative History of Buddhism in America, 3rd ed. by Rick Fields. Shambhala 1992) ISBN 0-87773-631-6 pg 364
  22. ^ Boucher, Sandy (1993). Turning the Wheel: American Women Creating the New Buddhism. Beacon Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-8070-7305-9.
  23. ^ The 60s communes: Hippies and Beyond by Timothy Miller. Syracuse University Press: 1999. ISBN 0-8156-0601-X pg 112
  24. ^ "Ethics Policy of the Kwan Um School of Zen". Kwan Um School of Zen. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  25. ^ Boucher, Sandy (1993). Turning the Wheel: American Women Creating the New Buddhism. Beacon Press. pp. 225–235. ISBN 0-8070-7305-9.
  26. ^ These charts expand from the basic list in "Zen Master Seung Sahn's Lineage" in: Seung-Sahn, 1997, The Compass of Zen, edited by Hyon Gak Sunim, Boston: Shambhala Dragon Editions, Shambhala Publications, pages 393–394. ISBN 1-57062-329-5
  27. ^ The same basic list is online in English at Kwan Um School of Zen and in Hangŭl (down to the 76th generation) at 조사 (불교).
  28. ^ For comparison, see Jinje Seon Sa's lineage chart which is nearly identical with Seung-Sahn's list in The Compass of Zen down to the 75th master, after which the two lineages split up (to 만공월면 / Man-Gong Weol-Myeon in Seung-Sahn's and to 혜월혜명 / Hyewol Hyemyeong in Jinje's). There are five variations between the Seung-Sahn and Jinje lists: the renderings of the 40th, 43rd, 56th, 65th Masters' names, and the Latin spelling of the 58th's.
  29. ^ characters and Wade-Giles Romanization
  30. ^ See Thiền Sư Trung Quốc for a list of Chinese Zen Masters in Vietnamese.
  31. ^ Romaji
  32. ^ Hangeul and South Korean Revised Romanization
  33. ^ extensive article in Mazu Daoyi
  34. ^ pl:Xinghua Cunjiang
  35. ^ "Nan-yüan Hui-yü" in The Compass of Zen, and "Nanyuan Daoyong" in Jinje's lineage chart ("Dao" being the third character in the Chinese name).
  36. ^ The Wade-Giles "Shou-shan Hsing-nien" in The Compass of Zen, consistent with the Pīnyīn "Shoushan Xingnian" in Jinje's lineage chart.
  37. ^ Rendered as "T'ai-tzu Yüan-shan" in The Compass of Zen.
  38. ^ pl:Fenyang Shanzhao
  39. ^ pl:Shishuang Chuyuan
  40. ^ pl:Yangqi Fanghui
  41. ^ pl:Wuzu Fayan
  42. ^ Rendered as "Shih-shih Ch'ing-kung" in The Compass of Zen.
  43. ^ characters and Pīnyīn Romanization
  44. ^ Hangeul and South Korean Revised Romanization
  45. ^ spelled as "Whan-Am Hon-Su" in The Compass of Zen.
  46. ^ pl:Pyŏksong Chiŏm
  47. ^ Rendered as "Pung-Joung Heon-Shim" in The Compass of Zen.