Seven Parthian clans
Only two of the seven - the House of Suren and the House of Karen - are actually attested in sources date-able to the Parthian period. The placement of the remaining five in Parthian times is "in all probability not in accordance with reality." "It may be that [...] members of them made up their own genealogies in order to emphasize the antiquity of their families."
The seven houses with their respective main fiefs and ruling-family seats were:
- the House of Ispahbudhan, of Gurgan
- the House of Varaz, of Eastern Khorasan
- the House of Karen, of Nahavand
- the House of Mihran, of Ray
- the House of Spandiyadh, of Ray
- the House of Zik, of Adurbadagan
- the House of Suren, of Sakastan
- Works cited
- Lukonin, V. G. (1983), "Political, Social and Administrative Institutions", in Yarshater, Ehsan, Cambridge History of Iran, 3.2, London: Cambridge UP, pp. 681–747
- Yarshater, Ehsan (1997), "Esfandīār (2)", Encyclopedia Iranica, vol. 8, Costa Mesa: Mazda, pp. 592–593.
- Pourshariati, Parvaneh (2008), Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: The Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran, London: I.B. Tauris.